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Robertson C.,University of Victoria | Robertson C.,Wilfrid Laurier University | Sawford K.,University of Calgary | Daniel S.L.A.,Ministry of Livestock Development | And 2 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone-based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ≈4,000 interactions between field veterinarians and reports on the animal population received by the system. Development of human resources and increased communication between local stakeholders (groups and persons whose actions are affected by emerging infectious diseases and animal health) were instrumental for successful implementation. The primary lesson learned was that mobile phone-based surveillance of animal populations is acceptable and feasible in lower-resource settings. However, any system implementation plan must consider the time needed to garner support for novel surveillance methods among users and stakeholders.


PubMed | Bhutan Agriculture and Food Regulation Authority, Ministry of Livestock Development, Scientific Institute of Public Health WIV ISP, Ministry of Health and 6 more.
Type: | Journal: Infection ecology & epidemiology | Year: 2016

Considerable advocacy, funding, training, and technical support have been provided to South Asian countries to strengthen One Health (OH) collaborative approaches for controlling diseases with global human pandemic potential since the early 2000s. It is essential that the OH approach continues to be strengthened given South Asia is a hot spot for emerging and endemic zoonotic diseases. The objectives of this article are to describe OH research and training and capacity building activities and the important developments in government support for OH in these countries to identify current achievements and gaps.A landscape analysis of OH research, training, and government support in South Asia was generated by searching peer-reviewed and grey literature for OH research publications and reports, a questionnaire survey of people potentially engaged in OH research in South Asia and the authors professional networks.Only a small proportion of zoonotic disease research conducted in South Asia can be described as truly OH, with a significant lack of OH policy-relevant research. A small number of multisectoral OH research and OH capacity building programmes were conducted in the region. The governments of Bangladesh and Bhutan have established operational OH strategies, with variable progress institutionalising OH in other countries. Identified gaps were a lack of useful scientific information and of a collaborative culture for formulating and implementing integrated zoonotic disease control policies and the need for ongoing support for transdisciplinary OH research and policy-relevant capacity building programmes.Overall we found a very small number of truly OH research and capacity building programmes in South Asia. Even though significant progress has been made in institutionalising OH in some South Asian countries, further behavioural, attitudinal, and institutional changes are required to strengthen OH research and training and implementation of sustainably effective integrated zoonotic disease control policies.


Nyangaga J.N.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | Grace D.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | Kimani V.,University of Nairobi | Kiragu M.W.,Ministry of Livestock Development | And 4 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

A study was undertaken to investigate and mitigate the risk from zoonotic Cryptosporidium associated with dairy farming in Dagoretti division, Nairobi, Kenya. Outcome mapping (OM), a relatively new tool for planning and evaluation, was used to foster and then monitor changes in farmer management of health risks. Elements of the OM framework, including the vision, mission and expected progress markers, were developed in participatory sessions and a set of progress markers was used for monitoring behaviour change in farmers participating in the project (the boundary partners). Behaviour change (the outcome challenge) was supported by a range of awareness and educational campaigns, working with strategic partners (extension agents and administrative leaders). The farmers the project worked with made considerable progress according to the markers; they demonstrated an understanding of cryptosporidiosis, established or maintained clean and well drained cattle sheds, and took conscious effort to reduce possible infection. Farmers who did not participate in the project (non-contact farmers) were found to be less advanced on the progress marker indicators. Non-contact farmers who carried out risk-reducing practices had done so independently of the project team. The administration leaders, as strategic partners, had a positive attitude towards the project and confidence in their ability to support project objectives. The study demonstrates the utility of OM in helping to identify and support behavioural change. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Ministry of Livestock Development and U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Preventive veterinary medicine | Year: 2015

Infectious diseases in poultry can spread quickly and lead to huge economic losses. In the past decade, on multiple continents, the accelerated spread of highly pathogenic avian Influenza A (H5N1) virus, often through informal trade networks, has led to the death and culling of hundreds of millions of poultry. Endemic poultry diseases like Newcastle disease and fowl typhoid can also be devastating in many parts of the world. Understanding trade networks in unregulated systems can inform policy decisions concerning disease prevention and containment. From June to December 2008 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of backyard farmers, market traders, and middlemen in 5/8 provinces in Kenya. We administered a standardized questionnaire to each type of actor using convenience, random, snowball, and systematic sampling. Questionnaires addressed frequency, volume, and geography of trade, as well as biosecurity practices. We created a network diagram identifying the most important locations for trade. Of 380 respondents, 51% were backyard farmers, 24% were middlemen and 25% were market traders. Half (50%) of backyard farmers said they raised poultry both for household consumption and for sale. Compared to market traders, middlemen bought their poultry from a greater number of villages (median 4.2 villages for middlemen vs. 1.9 for market traders). Traders were most likely to purchase poultry from backyard farmers. Of the backyard farmers who sold poultry, 51% [CI 40-63] reported selling poultry to market traders, and 54% [CI 44-63] sold to middlemen. Middlemen moved the largest volume of poultry on a weekly basis (median purchases: 187 birds/week [IQR 206]; median sales: 188 birds/week [IQR 412.5]). The highest numbers of birds were traded in Nairobi - Kenyas capital city. Nairobi was the most prominent trading node in the network (61 degrees of centrality). Many smaller sub-networks existed as a result of clustered local trade. Market traders were also integral to the network. The informal poultry trade in Kenya is dependent on the sale of backyard poultry to middlemen and market traders. These two actors play a critical role in poultry movement in Kenya; during any type of disease outbreak middlemen should be targeted for control- and containment-related interventions.


