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Stive M.J.F.,Technical University of Delft | Fresco L.O.,University of Amsterdam | Kabat P.,Wageningen University | Parmet B.W.A.H.,The Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment | Veerman C.P.,University of Tilburg
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Civil Engineering | Year: 2011

Over two-thirds of the Netherlands' economy and half its population is below sea level. The Dutch government recently set out far-reaching recommendations on how to keep the country flood-proof over the next century given the likelihood of rising sea levels and river flows. This paper explains the recommendations, which are based on a gradual upgrading of safety standards in the light of economic growth and group casualty risk, together with triggers provided by debates and data on climate change. It concludes that protection is feasible both technically and economically, costing up to &3 billion a year, and that the approach could be useful for other low-lying areas.

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