Ministry of Livestock Development and Fisheries

Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Ministry of Livestock Development and Fisheries

Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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Colquhoun D.J.,Norwegian Veterinary Institute | Nikuli H.L.,Ministry of Livestock Development and Fisheries
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The use of a wide variety of antimicrobials in human and veterinary medicine, including aquaculture, has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens. In the present study, bacteria from water, sediments, and fish were collected from fish farms in Pakistan and Tanzania with no recorded history of antibiotic use. The isolates were screened for the presence of resistance genes against various antimicrobials used in aquaculture and animal husbandry. Resistant isolates selected by disk diffusion and genotyped by Southern hybridization were further screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amplicon sequencing. The prominent resistance genes identified encoded tetracycline [tetA(A) and tetA(G)], trimethoprim [dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA12, and dfrA15], amoxicillin [blaTEM], streptomycin [strA-strB], chloramphenicol [cat-1], and erythromycin resistance [mefA]. The int1 gene was found in more than 30% of the bacterial isolates in association with gene cassettes. MAR indices ranged from 0.2 to 1. The blaNDM-1 gene was not identified in ertapenem resistant isolates. It is hypothesized that integrated fish farming practices utilizing domestic farm and poultry waste along with antibiotic residues from animal husbandry may have contributed to a pool of resistance genes in the aquaculture systems studied. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Lyimo H.L.N.,Ministry of Livestock Development and Fisheries | Laswai G.H.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Mtenga L.A.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Kimambo A.E.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

An on-farm study was carried out in Tanzania to assess the performance of crossbred (Frisian/Ayrshire x Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu) dairy calves fed on a concentrate, previously developed and tested on-station. The developed concentrate contained 189 g crude protein (CP) and 13 ME MJ per kg DM and was formulated using locally available feed resources. Twenty-seven (27) male calves, with birth weight 32 ± 1.5 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments, whereby Treatment 1 (DC) calves were fed the developed concentrate, Treatment 2 (FC) calves were fed a common home made dairy cow concentrate (CP 130 g and ME 13 MJ per kg DM) used by farmers in the study area. Treatment 3 (FP) was a control, where farmers followed their normal calf rearing practice with no interference. Restricted suckling, ad libitum feeding of forages and up to 1 kg concentrate were used for the calves on DC and FC. Weaning was at 12 weeks. Feed intake and growth performance were recorded for 28 weeks, Total dry matter intake was not different (P>0.05) between DC and FC. Mean growth rates (g/d) of calves under DC were higher (P<0.05) both pre (440) and post (460) weaning than those on FC (350) and FP (320 and 270), respectively, It was concluded that feeding balanced calf concentrates formulated using locally available feed resources improves performance of calves under small holder dairy production systems.


Ferguson K.J.,University of Glasgow | Cleaveland S.,University of Glasgow | Haydon D.T.,University of Glasgow | Caron A.,CIRAD UPR AGIRs | And 10 more authors.
EcoHealth | Year: 2013

Strategies to control transboundary diseases have in the past generated unintended negative consequences for both the environment and local human populations. Integrating perspectives from across disciplines, including livestock, veterinary and conservation sectors, is necessary for identifying disease control strategies that optimise environmental goods and services at the wildlife-livestock interface. Prompted by the recent development of a global strategy for the control and elimination of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), this paper seeks insight into the consequences of, and rational options for potential FMD control measures in relation to environmental, conservation and human poverty considerations in Africa. We suggest a more environmentally nuanced process of FMD control that safe-guards the integrity of wild populations and the ecosystem dynamics on which human livelihoods depend while simultaneously improving socio-economic conditions of rural people. In particular, we outline five major issues that need to be considered: 1) improved understanding of the different FMD viral strains and how they circulate between domestic and wildlife populations; 2) an appreciation for the economic value of wildlife for many African countries whose presence might preclude the country from ever achieving an FMD-free status; 3) exploring ways in which livestock production can be improved without compromising wildlife such as implementing commodity-based trading schemes; 4) introducing a participatory approach involving local farmers and the national veterinary services in the control of FMD; and 5) finally the possibility that transfrontier conservation might offer new hope of integrating decision-making at the wildlife-livestock interface. © 2013 International Association for Ecology and Health.


