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Chang'a A.,World Animal Protection Africa | Chang'a A.,Biodiversity Inc. | de Souza N.,World Animal Protection Africa | Muya J.,Problem Animal Control Unit | And 12 more authors.
Tropical Conservation Science | Year: 2016

Elephants (Loxodonta africana) raiding crops around Tanzanian national parks threaten farmers’ lives and livelihoods, thus contributing to negative local attitudes towards wildlife. As a result, there is often tacit support for poaching among local communities, and elephants suffer through reprisal poisoning or wounding or through being shot as ‘problem animals’ by game wardens. Human-elephant conflict (HEC) is growing as the wildlands that still have elephants, especially around national parks, reserves, and wildlife corridors, are increasingly being settled. Sisal string fences soaked in engine oil mixed with ground chili (Capsicum spp.) can dissuade elephants from entering fenced fields. For the last nine years, farmers around Mikumi National Park in Tanzania have been constructing these fences around ripening crops, and there have been no incidents of fences being broken by elephants. Community-based organizations (CBOs) that manage members’ savings through village micro-credit associations help ensure the costs of materials and fence construction are met. Chili fences are rapidly becoming widespread, facilitated through farmer-to-farmer exchanges where teams of farmers demonstrate both the fences and the CBOs needed to support the project. We argue that promoting the use of chili fences, coupled with supporting CBOs, as a best practice within communities and government programs and budgets, will help reduce the need for HEC compensation, protect livelihoods, empower rural women, increase the food security of rural farmers, and help conserve elephants. © 2016, Mongaby.com e-journal. All rights reserved.

Jamnadass R.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry | Dawson I.K.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry | Anegbeh P.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry | Asaah E.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry | And 20 more authors.
Forests Trees and Livelihoods | Year: 2010

The seeds of Allanblackia trees produce edible oil with significant global market potential. Consequently, a private-public partnership involving Unilever and known as 'Novella Africa' is engaged in the development of Allanblackia as a new crop in a number of African countries. The purpose of this partnership is to build a profitable and sustainable initiative for harvest, marketing and cultivation. Rural communities are directly involved and a participatory approach to domestication is being followed to maximise fanners' livelihood benefits. This is the first time a multinational company has partnered in such an approach, and the initiative represents an example for the domestication of other new tree crops. Investing in good communication between partners is considered to be essential to success by ensuring trust and a common understanding of priorities. Progress to date has involved the establishment of market supply chains for oil, based firstly on wild harvest, and the initiation of cultivation by smallholders. Further work will involve the development of rural resource centres to deliver improved germplasm to growers. At the same time, these centres will provide other services such as market information, credit and access to buyers. Through this strategy it is foreseen that there will be progress towards the development of a market value chain which removes producers' constraints to profitable involvement. Furthermore, the diversification of farmers' cropping systems should have positive impacts for biodiversity and provide resilience in the face of climate change. Currently, the most important activity under the initiative is the promotion of Allanblackia planting, so that production constraints do not hamper market development. © 2010 A B Academic Publishers-Printed in Great Britain.

Njau M.A.,University of Dar es Salaam | Mturi F.A.,University of Dar es Salaam | Mpuya P.M.,Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism
International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystems Services and Management | Year: 2010

Resident stingless honey-bees in the Udzungwa area were investigated for a period of 1 year. Specimens of stingless honey-bees were captured on flowers and on natural nest entrances. Six local stingless honey-bee species, namely Dactylurina schmidti, Plebeina hildebrandti, Axestotrigona erythra, Meliponula ogouensis, M. lendliana and M. ferruginea, were found in the area, all of which are known to the local people. Honey productivity per colony in experimental hives varied according to species: M. ogouensis average 3.2 L, M. lendliana average 2.7 L, D. schmidti average 1.6 L and P. hildebrandti average 0.6 L. These findings indicate good potential for beekeeping in the lower altitude area at the foot of the Udzungwa Mountains, where the stingless honey-bee species diversity is greatest. The article discusses some options for intensification of management of the bee resources while maintaining natural biodiversity in the area. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Green J.M.H.,University of Cambridge | Burgess N.D.,Copenhagen University | Green R.E.,University of Cambridge | Madoffe S.S.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2012

Despite chronic underfunding for conservation and the recognition that funds must be invested wisely, few studies have analysed the direct costs of managing protected areas at the spatial scales needed to inform local site management. Using a questionnaire survey we collected data from protected area managers in the Eastern Arc Mountains (EAMs) of Tanzania to establish how much is currently spent on reserve management and how much is required to meet conservation objectives. We use an information theoretic approach to model spatial variation in these costs using a range of plausible, spatially explicit predictor variables, including a novel measure of anthropogenic pressure that measures the human pressure that accrues to any point in the landscape by taking into account all people in the landscape, inversely weighted by their distance to that point.Our models explain over 75% of variation in actual spend and over 40% of variation in necessary spend. Population pressure is a variable that has not been used to model protected area management costs before, yet proved to be considerably better at predicting both actual and necessary spend than other measures of anthropogenic pressure.We use our results to estimate necessary spend at a 9km 2 resolution across the EAM and highlight those areas where the management costs of effective management are predicted to be high. This information can be used by conservation planners in the region and can be estimated for future scenarios of population growth and migration. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Kindo A.,Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism | Mndolwa M.A.,Tanzania Forestry Research Institute | Edward E.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Chamshama S.A.O.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
Southern Forests | Year: 2010

This study to compare performance of three Australian-Papua New Guinean Acacia species/provenances (A. mangium, A. auriculiformis, A. crassicarpa) and A. julifera was conducted at Kongowe, Kibaha, Tanzania. Species/provenances were evaluated for survival, growth (diameter, height and volume), wood basic density and wood biomass. The trial was laid out using a randomised complete block design with three replications of 22 treatments (species/provenances). Data for survival, diameter at breast height and height was collected at ages 2 and 4 years from the nine inner-plot trees. Six defect-free trees from each treatment were selected at random for volume, wood basic density and biomass measurements. Results showed significant differences in survival, height and diameter growth among species/provenances at all assessment occasions. Average untransformed survival at 4 years ranged from 16.0% to 93.3%. Acacia crassicarpa from Bensbach, Papua New Guinea (PNG), had the largest diameter (13.9 cm) and A. crassicarpa from Bimadebum, PNG, had the largest height (12.6 m). Volume production and wood biomass differed significantly (p < 0.001) among species/provenances. Acacia crassicarpa from Bensbach, PNG, had the highest volume (58.7 m 3 ha -1) and wood biomass (53.4 t ha -1) while A. mangium from Kongowe, Tanzania, had the lowest height (4.6 m), volume (1.92 m 3 ha -1) and wood biomass (2.7 t ha -1). Acacia mangium from Claudie River, Queensland, had the highest basic density (610.6 kg m -3) while the accession from Bituri, PNG, had the lowest (375.2 kg m -3). Ordinal ranking indicated that the three best-performing Australian-PNG Acacia species/ provenances were A. crassicarpa from Bimadebum, PNG; A. crassicarpa from Bensbach, PNG; and A. auriculiformis from south of Coen, Cape York. The three poorest species/provenances were A. mangium from Kongowe, Kibaha, Tanzania; A. julifera subsp. julifera from Ipswich, Queensland; and A. mangium from Balimo, PNG. The best-performing species/ provenances are recommended for planting in Kongowe and other areas with similar ecological conditions. © NISC (Pty) Ltd.

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