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Xayyavong S.,Ministry of Energy and Mines | Babel S.,Thammasat University
2010 4th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, iCBBE 2010 | Year: 2010

This study was carried out to investigate quality of water sources and bottled water as compared to water quality standards. Sanitation conditions of the factories were also studied. The quality of water sources such as tap water, ground water and tap water mixed with ground water used for producing bottled drinking water were analysed for the physical, chemical and biological parameters. Physical and chemical quality of water sources did not comply with standards and thus cannot be consumed directly. Some treatment is required before consumption. Quality of bottled drinking water produced from different water sources and different size of containers comply with standards, except physical parameter of bottled drinking water produced from ground water of one factory with net content 18-20 liters. With regards to solid waste management, two factories have garbage containers with cover and also separate the waste. Other factories store garbage in baskets without cover and in plastic bags. Regarding wastewater management, three factories discharge wastewater to their own pond or wastewater treatment plant (WWTP); other four factories discharge wastewater directly to the public canal. © 2010 IEEE.


Akli A.M.,Ministry of Energy and Mines | Kim Y.,University of Management and Economics
Geosystem Engineering | Year: 2014

Based on the methodology employed by Bhattacharyya and Blake (Analysis of oil export dependence of MENA countries: drivers, trends and prospects. Energy Policy, 38, 2, 1098-1107, 2010), this article analyses the oil and gas export intensities of the Middle Eastern and North African economies, using the decomposition method to identify factors of the intensity changes. We update Bhattacharyya and Blake's (2010) results in several ways. First, this article employs the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index method, which does not allow for the existence of unexplained residuals, for the decomposition. Second, one of the main oil exporters, Oman, is newly included in the analysis. Third, we extend the decomposition analysis to 'gas' export intensities for Algeria and Qatar, the current leading gas exporters. Finally, all the results are updated using the most recently available data (~2011). © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Sanematsu K.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Moriyama T.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Moriyama T.,Toyota Tsusho | Sotouky L.,Ministry of Energy and Mines | Watanabe Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Resource Geology | Year: 2011

Geochemical and geochronological studies were conducted on basalts and laterites from the Bolaven Plateau in southern Laos in order to evaluate the mobility and mineralization of REE, Y and Sc during laterization. The basalts are classified into three categories: (i) small volumetric alkali basalt (eruption age: 15.7Ma), large volumetric olivine tholeiite (1.2Ma) and quartz tholeiite with olivine tholeiite (younger than 0.5 ± 0.2Ma). Formation of REE minerals during laterization result in mobilization and fractionation of REE and Y in laterite profiles. Occurrence of florencite-(Ce) in a laterite profile derived from alkali basalt immobilizes REE (particularly LREE) and this leads the laterites to be enriched in LREE relative to the parent basalt. Few positive Ce anomalies in this profile suggest that florencite-(Ce) [(Ce)Al3(PO4)2(OH)2] formation was followed by CeO2 precipitation due to the change of redox condition. In tholeiite-derived laterite profiles, florencite is not recognized and REE and Y tend to be depleted relative to the parent basalts with positive Ce anomalies. This is interpreted as scavenging REE3+ except for Ce4+ from the laterite profile in oxidizing conditions. Sc behaves similarly to Fe during laterization and it is more abundant in the tholeiitic laterite than that in the alkali basaltic laterite. Results of sequential extraction indicate that REE of the alkali basaltic laterite are contained in residual phase, which is dominantly florencite-(Ce), but they are rarely present in ion-adsorption phase. It is concluded that basaltic laterites have a low potential of REE resource in terms of low REE contents and a difficulty in REE extraction. © 2011 The Authors. Resource Geology © 2011 The Society of Resource Geology.


Sanematsu K.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Murakami H.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Duangsurigna S.,Ministry of Energy and Mines | Vilayhack S.,Ministry of Energy and Mines | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences | Year: 2011

Geochemical and geochronological studies were conducted on granitoids in central-southern Laos. S-type ilmenite-series granitoids associated with Sn mineralization are distributed in the Truong Son fold belt of central Laos. Plateau ages determined by 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating method for biotite and muscovite of the granitoids range from 253 Ma to 247 Ma and from 244 Ma to 199 Ma in the southwest and northeast of the fold belt, respectively. During this period, the fractionated granites in the early stage are related to mineralization of medium-large Sn deposits. The granitoids of the Truong Son fold belt formed in the Indosinian orogeny are contemporaneous with the Late Permian-Early Jurassic Sn-bearing granites in the Southeast Asian Sn Belt. In contrast, I-type magnetite-series granitoids are distributed in the Kontum massif of southeasternmost Laos. Plateau ages for biotite and previously reported mineral ages of the magnetite-series granitoids range widely from 414 Ma to 252 Ma. The Carboniferous-Permian granitoids represents adakitic characteristics and the Permian adakitic granodiorites are associated with Cu ± Au mineralized quartz veins.

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