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Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Takeshima S.-N.,RIKEN | Matsumoto Y.,RIKEN | Miyasaka T.,RIKEN | Miyasaka T.,Nihon University | And 6 more authors.
Tissue Antigens

Recently, two polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) methods were reported for the genotyping of the bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA)-DRB3. One technique is a single PCR-SBT (sPCR-SBT) method that generates heterozygous sequences that are subsequently analyzed by the haplofinder program, while the other technique is a nested PCR-SBT (nPCR-SBT) method that allows the analysis of heterozygous sequences using the assign 400ATF software. In this study, these techniques were compared and then integrated to produce an improved genotyping method. The primer set used for sPCR-SBT was more accurate than those used for nPCR-SBT. Combining sPCR-SBT with the assign 400ATF software previously reported for nPCR-SBT enables rapid and accurate genotyping of a large number of DNA samples. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Robertson C.,University of Victoria | Robertson C.,Wilfrid Laurier University | Sawford K.,University of Calgary | Daniel S.L.A.,Ministry of Livestock Development | And 2 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases

Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone-based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ≈4,000 interactions between field veterinarians and reports on the animal population received by the system. Development of human resources and increased communication between local stakeholders (groups and persons whose actions are affected by emerging infectious diseases and animal health) were instrumental for successful implementation. The primary lesson learned was that mobile phone-based surveillance of animal populations is acceptable and feasible in lower-resource settings. However, any system implementation plan must consider the time needed to garner support for novel surveillance methods among users and stakeholders. Source

Odero-Waitituh J.A.,Ministry of Livestock Development | King'ori A.M.,Egerton University | Guliye A.Y.,Egerton University
Livestock Research for Rural Development

A study was conducted at Tatton Agricultural Park, (Egerton University) to determine the effect of replacing maize in broiler finisher diets (CBFD) with milled mature Prosopis pods (MMPP) on performance of broiler chicken. Four diets (PJ0, PJ10, PJ20 and PJ30 containing 0, 10, 20 and 30% MMPP, replacing maize) were fed to eighty broilers (Abor Acres strain), 29 days old weighing 0.82 ±0.08 kg (Mean ± SD) in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Each treatment/replicate had 20 broilers, with equal numbers of males and females. All performance parameters were negatively affected as MMPP replaced maize grain in the diets. © 2016, Fundacion CIPAV. All right reserved. Source

Maina J.G.,University of Nairobi | Kamau W.N.,Ministry of Livestock Development | Kabuage L.W.,Kenyatta University
Livestock Research for Rural Development

A study was done to evaluate feeds containing high levels of rice-milling by-products fed to layer chicken between 21 - 36 weeks and to determine economic returns to farmers from such diets. The rice based diets were also compared to a control diet based on maize and soybean meal, and a popular commercial layers diet used by poultry farmers. The rice by-products evaluated included Special Coarse Bran, Fine bran and broken rice. Special Coarse Bran is an inexpensive rice milling by-product produced during the rice milling process as a single combined product, consisting of rice bran, rice grains and some hulls. One hundred and sixty ISA brown layers were used for this purpose. They were housed in a battery cages measuring 45 x 45 x 18 inches and fitted with feeding and drinking troughs. Natural lighting system consisting of 12 day hours was used. Birds were vaccinated twice against Guboro on the 10th and 21st day while New Castle and Fowl Pox vaccines were given at twelve and a half weeks respectively. Five diets consisting of a commercial layer diet, a control diet based on maize and soybean meal and 3 test diets were used in the study. The commercial layer diet was a popular layer feed purchased from Unga Feeds Company in Nairobi. The three test diets contained 40% of broken rice, 20% fine bran and other ingredients. Special coarse bran was added at 0, 5, and 10% of the diet respectively to make diets SCB-0, SCB-5 and SCB-10 which contained 60%, 65% and 70% of rice milling by-products respectively. Each diet was fed to 4 replicates of 8 birds making a total of 32 birds on each dietary treatment. Birds fed on the commercial layer diet and the maize soybean control diet gained more weight and produced more eggs than those fed on test diets based on rice milling by-products. However, when economic returns were considered, gross margins were higher with rice based diets than with the commercial and the maize/soybean control diet. Source

Muia J.M.K.,Kenya Agricultural Research Institute | Kariuki J.N.,Kenya Agricultural Research Institute | Mbugua P.N.,University of Nairobi | Gachuiri C.K.,University of Nairobi | And 3 more authors.
Livestock Research for Rural Development

A stratified sampling method was used to select 156 dairying households from representative Divisions in Nyandarua County. The stratification was based on cattle grazing systems (CGS) and agro-ecological zones (AEZs) across the Divisions. The objectives of the study were to assess status of smallholder dairy cattle production in relationship to CGS and AEZ, major challenges facing smallholder dairy production, and the opportunities for improvement. Data collected included the characteristics of the farm, family, farmer, feeds and feeding, dairy cattle and their performance, milk uses and markets, and the dairy production services. The information on the challenges facing dairy production and the opportunities for improvement was obtained from discussions with livestock extension workers, dairy co-operatives, milk processors, and from secondary sources. The present results indicated that the average farm size was 3.5 Ha and 41, 38, and 44% of the households fed dairy stock with improved fodders, grass hay, and concentrate supplements, respectively. Among the households, about 44, 38 and 32% had access to artificial insemination (AI), extension, and all weather roads services, respectively. Households keeping crosses of the dairy breeds were 59% while the average herd size was 5.3 heads consisting of 40% cows in milk. The average calf live-weight gain was 322g/ day and milk yield per cow was 8.4kg/day. About 65% of the milk was marketed at an average price of 15.00 KES/kg, equivalent to 0.205 US$/kg. As the levels of dairy intensification increased, there were significant increase in milk production per hectare and decrease in calf live-weight gains (P<0.05). On the other hand, as the level of agricultural potential increased, there were significant decreases in milk production and marketed milk per farm (P<0.05). It was concluded that smallholder dairy cattle production was below the potential for Nyandarua County and was influenced by the CGS and AEZs. The major challenges in smallholder dairy production included poor road network and milk marketing, high costs and inaccessibility of dairy production inputs and support services, inappropriate dairy production technologies, and limited value addition of milk. Source

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