Gillah K.A.,Ministry of Livestock Development and Fisheries | Kifaro G.C.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Madsen J.,Copenhagen University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

Urban and peri urban dairy production system is among the many forms of dairy production in the tropics and sub tropics. Both the number of dairy cattle and dairy farmers vary across urban and peri urban areas of East Africa. Generally, dairy cows are fed on moderate (6 - 6.8 CP percent) quality natural pastures. Milk production is low and ranges from 5.7 - 17.1 litres/cow/day. The mean lactation lengths in urban and peri urban dairy units vary between 8.8 to 9.7and 11.2 months respectively. In all cases, the lactation lengths were either shorter or longer than the standard length of 10 months. Some reports show that more milk yields (7- 14.7 litres/cow/day) are produced in urban dairy units compared to 6.2- 11.2 litres/cow/day produced by their counterparts in peri urban dairy units. The mean ages at first calving, calving to conception interval and calving interval were 29.7 to 46.0 months, 123 to 276 days, 406 to 562 days respectively. A large number of services per conception (2.3) were required when artificial insemination (AI) was used for mating cows compared to natural service that required a relatively small number (1.7). Some disparities in milk production and reproductive performance of cows between urban and peri urban dairy units have been reported. However, it is difficult to judge whether urban or peri-urban dairy cows performed better than the other. The major constraints hindering dairy production in urban and peri urban areas of East Africa differ between and within countries and production systems. The variations might be due to the methods employed during data collection, physical location, dairy breeds kept and season of the year. The constraints include seasonal availability and costs of feeds, poor milk marketing and low milk price, availability of land, problems of waste disposal and pollution, disease and shortage of capital. Despite having constrained by a number of factors, dairying in urban and peri urban areas creates employment opportunities and provides farmers chance to use land, labour and feed resources to generate regular income.


Gillah K.A.,Ministry of Livestock Development and Fisheries | Kifaro G.C.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Madsen J.,Copenhagen University
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2014

A longitudinal study design was used to assess the management, chemical composition of cows’ milk and quantify the microbial load of raw milk produced at farm level. Data were collected between December 2010 and September 2011 in Morogoro municipality. Milk samples were collected once every month and analysed for butter fat (BF), crude protein (CP), total solids (TS) and solids non-fat (SNF). Total bacterial count (TBC) and coliform counts (CC) were normalized by log transformation. The average milk yield was 7.0 l/day and was not influenced by feeding systems and breeds. Dairy cows owned by people who had no regular income produced more milk than government employees and retired officers. Means of BF, TS, SNF and CP were similar in different feeding systems. Wet season had significantly higher TBC (5.9 log10 cfu/ml) and CC (2.4 log10 cfu/ml) but feeding systems had no effect. Stocking density influenced TBC but not CC. It can be concluded that dairy cows produced low milk yield and its quality was poor. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Gillah K.A.,Ministry of Livestock Development and Fisheries | Kifaro G.C.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Madsen J.,Copenhagen University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2013

A study was carried out to describe management and production levels of crossbred dairy cattle in urban and peri urban areas of Dar es Salaam city and Morogoro town in Tanzania. A cross sectional study design using a random sample of 153 dairy farmers was used to collect data on management and production levels of dairy cattle. Cattle sheds were measured to establish stocking densities. One third of farmers practised free grazing system. Poor quality forage and energy rich concentrate were the main feed resources. Farmers in Dar es Salaam and Morogoro covered 14.7±1.2 and 3.07±1.2 km/day, respectively in search of forages. Steaming up of dry cows was more common in Dar es Salaam than in Morogoro. Natural service was the predominant (P≤0.05) breeding method. Over half of cattle sheds had high stocking density and each shed accommodated 1.37 animals per 6.7m2 standard space required per dairy cattle. Milk production in Dar es Salaam was higher than in Morogoro. One third of the farmers planned to decrease their cattle herds due to shortage of feeds. Therefore, addressing some of these management aspects should improve dairy cattle productivity.


Lynen G.,VetAgro Tanzania Ltd | Yrjo-Koskinen A.E.,Lane College | Bakuname C.,Netherlands Development Organization | Di Giulio G.,VetAgro Tanzania Ltd | And 8 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

