Ministry of Livestock
Ministry of Livestock
News Article | May 4, 2017
After a four-year eradication programme including nuclear techniques, the Niayes region of Senegal is now almost free of the tsetse fly, which used to decimate livestock. The tsetse fly is a bloodsucking insect that kills more than three million livestock in sub-Saharan Africa every year, causing more than US $4 billion annually in losses. It transmits parasites that cause a wasting disease called nagana in cattle. In some parts of Africa the fly also causes over 75 000 cases of human ‘sleeping sickness’, which affects the central nervous system, and causes disorientation, personality changes, slurred speech, seizures, difficulty walking and talking, and ultimately death. A multiyear programme of the Government of Senegal, with financial help from the United States and technical support from the Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), France, is slowly eradicating the tsetse fly using a method called the Sterile Insect Technique. The programme is supported by FAO through its joint division with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. A campaign against the tsetse fly, a pest that transmits a disease that devastates livestock, in the Niayes area near the capital Dakar started four years ago paving the way for complete eradication of this pest. “I have not seen a single tsetse fly for a year now,” said cattle farmer Oumar Sow. “This is in contrast to earlier, when they increased in numbers, especially during the cold season. The flies were really a nuisance to our animals and we had to carefully select the time for milking. Now, there is no problem with that.” Eradicating reproduction Senegal has successfully integrated an insect birth control technique using irradiation to sterilize male flies, reducing the fly population over time. The technique has already eradicated the fly population in one area in the Niayes, suppressed it in another by 98 per cent, while the technique will be implemented in a third area in 2016, said Baba Sall, Project Manager at Senegal’s Ministry of Livestock and Animal Production. “Eradicating the flies will significantly improve food security, and contribute to socio-economic progress,” Sall said, adding that research on 227 farms has indicated that the income of the rural population in Niayes will increase by 30 per cent. “Life has become more comfortable not only for the animals, but also for the farmers,” says Loulou Mendy, a pig farmer in the area. “Now, we can even sleep out in the open. This was unthinkable before because of the tsetse bites.” One of the 38 African countries infested with the tsetse fly, Senegal has a total infested area of around 60 000 square km. The operational phase of the campaign against the tsetse fly started in the Niayes region near the capital Dakar in 2011. This region was selected by the Senegalese Government, as it is particularly suitable for breeds of cattle that produce more milk and meat than cattle in other areas. However, the high incidence of livestock infertility and weight loss, due to nagana, resulted in reduced meat and milk production, and cattle that were too frail to plough the land or transport produce, which in turn severely affected crop production, according to Marc Vreysen, Head of the Insect Pest Control Laboratory at the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Sterilization using nuclear techniques shows positive effects Sterilization using nuclear techniques is most effective under exactly these circumstances: when the fly population has been reduced significantly using conventional techniques but there are still pockets of insects left, Vreysen explained. “The sterilized male flies will seek out the virgin females wherever they are,” he said. “This will lead to complete elimination of the population in these areas.” The project in Senegal started with a feasibility study initiated in 2006, supported by the IAEA, FAO, the International Cooperation Centre of Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD), and the Government of Senegal through the Senegalese Institute for Agricultural Research and the Directorate for Veterinary Services to assess the possibility of creating a tsetse-free zone in the Niayes region. The study found that 28.7 per cent of cattle had devastating health problems due to the tsetse fly. The release of sterile male flies began in 2012, after a three-year period of pilot trials, training, preparation and population suppression. The science behind birth control for flies The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a form of pest control that uses ionizing radiation to sterilize male flies that are mass-produced in special rearing facilities. The sterile males are released systematically from the ground or by air in tsetse-infested areas, where they mate with wild females, which do not produce offspring. As a result, this technique can eventually eradicate populations of wild flies. The SIT is among the most environmentally friendly control tactics available, and is usually applied as the final component of an integrated campaign to remove insect populations. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division supports about 40 SIT field projects delivered through the IAEA technical cooperation programme, like the one in Senegal, in different parts of Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America. It has supported the successful eradication of the tsetse fly from the island of Unguja, Zanzibar while in Ethiopia it has reduced the fly population by 90 per cent in parts of the Southern Rift valley.
