Kang Y.-S.,Ministry of Land
Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers | Year: 2016
A TCS(Train Control System) is the core facility to ensure the safety and efficiency of train operations, it is difficult to have interoperability between the TCS suppliers. To ensure the interoperability between TCSs, there is a need for definition, validation and standardization on the system configuration, the functions of subsystems, the interface between subsystems an the system protocol. In this paper, we analyzed the completeness of the KRTCS(Korean Radio based Train Control System) specification, derived supplements what you need to apply the KRTCS specification to new urban lines. Copyright © The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers.
Ashuri B.,Georgia Institute of Technology |
Kashani H.,Georgia Institute of Technology |
Molenaar K.R.,University of Colorado at Boulder |
Lee S.,Ministry of Land |
Lu J.,Georgia Institute of Technology
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management | Year: 2012
Build-operate-transfer (BOT) is a public-private partnership (PPP) project delivery system for the financing, development, and operations of highway projects around the world. Uncertainty about future traffic demands is one of the most important risk factors in the operations phase of a BOT project. There is a considerable amount of evidence indicating that the improper consideration of this uncertainty contributes to the financial failure of BOT projects. The inherent limitation of conventional economic analysis methods contributes to this uncertainty; most notably the net present value (NPV) approach that is typically used in the economic valuation of BOT projects. In addition, the NPV approach is insufficient to determine the correct market value of minimum revenue guarantee (MRG) options. The government offers MRG options to the concessionaire as a revenue risk-sharing strategy in BOT projects. The authors apply the real options theory from finance/decision science to explicitly price MRG options in BOT projects. This real options model has several prominent attributes that make it different from NPV models. It uses a market-based option pricing approach called risk-neutral valuation method to determine the correct value of MRG options. Unlike the other models, this approach treats the risk of underestimating future traffic demands internally and adjusts for the traffic market risk in the valuation of MRG options. The authors' approach also describes a procedure for characterizing the concessionaire's economic risk profile under uncertainty about future traffic demands. In addition, it uses real options analysis to price MRG and traffic revenue cap (TRC) options as compound options and determines their effects on the concessionaire's economic risk profile. The probability distributions of when the concessionaire may request MRG and when the public sector may receive additional revenues as TRC options are also presented. Further, the distributions of the number of times that the concessionaire may request the MRG option and the number of times that the public sector may receive additional revenue are characterized. Finally, this model identifies the probability distributions of the present value of MRG options and the present value of total additional revenues recalled by the public sector. The proposed model can help public and private sectors better analyze and understand the economic risk of BOT projects under uncertainty about future traffic demands. The private sector can use this proposed model to make better entry decisions to BOT highway projects considering the level of support provided by the government. The government can also use this proposed model to identify the appropriate MRG levels to encourage private investments without comprising future budgetary strength. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Akimura S.,Ministry of Land
IATSS Research | Year: 2015
This paper aims to discuss the use of city- and transportation-related statistics in the formulation of transportation policies, focusing primarily on ensuring the healthy growth of cities and providing support for smooth economic activity in developing countries. For governments in developing and newly industrialized Asian countries, alleviating road traffic congestion represents one of the most pressing transportation policy needs. In Indonesia, for example, measures aimed at combating road traffic congestion in Jakarta were a key issue in last year's presidential elections.After detailing the close relationship between cities and transportation, this paper uses several case studies to explain the different statistical standards in developed, newly industrialized, and developing countries. The paper then discusses the statistics and analysis methods that play roles in proposing and evaluating policies and looks at the optimal performance indicators and statistics for policies, using case studies to offer concrete examples. © 2015.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2011.1.3.1-1 | Award Amount: 10.11M | Year: 2011
Earthquakes are a serious threat for many European countries, particularly those around the Mediterranean Sea. In many cities exposed to high earthquake hazard, a substantial proportion of the population still lives in buildings that do not meet modern earthquake-resistant standards. Preventive actions, such as retrofitting of structures, are essential, but they are not sufficient and cannot be applied easily on a large scale. Real-time actions focussing on decreasing the physical vulnerability and exposure of populations are a viable way to reduce earthquake risk. The primary objective of REAKT is to improve the efficiency of real-time earthquake risk mitigation methods and their capability of protecting structures, infrastructures and populations. REAKT aims to develop methodologies that will enhance the quality of information provided by earthquake forecasting, early warning and real-time vulnerability systems, as well as establishing best practices for how to use all of this information in a unified manner. In order to be used effectively, such information needs to be combined into a fully probabilistic framework, including realistic estimates of the uncertainties involved, that is suitable for decision making in real time. The REAKT consortium draws together most of the main European institutes and research groups, in addition to major non-European institutes, that are working on different aspects of earthquake early warning and probabilistic models of operational forecasting. The project is divided into 7 scientific work packages that constitute a logical sequence from, at one end, the processes involved in earthquake generation and the physics of short-term seismic changes, to the other, the threatened people. through operational earthquake forecasting, early warning and rapid assessment of damage and vulnerability, decision making and capacity building, and the application of the developed methodologies to 12 strategic test cases.
« AVnu Alliance members showcase the first multivendor interoperability demonstration of the AVnu AVB Automotive Profile | Main | Tsinghua team evaluates impact of types and arrangements of electric traction motors in fuel cell hybrid buses » Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC) has admitted to manipulating fuel consumption testing data for some 625,000 mini-cars it manufactured for sale in Japan by itself and partner Nissan. Nissan was the one who identified the discrepancies. In a statement, MMC said that with respect to the fuel consumption testing data submitted to the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT), MMC conducted testing improperly to present better fuel consumption rates than the actual rates; and that the testing method was also different from the one required by Japanese law. The affected cars are four mini-car models: the “eK Wagon” and “eK Space” manufactured by MMC; and the “Dayz” and “Dayz Roox” manufactured by MMC and supplied to Nissan Motors Corporation (NM) since June 2013. Up until the end of March 2016, MMC has sold 157,000 of the eK Wagon and eK Space and supplied 468,000 units of the Dayz and Dayz Roox to NM. Because MMC developed the applicable cars and was responsible for obtaining the relevant certifications, MMC conducted fuel consumption testing. In the process of the development for the next generation of mini-car products, Nissan examined the fuel consumption rates of the applicable cars for its own reference and found deviations in the figures. Nissan then requested MMC to review the running resistance value—the rolling resistance mainly generated by the tires and the air resistance while the vehicle is in motion—set by MMC during tests by MMC. Mitsubishi said that during the course of this review, it learned that the running resistance value used for testing provided more advantageous fuel consumption rates than the actual rates. Mitsubishi Motors has stopped production and sales of the applicable cars. Nissan also has stopped sales of the applicable cars, and MMC and Nissan will “discuss compensation” regarding this issue. Mitsubishi Motors also said that during its internal investigation, it found that the testing method which was different from the one required by Japanese law had been applied to other models manufactured by MMC for the Japanese domestic market. Mitsubishi is also beginning an investigation into products it manufactured for overseas markets. In order to conduct an investigation into these issues objectively and thoroughly, it will set up a committee consisting of only external experts. The company said it will publish the results as soon as the investigation is complete.