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Abdalla O.,Sultan Qaboos University | Al-Abri R.Y.,Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2011

Younger groundwater found in some Omani aquifers is a result of recent recharge from cyclonic and storm events [Weyhenmeyer et al. (Science 287:842-845, 2000); Young et al. (J Appl Geophys 57:43-61, 2004)]. The analysis of the meteorological data in Oman indicates an anomalous rainfall on a decadal interval whereas cyclones frequency is expected to increase due to global climatic changes. The cyclone Gonu has severely struck the eastern Omani coasts in 2007 resulting in devastating floods. Huge volume of water (3,672 mm3) spread over the coastal plain calling for an assessment of potential groundwater recharge subsequent to this event. The present study evaluates groundwater recharge with respect to Gonu 2007 to assess the potential of recharge induced by such cyclones in the arid zones. The hydrographs of several piezometers sited along the coastal plain in Muscat Province have been studied and variation in water table rise has been analyzed. Significant water table rise is indicated for areas with geological and structural settings favoring rapid infiltration of water yielding considerable groundwater mound, whereas piezometers located in less favorable zones show minimum rise of water table. However, soon after the floods the aquifer hydrodynamics has readjusted to attain equilibrium and the groundwater mound dissipated. The cumulative rise of the water table on an areal extent does not exceed a few centimeters indicating lesser volume of recharge. Comparatively, recharge from frequent precipitation along favorable zones produces more significant recharge compared with cyclonic events where surface water residence time is shorter to allow for efficient infiltration. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Zekri S.,Sultan Qaboos University | Mbaga M.,Sultan Qaboos University | Fouzai A.,Sultan Qaboos University | Al-Shaqsi S.,Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources
Environmental Management | Year: 2011

Increasing demand for water to develop non-agricultural activities is causing water to be diverted to high-value uses at the expense of irrigation. However, agriculture provides a flow of amenities in the desert environment which are not either accounted or paid. Oases are spread all over the globe and are threatened for various reasons among which is the high pressure of demand for fresh water. This paper estimates the recreation use value of an oasis. The paper is based on the Misfat Al-Abryeen oasis in Oman, a man-made area of streams and woodland. The travel cost method is used through an on-site questionnaire distributed to 230 visitors. Around 75% of visitors to the oasis also visited other historical or ecological sites during the same day-trip. The econometric model is estimated using negative binomial regression with endogenous stratification. The average consumer surplus, or benefit, from visiting Misfat Al-Abryeen is estimated at US$ 104.74 per individual per trip. The total social benefit from this oasis is estimated at $366,590 per year. These results underscore the importance of the role played by irrigated agriculture in the provision of amenity services for the tourism sector in a desert environment. The sustainability of the irrigation activity depends on the recognition of the recreation role of oases and the transfer of part of these benefits to the farmers who maintain the irrigation system. The implementation of an entrance fee to the oasis might increase farmers' profit by 6-21%. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Hosoda T.,Kyoto University | Shirai H.,Kyoto University | Saif A.,Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources
River Flow 2012 - Proceedings of the International Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics | Year: 2012

This paper describes a method of the reproduction of flash flood events with high Froude number. Based on the method of characteristics, it is common to give two hydrographs of depth and discharge (or velocity) at the upstream boundary to reproduce unsteady super-critical flows. Contrary to the common theory in Fundamental Hydraulics, we considered to reproduce flash flood events using only one depth hydrograph at one site in a river course.We previously proved the possibility to reproduce flood flows for sub-critical flows using one depth hydrograph at one middle site between upstream and downstream boundaries, and also proposed the practical method of computation for real flood flows. In this paper, we conducted the theoretical considerations under the idealized conditions to extend the method to unsteady super-critical flows. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group. Source

Prathapar S.A.,International Water Management Institute | Bawain A.A.,Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources
Water International | Year: 2014

Recharge dams in Oman detain floods to recharge groundwater. The impact of sedimentation on recharge at Wadi Sahalanowt Recharge Dam, in Salalah, Oman, was evaluated using field data and numerical modelling. Analysis of the thickness of sediments after flood events shows that maximum depositions were at the same locations after each event, coinciding with the lowest positions in the wadi. Numerical modelling suggests that the current practice of periodic removal of sediments will restore the storage capacity of the reservoir, but that ploughing or raking of the underlying native sedimentary rocks could be required to significantly improve infiltration rates. © 2014 © 2014 International Water Resources Association. Source

Grundmann J.,TU Dresden | Schutze N.,TU Dresden | Schmitz G.H.,TU Dresden | Al-Shaqsi S.,Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2012

For ensuring both optimal sustainable water resources management and long-term planning in a changing arid environment, we propose an integrated Assessment-, Prognoses-, Planning- and Management tool (APPM). The new APPM integrates the complex interactions of the strongly nonlinear meteorological, hydrological and agricultural phenomena, considering the socio-economic aspects. It aims at achieving best possible solutions for water allocation, groundwater storage and withdrawals including saline water management together with a substantial increase of the water use efficiency employing novel optimisation strategies for irrigation control and scheduling. To obtain a robust and fast operation of the water management system, it unites process modeling with artificial intelligence tools and evolutionary optimisation techniques for managing both water quality and quantity. We demonstrate some key components of our methodology by an exemplary application to the south Al-Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. We show the effectiveness and functionality of a new simulation-based water management system for the optimisation and evaluation of different irrigation practices, crop pattern and resulting abstraction scenarios. The results of several optimisation runs indicate that due to contradicting objectives, such as profit-oriented agriculture versus aquifer sustainability only a multi-objective optimisation can provide sustainable solutions for the management of the water resources in respect of the environment as well as the socio-economic development. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

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