Monentcham S.,University of Namur |
Kouam J.,Ministry of Livestock |
Chuba D.,Ministry of Livestock |
Wathelet B.,University of Liège |
And 2 more authors.
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2010
A feeding trial was conducted to examine the suitability of soybean meal (SBM) and cottonseed meal (CSM) as a partial substitute for the dietary protein supplied by fish meal for H. niloticus fingerlings. Fish were fed with four isonitrogenous (350 g kg -1 crude protein) and isoenergetic (18.8 kJ g -1 GE) diets in which fish meal protein was gradually replaced by plant protein from a mixture of SBM and CSM (0%, 25%, 50% and 75% in diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively). Triplicate groups of fingerlings H. niloticus (mean weight of 5 g) were handfed twice daily to apparent satiation for 60 days inside net hapas. Growth performances (SGR varied from 3.09% to 3.16% day -1) of fingerlings fed diets containing 0%, 25% and 50% plant protein were not significantly different (P>0.05). At 75% fish meal substitution, growth and feed utilization efficiency indicators were significantly reduced (P<0.05). The carcass composition were also significantly (P<0.05) affected by the replacement level of fish meal, except dry matter and ash. Results suggest that the dietary fish meal protein could efficiently be substituted by a mixture of soybean and cottonseed meals up to 50%, without adverse effects on maximal growth in practical diets for H. niloticus fingerlings. © 2010 The Authors. Aquaculture Research © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Simo G.,University of Dschang |
Fongho P.,University of Yaounde I |
Farikou O.,Ministry of Livestock |
Ndjeuto-Tchouli P.I.N.,University of Ngaoundéré |
And 3 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015
Background: The Bafia sleeping sickness focus of Cameroon is considered as "silent" with no case reported for about 20 years despite medical surveys performed during the last decades. In this focus, all epidemiological factors that can contribute to trypanosomes transmission are present. To update our knowledge on the current risks of Human and Animal African trypanosomiases, different trypanosome species were identified in midguts of tsetse flies captured in the Bafia focus. Methods: Tsetse flies were trapped using pyramidal traps. Each tsetse fly was identified and live flies were dissected and their midguts collected. DNA was extracted from each midgut and thereafter, blood meals and different trypanosome species were identified with molecular tools. The biological data were transported onto maps in order to have their distribution. Results: Of the 98 traps set up, 461 Glossina palpalis palpalis were captured; 322 (69.8 %) tsetse flies were dissected and 49 (15.2 %) teneral flies identified. The average apparent density of tsetse flies per day was 1.18. Of the 35 (10.9 %) blood meals collected, 82 % were taken on pigs and 17.6 % on humans. Eighty two (25.5 %) trypanosome infections were identified: 56 (17.4 %) T. congolense savannah, 17 (5.3 %) T. congolense forest, 5 (1.6 %) T. vivax and 4 (1.2 %) T. brucei s.l. No infection of T. simiae and T. b. gambiense was identified. Sixty seven (81.7 %) infections were single and 15 (18.3 %) mixed involving one triple infection (T. congolense forest, T. brucei and T. vivax) and 14 double infections: 11∈T. congolense forest and T. congolense savannah, two T. congolense savannah and T. brucei, and one of T. brucei and T. vivax. The generated maps show the distribution of tsetse flies and trypanosome infections across the focus. Conclusion: This study has shown that animal trypanosomes remain an important problem in this region. Meanwhile, it is very likely that HAT does not seem anymore to be a public health problem in this focus. The generated maps enabled us to define high risk transmission areas for AAT, and where disease control must be focused in order to improve animal health as well as the quantity of animal proteins. © 2015 Simo et al.