East Coast fever (ECF) causes considerable mortality and production losses in the Tanzania smallholder dairy sector and limits the introduction of improved dairy breeds in areas where the disease is present. The infection and treatment method (ITM) was adopted by smallholder dairy farms for ECF immunisation in Hanang and Handeni districts of Tanzania. This study recorded incidence rates for ECF and other tick-borne diseases (TBDs) for ECF-immunised and non-immunised cattle between 1997 and 2000. Approximately 80% of smallholder households from both sites (n = 167) participated in this longitudinal study, with immunisations carried out at the request of the livestock owners. Efficacy of ITM for preventing ECF cases in these crossbred dairy cattle was estimated at 97.6%, while that for preventing ECF deaths was 97.9%. One percent of the cattle developed clinical ECF as a result of immunisation. Since ECF immunisation permits a reduction in acaricide use, an increase in other TBDs is a potential concern. Sixty-three percent of farmers continued to use the same acaricide after immunisation, with 80% of these reducing the frequency of applications. Overall, 78% of farmers increased the acaricide application interval after immunisation beyond that recommended by the manufacturer, resulting in annual savings in the region of USD 4.77 per animal. No statistical difference was observed between the immunised and non-immunised animals in the incidence of non-ECF TBDs. However, immunised animals that succumbed to these diseases showed fewer case fatalities. ITM would therefore appear to be a suitable method for ECF control in Tanzania's smallholder dairy sector. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Kashoma I.P.B.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Luziga C.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Werema C.W.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Shirima G.A.,Ministry of Livestock Development and Fisheries | Ndossi D.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

Impact of research findings on Tanzania shorthorn zebu (TSHZ) cattle under agro- pastoral system in Tanzania have been lessened due to difficulties in relating visual appearance of animals with their live body weights. Managerial decisions have therefore been based on rough and inaccurate estimates. A simple, workable and accurate means was therefore thought to predict live weight of zebu cattle using heart girth measurement. A total of 300 TSHZ cattle were subjected to weighbridge as well as heart girth measurements and the findings subjected to regression analysis. Their live weights ranged from 170 to 390 Kg. The study revealed that heart girth had high correlation coefficient with live weight (r = 0.94, p<0.01). Grouping of data according to sex indicated that heart girth and live weight had closest correlation coefficient in both male and female, r = 0.9385 and r = 0.9318, respectively. The regression analysis of live weight on heart girth was highly significant (R 2 = 0.88, P<0.01), and the regression lines indicated that a linear relationship existed. The general equation for prediction of live weight of the TSHZ cattle was as follows: Y = 4.55 X - 409 (± 17.9), Where, Y = live weight (Kg), X = heart girth (cm). This implies that the use of the heart girth measurements in prediction of live weight of TSHZ cattle is credible.


Gillah K.A.,Ministry of Livestock Development and Fisheries | Kifaro G.C.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Madsen J.,Copenhagen University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2014

An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of pre and post-partum concentrate supplementation on milk yield, milk composition and reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows. Forty eight cows were involved in the study, and were divided into three groups according to concentrate supplementation. The first treatment (HMR-PPP) was fed 4 kg/day home-made ration during pre-and post-partum period. Treatment HMR-PP and MB-PP were fed 4 kg/day home-made ration and maize bran, respectively during the first 24 weeks of lactation. Pasture samples were collected from the grazing area for chemical and digestibility tests. A total of 288 milk samples were collected at monthly intervals and analysed for butter fat, solids not fat and total solid. Days from calving to first insemination (CFSI), calving to conception interval (CCI), number of services per conception (NSC) and calving interval (CI) were calculated based on farm records. General Linear Models were used to analyse the data. The overall crude protein (CP), in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD0 percentages of the pasture were 5.7±0.30, 41.9±0.22 and 44.4±0.27, respectively and varied between seasons. The overall mean milk yield was 6.5±0.10 litres/day. Cows supplemented with home-made ration during pre and post-partum had the highest (p<0.05) milk yield followed by post-partum supplemented cows with home-made ration. The overall mean CFSI, CCI, NSC and CI were 96.1±0.02 days, 129.8±6.92days, 1.74 ±0.01and 410.2±0.00 days, respectively. Concentrate supplementation before calving increased milk yield but did not affect milk composition and reproductive performance of lactating cows.


PubMed | Ministry of Livestock Development and Fisheries
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2014

A longitudinal study design was used to assess the management, chemical composition of cows milk and quantify the microbial load of raw milk produced at farm level. Data were collected between December 2010 and September 2011 in Morogoro municipality. Milk samples were collected once every month and analysed for butter fat (BF), crude protein (CP), total solids (TS) and solids non-fat (SNF). Total bacterial count (TBC) and coliform counts (CC) were normalized by log transformation. The average milk yield was 7.0l/day and was not influenced by feeding systems and breeds. Dairy cows owned by people who had no regular income produced more milk than government employees and retired officers. Means of BF, TS, SNF and CP were similar in different feeding systems. Wet season had significantly higher TBC (5.9 log10 cfu/ml) and CC (2.4 log10 cfu/ml) but feeding systems had no effect. Stocking density influenced TBC but not CC. It can be concluded that dairy cows produced low milk yield and its quality was poor.

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