McCarron M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Munyua P.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Cheng P.-Y.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Manga T.,Ministry of Livestock Development | And 4 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2015

Infectious diseases in poultry can spread quickly and lead to huge economic losses. In the past decade, on multiple continents, the accelerated spread of highly pathogenic avian Influenza A (H5N1) virus, often through informal trade networks, has led to the death and culling of hundreds of millions of poultry. Endemic poultry diseases like Newcastle disease and fowl typhoid can also be devastating in many parts of the world. Understanding trade networks in unregulated systems can inform policy decisions concerning disease prevention and containment.From June to December 2008 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of backyard farmers, market traders, and middlemen in 5/8 provinces in Kenya. We administered a standardized questionnaire to each type of actor using convenience, random, snowball, and systematic sampling. Questionnaires addressed frequency, volume, and geography of trade, as well as biosecurity practices. We created a network diagram identifying the most important locations for trade.Of 380 respondents, 51% were backyard farmers, 24% were middlemen and 25% were market traders. Half (50%) of backyard farmers said they raised poultry both for household consumption and for sale. Compared to market traders, middlemen bought their poultry from a greater number of villages (median 4.2 villages for middlemen vs. 1.9 for market traders). Traders were most likely to purchase poultry from backyard farmers. Of the backyard farmers who sold poultry, 51% [CI 40-63] reported selling poultry to market traders, and 54% [CI 44-63] sold to middlemen. Middlemen moved the largest volume of poultry on a weekly basis (median purchases: 187 birds/week [IQR 206]; median sales: 188 birds/week [IQR 412.5]). The highest numbers of birds were traded in Nairobi - Kenya's capital city. Nairobi was the most prominent trading node in the network (61 degrees of centrality). Many smaller sub-networks existed as a result of clustered local trade. Market traders were also integral to the network.The informal poultry trade in Kenya is dependent on the sale of backyard poultry to middlemen and market traders. These two actors play a critical role in poultry movement in Kenya; during any type of disease outbreak middlemen should be targeted for control- and containment-related interventions. © 2015.


Muia J.M.K.,Kenya Agricultural Research Institute | Kariuki J.N.,Kenya Agricultural Research Institute | Mbugua P.N.,University of Nairobi | Gachuiri C.K.,University of Nairobi | And 3 more authors.
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

A stratified sampling method was used to select 156 dairying households from representative Divisions in Nyandarua County. The stratification was based on cattle grazing systems (CGS) and agro-ecological zones (AEZs) across the Divisions. The objectives of the study were to assess status of smallholder dairy cattle production in relationship to CGS and AEZ, major challenges facing smallholder dairy production, and the opportunities for improvement. Data collected included the characteristics of the farm, family, farmer, feeds and feeding, dairy cattle and their performance, milk uses and markets, and the dairy production services. The information on the challenges facing dairy production and the opportunities for improvement was obtained from discussions with livestock extension workers, dairy co-operatives, milk processors, and from secondary sources. The present results indicated that the average farm size was 3.5 Ha and 41, 38, and 44% of the households fed dairy stock with improved fodders, grass hay, and concentrate supplements, respectively. Among the households, about 44, 38 and 32% had access to artificial insemination (AI), extension, and all weather roads services, respectively. Households keeping crosses of the dairy breeds were 59% while the average herd size was 5.3 heads consisting of 40% cows in milk. The average calf live-weight gain was 322g/ day and milk yield per cow was 8.4kg/day. About 65% of the milk was marketed at an average price of 15.00 KES/kg, equivalent to 0.205 US$/kg. As the levels of dairy intensification increased, there were significant increase in milk production per hectare and decrease in calf live-weight gains (P<0.05). On the other hand, as the level of agricultural potential increased, there were significant decreases in milk production and marketed milk per farm (P<0.05). It was concluded that smallholder dairy cattle production was below the potential for Nyandarua County and was influenced by the CGS and AEZs. The major challenges in smallholder dairy production included poor road network and milk marketing, high costs and inaccessibility of dairy production inputs and support services, inappropriate dairy production technologies, and limited value addition of milk.