Aung M.,University of Veterinary Science, Yezin |
Kyawt Y.Y.,Ministry of Livestock |
Htun M.T.,University of Veterinary Science, Yezin |
Mu K.S.,University of Veterinary Science, Yezin |
Aung A.,University of Veterinary Science, Yezin
American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences | Year: 2015
Ruminants can achieve high productivity when the diet includes concentrates; however these are often expensive due to competition with humans and mono-gastric animals. This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of partial inclusion of Albizia saman pods (ASP) in a Commercial Concentrate (CC) on the performances of dairy cows. Twelve cross-bred Holstein Friesian cows (472±13 kg) in the 12th week of lactation were randomly allocated into four treatment groups with three replicates accoding to the completely randomized design. The four treatments were control diet-CD [35% urea-treated-rice-straw (URS; 79g crude protein (CP)/ kg dry matter (DM)) and 65% CC (contained 40% cottonseed cake, 35% broken chickpea and 25% chickpea husk on an as fed basis and provided 200g CP/kg DM)], D1[35% URS + 60% CC + 5% ASP (189g CP/kg DM)], D2 (35% URS +55% CC + 10% ASP) and D3 (35% URS + 50% CC + 15% ASP). Cows were fed treatments for 60 days. Dry matter intake was significantly higher (p<0.05) for cows in the D3 treatment compared with the other three treatments, however there were no significant differences in the DM digestibility of treatments. Nitrogen intake and faecal-nitrogen of cows offered the D3 treatment were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of cows offered the other three treatments. In contrast urine-nitrogen and nitrogen utilization were not significantly different among the treatments. The average milk yield (4% fat-corrected-milk) increased as the percentage of ASP was increased in the diets, however the composition of milk did not differ significantly between treatments. The costs of TDN/kg and per kg of milk was highest for the CD treatment and the lowest was found in D3 treatment (p<0.05). These results suggest that Albizia saman pods could be replace up to 15% of the commercial concentrate fed to lactating Holstein Friesian cross-bred cows without detrimental effects. © 2016 Min Aung, Yin Yin Kyawt, Moe Thida Htun, Khin San Mu and Aung Aung.
Moe N.K.T.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology |
Thwe S.M.,Ministry of Livestock |
Suzuki K.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology |
Nakai R.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology |
And 3 more authors.
Fisheries Science | Year: 2015
An antibacterial-substance-producing bacterium, namely, strain F412, was isolated from a traditional Myanmar shrimp product fermented with boiled rice. It was a gram-positive, spore-forming, and rod-shaped bacterium, and identified as Bacillus mojavensis on the basis of the gyrA sequence. The antibacterial substance of this strain was partially purified from a culture supernatant using two steps of column chromatography. This substance was found to be widely effective against gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes. The antibacterial activity of this substance was not susceptible to treatments with several proteolytic enzymes. The antibacterial activity gradually decreased with increasing treatment temperature, but it remained even after heating for 15 min at 121 °C. This antibacterial substance showed different molecular weights, as shown by the results of gel filtration and electrophoresis analyses. Staining results after electrophoresis suggest that the antibacterial substance might be a glycopeptide with an estimated molecular weight between 3.5 and 8.5 kDa. From the decrease in optical density of a culture of the L. monocytogenes treated with this antibacterial substance, it was suggested that this substance might have bacteriolytic activity. © 2015, Japanese Society of Fisheries Science.
Moe N.K.T.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology |
Thwe S.M.,Ministry of Livestock |
Shirai T.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology |
Terahara T.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology |
And 2 more authors.
Fisheries Science | Year: 2015
This study is a detailed description of the microflora of a traditional fishery product in Myanmar which is fermented with boiled rice. We approached this analysis from two viewpoints; namely, the culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. In Southeast Asia, there are various types of traditional fermented fishery products. In this study, we isolated and characterized lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from small freshwater fish (tinfoil barb) fermented with boiled rice, a typical Myanmar fermented product, to contribute to the understanding of its fermentation process. Eight fermented fishery products were purchased from different markets in Yangon. Forty-three of the 46 isolates were identified as LAB, and they were classified into two groups: 40 homofermentative and three heterofermentative isolates, on the basis of their phenotypic characteristics. From the results of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, our isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum-group, Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus futsaii, Lactobacillus reuteri,Weissella paramesenteroides, and Pediococcus pentosaceus. In addition, L. plantarum and L. farciminis were identified as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing LAB. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was also carried out using DNA samples extracted from these fermented products. In comparison with culture-dependent methods, the results of T-RFLP analysis did not seem to have major contradictions. © 2014, Japanese Society of Fisheries Science.
