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Tanaka K.,Azabu University | Takizawa T.,Azabu University | Murakoshi H.,Azabu University | Murakoshi H.,Zennoh Central Research Institute for Feed and Livestock | And 5 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

The mithun (Bos frontalis), synonymous with mithan and gayal, is considered to be a domesticated form of gaur (B. gaurus). However, there has been a controversy concerning its origin. In an effort to address this issue, the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) genes of 20 mithun from Myanmar and 13 from Bhutan were sequenced to trace its maternal origin. Seven cytb haplotypes were found in the 33 mithun, and the phylogenetic tree for these haplotypes clearly showed three embranchments involving five gaur types, a B. indicus type, and a B. taurus type. Sixteen Myanmar and 12 Bhutan mithun had gaur haplotypes, while a B. indicus haplotype was found in three Myanmar and one Bhutan mithun. The B. taurus haplotype was detected in a single Myanmar animal. These results demonstrated that the principal maternal origin of mithun was gaur and suggested that it was directly domesticated from gaur. However, some introgression of domestic cattle existed in current mithun populations. The presence of cattle mtDNA raised the question of how many cattle nuclear genes might have been integrated into the gene pool of mithun. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

Yannaing S.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | Thidarmyint H.,Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries | Zhao H.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | Thanthan S.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2012

The effect of appetite regulatory hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) on the secretions of oxyntomodulin (OXM) and ghrelin, and the effect of ghrelin on the secretions of CCK and OXM were studied in ruminants. Eight Holstein steers, 7months old, 243±7kg body weight (BW), were arranged in an incomplete Latin square design (8 animals×4 treatments×4days of sampling). Steers were intravenously injected with 10μg of sulfated CCK-8/kg BW, 20μg of acyl ghrelin/kg BW, 100μg of des-acyl ghrelin/kg BW or vehicle. Blood samples were collected from -60min to 120min relative to time of injection. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin, sulfated CCK and OXM were measured by double-antibody radioimmunoassay. Plasma acyl ghrelin was increased to peak level (428.3±6pg/mL) at 60min after injection of CCK compared with pre-injected levels (203.3±1pg/mL). These results showed for the first time, that intravenous bolus injection of CCK increased ghrelin secretion in ruminants. In contrast, injection of ghrelin did not change CCK secretion. Administration of ghrelin or CCK has no effect on plasma OXM concentrations. In conclusion, our results show that administration of CCK increased ghrelin secretion but did not affect OXM release in ruminants. Ghrelin did not affect the secretions of CCK and OXM. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

Temple A.J.,Northumbria University | Tregenza N.,Chelonia Inc. | Amir O.A.,Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries | Jiddawi N.,University of Dar es Salaam | Berggren P.,Northumbria University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Understanding temporal patterns in distribution, occurrence and behaviour is vital for the effective conservation of cetaceans. This study used cetacean click detectors (C-PODs) to investigate spatial and temporal variation in occurrence and foraging activity of the Indo- Pacific bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and Indian Ocean humpback (Sousa plumbea) dolphins resident in the Menai Bay Conservation Area (MBCA), Zanzibar, Tanzania. Occurrence was measured using detection positive minutes. Inter-click intervals were used to identify terminal buzz vocalisations, allowing for analysis of foraging activity. Data were analysed in relation to spatial (location) and temporal (monsoon season, diel phase and tidal phase) variables. Results showed significantly increased occurrence and foraging activity of dolphins in southern areas and during hours of darkness. Higher occurrence at night was not explained by diel variation in echolocation rate and so were considered representative of occurrence patterns. Both tidal phase and monsoon season influenced occurrence but results varied among sites, with no general patterns found. Foraging activity was greatest during hours of darkness, High water and Flood tidal phases. Comparisons of echolocation data among sites suggested differences in the broadband click spectra of MBCA dolphins, possibly indicative of species differences. These dolphin populations are threatened by unsustainable fisheries bycatch and tourism activities. The spatial and temporal patterns identified in this study have implications for future conservation and management actions with regards to these two threats. Further, the results indicate future potential for using passive acoustics to identify and monitor the occurrence of these two species in areas where they co-exist. © 2016 Temple et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Su-Myat,Hiroshima University | Maung-Saw-Htoo-Thaw,Hiroshima University | Matsuoka K.,Nagasaki University | Khin-Ko-Lay,Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries | Koike K.,Hiroshima University
Fisheries Science | Year: 2012

A detailed list of dinoflagellate species for the Mergui Archipelago, off southern Myanmar, was compiled for the first time. This was based on surveys conducted in two seasons in pre- and post-monsoons, and on observations for both plankton and cyst assemblages. In the plankton samples, 57 and 26 dinoflagellate species were recorded, respectively, in the pre- and post-monsoons. Among the list from plankton and cyst samples, harmful species were found: red-tide species including Prorocentrum spp. and Alexandrium affine, and causative species of paralytic shellfish poisoning, e. g., Alexandrium tamiyavanichii and Gymnodinium catenatum, and of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, e. g., Dinophysis spp. Therefore, although no incidences have been reported yet, attention must be paid to these harmful algal bloom (HAB) events in Myanmar where exploitation of fishery resources is drastically increasing. Other dinoflagellate compositions were also unique and may relate to the oceanographic system in this region. In the pre-monsoon, rather rare oceanic species of Ornithocercus spp. were found concurrently with neritic species, probably due to the extensive southwesterly current from the Indian Ocean. Throughout the seasons, diverse species of Protoperidinium were predominately recorded in both planktonic and sediment samples, indicating richness of prey organisms probably sustained by upwelling systems. © 2012 The Japanese Society of Fisheries Science.

Aung O.,Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries | Aung O.,Kasetsart University | Nguyen T.T.T.,A+ Network | Poompuang S.,Kasetsart University | Kamonrat W.,Inland Fisheries Resources Research and Development Institute
Aquaculture | Year: 2010

We investigated genetic diversity and population structure of mrigal in Myanmar using microsatellite DNA markers. A total of 211 individuals from five wild populations and 216 individuals from five hatcheries were analysed for six microsatellite loci (Bgon22, Lr3, Lr12, Lr21, MFW1 and MFW17) which were developed for other cyprinids. For comparison, 43 individuals from a hatchery in northern Vietnam, of Indian origin and introduced in 1984, also were analysed. Tests for all loci revealed H-W equilibrium in only two hatchery samples. Allele richness ranged from 2.3 to 8.5. Overall, observed heterozygosity was high in all Myanmar samples (ranging from 0.654 to 0.756) but relatively low in the Vietnam hatchery sample (0.303). Pairwise FST values among the Myanmar samples ranged from 0.000 to 0.096, and those between the Myanmar and the Vietnam samples from 0.353 to 0.506. Results of multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS) of pairwise FST and Bayesian method revealed that one wild and two hatchery samples from Myanmar were differentiated from others, which appeared highly admixed. The study has important implications for genetic management of mrigal stocks in Myanmar, and possibly elsewhere in the region. For baseline stock for selective breeding, it would be best to include representation of samples from all groups we have identified to ensure a broad genetic base for genetic improvement programs. As for stock enhancement, seed produced from several hatcheries examined here should not be used for restocking in certain locations to avoid genetic contamination. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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