Okoth E.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | Gallardo C.,Research Center en Sanidad Animal | Macharia J.M.,Ministry of livestock Development | Omore A.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013

We describe a horizontal survey of African swine fever virus (ASFV) prevalence and risk factors associated with virus infection in domestic pigs in two contrasting production systems in Kenya. A free range/tethering, low input production system in Ndhiwa District of South-western Kenya is compared with a medium input stall fed production system in Kiambu District of Central Kenya. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of data derived from cluster analysis showed that number of animals, number of breeding sows and number of weaner pigs were a significant factor in classifying farms in Nhiwa and Kiambu. Analysis of blood and serum samples using a PCR assay demonstrated an average animal level positivity to ASFV of 28% in two independent samplings in South-western Kenya and 0% PCR positivity in Central Kenya. No animals were sero-positive in either study site using the OIE indirect-ELISA and none of the animals sampled exhibited clinical symptoms of ASF. The farms that contained ASFV positive pigs in Ndhiwa District were located in divisions bordering the Ruma National Park from which bushpig (Potamochoerus larvatus) incursions into farms had been reported. ASFV prevalence (P<0.05) was significantly higher at distances between 6 and 16. km from the National Park than at distances closer or further away. One of the 8 bushpigs sampled from the park, from which tissues were obtained was PCR positive for ASFV. The data therefore indicated a potential role for the bushpig in virus transmission in South-western Kenya, but there was no evidence of a direct sylvatic virus transmission cycle in Central Kenya. ASF control strategies implemented in these areas will need to take these epidemiological findings into consideration. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Maina J.G.,University of Nairobi | Kamau W.N.,Ministry of Livestock Development | Kabuage L.W.,Kenyatta University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2013

A study was done to evaluate feeds containing high levels of rice-milling by-products fed to layer chicken between 21 - 36 weeks and to determine economic returns to farmers from such diets. The rice based diets were also compared to a control diet based on maize and soybean meal, and a popular commercial layers diet used by poultry farmers. The rice by-products evaluated included Special Coarse Bran, Fine bran and broken rice. Special Coarse Bran is an inexpensive rice milling by-product produced during the rice milling process as a single combined product, consisting of rice bran, rice grains and some hulls. One hundred and sixty ISA brown layers were used for this purpose. They were housed in a battery cages measuring 45 x 45 x 18 inches and fitted with feeding and drinking troughs. Natural lighting system consisting of 12 day hours was used. Birds were vaccinated twice against Guboro on the 10th and 21st day while New Castle and Fowl Pox vaccines were given at twelve and a half weeks respectively. Five diets consisting of a commercial layer diet, a control diet based on maize and soybean meal and 3 test diets were used in the study. The commercial layer diet was a popular layer feed purchased from Unga Feeds Company in Nairobi. The three test diets contained 40% of broken rice, 20% fine bran and other ingredients. Special coarse bran was added at 0, 5, and 10% of the diet respectively to make diets SCB-0, SCB-5 and SCB-10 which contained 60%, 65% and 70% of rice milling by-products respectively. Each diet was fed to 4 replicates of 8 birds making a total of 32 birds on each dietary treatment. Birds fed on the commercial layer diet and the maize soybean control diet gained more weight and produced more eggs than those fed on test diets based on rice milling by-products. However, when economic returns were considered, gross margins were higher with rice based diets than with the commercial and the maize/soybean control diet.


Sabuni Z.A.,Samaritans Purse | Mbuthia P.G.,University of Nairobi | Maingi N.,University of Nairobi | Nyaga P.N.,University of Nairobi | And 3 more authors.
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.


Odero-Waitituh J.A.,Ministry of Livestock Development | King'ori A.M.,Egerton University | Guliye A.Y.,Egerton University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2016

A study was conducted at Tatton Agricultural Park, (Egerton University) to determine the effect of replacing maize in broiler finisher diets (CBFD) with milled mature Prosopis pods (MMPP) on performance of broiler chicken. Four diets (PJ0, PJ10, PJ20 and PJ30 containing 0, 10, 20 and 30% MMPP, replacing maize) were fed to eighty broilers (Abor Acres strain), 29 days old weighing 0.82 ±0.08 kg (Mean ± SD) in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Each treatment/replicate had 20 broilers, with equal numbers of males and females. All performance parameters were negatively affected as MMPP replaced maize grain in the diets. © 2016, Fundacion CIPAV. All right reserved.

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