PubMed | University of Dschang, University of Yaounde I, Ministry of Livestock and University of Ngaoundéré
Type: | Journal: Parasites & vectors | Year: 2015
The Bafia sleeping sickness focus of Cameroon is considered as silent with no case reported for about 20years despite medical surveys performed during the last decades. In this focus, all epidemiological factors that can contribute to trypanosomes transmission are present. To update our knowledge on the current risks of Human and Animal African trypanosomiases, different trypanosome species were identified in midguts of tsetse flies captured in the Bafia focus.Tsetse flies were trapped using pyramidal traps. Each tsetse fly was identified and live flies were dissected and their midguts collected. DNA was extracted from each midgut and thereafter, blood meals and different trypanosome species were identified with molecular tools. The biological data were transported onto maps in order to have their distribution.Of the 98 traps set up, 461 Glossina palpalis palpalis were captured; 322 (69.8%) tsetse flies were dissected and 49 (15.2%) teneral flies identified. The average apparent density of tsetse flies per day was 1.18. Of the 35 (10.9%) blood meals collected, 82% were taken on pigs and 17.6% on humans. Eighty two (25.5%) trypanosome infections were identified: 56 (17.4%) T. congolense savannah, 17 (5.3%) T. congolense forest, 5 (1.6%) T. vivax and 4 (1.2%) T. brucei s.l. No infection of T. simiae and T. b. gambiense was identified. Sixty seven (81.7%) infections were single and 15 (18.3%) mixed involving one triple infection (T. congolense forest, T. brucei and T. vivax) and 14 double infections: 11T. congolense forest and T. congolense savannah, two T. congolense savannah and T. brucei, and one of T. brucei and T. vivax. The generated maps show the distribution of tsetse flies and trypanosome infections across the focus.This study has shown that animal trypanosomes remain an important problem in this region. Meanwhile, it is very likely that HAT does not seem anymore to be a public health problem in this focus. The generated maps enabled us to define high risk transmission areas for AAT, and where disease control must be focused in order to improve animal health as well as the quantity of animal proteins.
News Article | February 27, 2017
NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION TO UNITED STATES NEWSWIRE SERVICES OR FOR DISSEMINATION IN THE UNITED STATES. Emblem Corp. (TSX VENTURE:EMC) ("Emblem" OR the "Company") is pleased to announce that it has entered into a non-binding memorandum of understanding (the "MOU") with ICC International Cannabis Corporation (TSX VENTURE:ICC) ("ICC"), a licensed producer of Cannabidiol ("CBD") and other cannabis derivatives based out of Uruguay pursuant to the applicable regulatory regimes overseen by the Instituto de Regulación y Control del Cannabis ("IRCCA") and Health Canada, respectively. Subject to finalizing a definitive agreement and applicable regulatory approvals, including but not limited to those from the IRCCA, the Uruguayan Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fishery and Health Canada, commencing in 2018, Emblem will work with ICC to import CBD into Canada to help fulfill the demand in the Canadian market. Under the terms of the Agreement, both parties will be aiming to establish a cooperative framework in order to exchange technical knowledge, information, experiences and best practices regarding the cannabis industry as well as in connection with any other mutually identified opportunities, including the export of CBD by ICC to Canada and the direct purchase of such CBD by Emblem for distribution in Canada. ICC has also agreed to sell 10% of its 2018 CBD production to Emblem subject to and at prices to be determined under a definitive agreement. "This is a unique opportunity for Emblem to tap into Uruguay's lower cost production platform and we look forward to broadening this relationship into a range of diverse products. We are very pleased and look forward to working closely with ICC to further advance our objectives as a premium quality producer of medical cannabis products," noted Maxim Zavet, Vice President, Emblem Corp. "ICC's expertise and production capabilities combined with Emblem's bench-strength in quality growth, production and marketing expertise are attributes which will bode well as we continue to execute on our growth plans and enhance shareholder value." Emblem is licensed under the Access to Cannabis for Medical Purposes Regulations (the "ACMPR") to cultivate and sell medical marihuana. Emblem carries out its principal activities producing marihuana from its facilities in Paris, Ontario pursuant to the provisions of the ACMPR and the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (Canada) and its regulations. ICC has operations in Uruguay, and is focused on the licensed production, development and sale of recreational cannabis, cannabinoid extracts and by-products for medicinal uses and industrial hemp. ICC's common shares are listed for trading on the TSXV under the symbol "ICC". For more information, please see www.intcannabiscorp.com. Neither TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release. This news release contains forward-looking information, which involves known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual events to differ materially from current expectation. Emblem cautions that all forward-looking statements are inherently uncertain and that actual performance may be affected by a number of material factors, many of which are beyond Emblem's control. Such factors include those described in the Company's Filing Statement dated November 30, 2016 filed with the Canadian Securities Administrators and available on www.sedar.com. Accordingly, actual and future events, conditions and results may differ materially from the estimates, beliefs, intentions and expectations expressed or implied in the forward-looking information. Except as required under applicable securities legislation, Emblem undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise forward-looking information.
News Article | March 28, 2016
A drone about to drop something is typically a cue for widespread destruction. But that’s not the case with this F300 fixed-wing and its unusual cargo: Instead of unleashing catastrophe, the automated machine is designed to do good—by releasing a swarm of tsetse flies. This may seem peculiar at first, especially given the tsetse fly’s reputation. This African insect harbours harmful parasites called trypanosomes, spreading them to humans and animals through its bite. In humans, the resulting disease, trypanosomiasis, causes “sleeping sickness,” a potentially fatal condition that attacks the central nervous system and, as the name suggests, afflicts people with an uncontrollable urge to sleep. In livestock, it brings on “nagana,” which causes muscle wasting, paralysis, and eventual death. Losing cattle, particularly, has knock-on effects for agriculture and food security. Now Spanish drone company Embention is part of an unlikely solution in Ethiopia, where the disease ravages livestock: eradicating trypanosomosis using the very culprits responsible for its spread. To do it, the heroically-titled project Drones Against Tsetse combines drone technology with a biological control method known as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The Embention team with the drone during trials in Spain. Image: Embention SIT works by exposing male insects to radiation, which sterilises them and thus destroys their ability to breed. It’s garnered attention in recent years as a possible tool for controlling the spread of malaria via mosquitoes; now in Ethiopia it’s being applied to hundreds of thousands of male tsetse flies reared at facilities in Addis Ababa, where the project’s research headquarters lie. The work is supported by the Ethiopian Ministry of Livestock, the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency, an organisation that promotes the peaceful use of nuclear technologies in scientific research and is pioneering SIT research in many countries. The researchers have so far shown that when released into the wild, the radiated tsetse males fail to breed with females, effectively erasing the next generation and undermining the population. That leaves fewer tsetse flies around to infect humans and animals. Embention’s drone prototype—so far trialled in Spain and awaiting approval for use in Ethiopia—comes in as a way to seed the wild populations with their sterilised brethren. The drone during testing in Spain. Image: Embention The radiated flies will be loaded into boxes enclosed within long chambers that sit below the drone’s wings, explains Javier Espuch, one member of the five-strong team who developed the drone. Flying autonomously, the machine follows pre-set coordinates that pinpoint areas known to be infested with the insects: “When the drone reaches that area it automatically drops the flies,” says Espuch. The biodegradable, open-sided boxes free the insects as they fall. Boxes can be released from the wing pod at pre-arranged intervals, to control and maximise the spread of radiated insects according to each location. “Release rates can be adjusted for conditions in specific areas, something that is useful in areas with complicated topography,” said Rafael Argiles-Herrero, an entomologist at the IAEA. By repeatedly dropping non-breeders into the midst of wild swarms, the drone will gradually weaken localised populations of tsetse flies. For humans, the risk of contracting trypanosomiasis is declining in many countries. But in places like Ethiopia where livestock feel the brunt of its impact, disease-ridden animals can drastically undermine agricultural production because farmers rely on cattle to till the land. Agriculture accounts for 43 percent of Ethiopia’s GDP and provides 85 percent of its employment, so it’s a risk worth fighting. “Some 200,000 km2 of lower-lying, fertile and well rain-fed land remains under used because of tsetse infestation,” Argiles-Herrero said. These tsetse-swarmed areas will be the drone’s target. Until now, the project has relied on people to manually drop the fly boxes from an airplane over Ethiopia’s Deme River Basin, a 1,000-km2 tsetse fly hotspot. But the drone will make this process cheaper, safer, and—since it flies just 300 metres above ground—more precise, said Espuch. “To be effective, they need to fly every day, so the cost involved in it decreases a lot, because you don’t really need a trained pilot for this,” he said. The drone can also rapidly expand the release program into other tsetse-infested environments: Argiles-Herrero sees its potential in another 24,000-km2 expanse of Ethiopia’s Southern Rift Valley. When the prototype receives approval and hopefully reaches Ethiopian skies in coming months, it will be capable of raining down 5,000 insects per flight. As for the tsetse flies, they might not be its only passengers: “The same release system can be used for sterile mosquitoes,” notes Argiles-Herrero. If all goes well, malaria could be the drone’s next frontier.
News Article | February 27, 2017
ICC International Cannabis Corporation ("ICC" or the "Company") (TSX VENTURE:ICC) is pleased to announce that it has entered into a memorandum of understanding and presale agreement (the "MOU and Presale Agreement") with Emblem Corp. (TSX VENTURE:EMC)(OTCQB:EMMBF), who through a wholly-owned subsidiary, is a licensed producer of medical cannabis pursuant to the Access to Cannabis for Medical Purposes Regulations overseen by Health Canada. "We are pleased to enter into this MOU and Presale Agreement with Emblem with a view of working together to provide Canadians with a broader supply of cannabidiol ("CBD") and at competitive price points. Both ICC and Emblem foresee a potential shortage in the supply of CBD and associated products in the Canadian market. This MOU and Presale Agreement is the first step in bringing foreign CBD from a lower cost jurisdiction into Canada," commented Guillermo Delmonte, Chief Executive Officer of ICC. "In addition, Emblem brings to the table extensive knowledge of the Canadian cannabis landscape which will help ICC develop its exportation business." Pursuant to the terms of the MOU and Presale Agreement, ICC has agreed to sell 10% of its 2018 CBD production to Emblem at prices to be determined under a definitive agreement, subject to applicable regulatory approvals, including those from the TSX Venture Exchange, the Instituto de Regulación y Control del Cannabis ("IRCCA"), the Uruguayan Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fishery and Health Canada. The MOU and Presale Agreement establishes a cooperative framework under which Emblem will assist ICC with the importation of CBD into Canada and subsequently ensure distribution within Canada. The MOU and Presale Agreement provides for collaboration in the following areas: (i) production activities, including academic, scientific and technical cooperation in cannabis production and other cannabis upstream activities; (ii) exchange of starting materials and genetics, including providing for the assistance in procuring various cannabis genetics and starting materials from national and international sources, pursuant to applicable regulatory requirements; and (iii) exchange of information with respect to best practices in safety and environmental activities. The Company has operations in Uruguay, and is focused on the licensed production, development and sale of recreational cannabis, cannabinoid extracts and by-products for medicinal uses and industrial hemp. For more information, please see intcannabiscorp.com. Neither the TSX Venture Exchange ("TSXV") nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSXV) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release. Certain information in this press release may constitute forward-looking information. This information is based on current expectations that are subject to significant risks and uncertainties that are difficult to predict, including: (i) the Company's ability to obtain the requisite regulatory approvals in Canada and Uruguay, including approvals from the TSX Venture Exchange, Health Canada, the Uruguayan Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fishery and IRCCA; (ii) the Company's ability to enter into any definitive sales agreements with Emblem; (iii) the agricultural risks associated with cannabis production in Uruguay; and (iv) the ability to sell CBD at competitive price points. Actual results might differ materially from results suggested in any forward-looking statements. The Company assumes no obligation to update the forward-looking statements, or to update the reasons why actual results could differ from those reflected in the forward-looking statements unless and until required by securities laws applicable to the Company. Additional information identifying risks and uncertainties is contained in the Company's filings with the Canadian securities regulators, which filings are available at www.sedar.com.