Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
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Bcheraoui C.E.,University of Washington | Basulaiman M.,Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia | Wilson S.,University of Washington | Daoud F.,University of Washington | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Introduction: Mammography ensures early diagnosis and a better chance for treatment and recovery from breast cancer. We conducted a national survey to investigate knowledge and practices of breast cancer screening among Saudi women aged 50 years or older in order to inform the breast cancer national health programs. © 2015 El Bcheraoui et al.


El Bcheraoui C.,University of Washington | Basulaiman M.,Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia | Tuffaha M.,University of Washington | Daoud F.,University of Washington | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Public Health | Year: 2014

Objectives: In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), current data on diabetes are lacking, and a rise of the epidemic is feared, given the epidemiologic transition in the country. To inform public health authorities on the current status of the diabetes epidemic, we analyzed data from the Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS).Methods: Saudi Health Interview Survey is a cross-sectional national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. A total of 10,735 participants completed a health questionnaire and were invited to the local health clinics for biomedical exams.Results: 1,745,532 (13.4 %) Saudis aged 15 years or older have diabetes. Among those, 57.8, 20.2, 16.6, and 5.4 % are undiagnosed, treated uncontrolled, treated controlled, and untreated, respectively. Males, older individuals, and those who were previously diagnosed with hypertension or hypercholesterolemia were more likely to be diabetic.Conclusions: Our findings call for increased awareness of pre-diabetes, diabetes, and undiagnosed diabetes in KSA. Combatting diabetes and other non-communicable diseases should be the task of the Ministry of Health and other ministries as well, to offer a comprehensive socio-cultural approach to fighting this epidemic. © 2014, Swiss School of Public Health.


El Bcheraoui C.,University of Washington | Memish Z.A.,Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia | Tuffaha M.,University of Washington | Daoud F.,University of Washington | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2015

Current data on hypertension in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are lacking. We conducted a national survey to inform decision-makers on the current magnitude of the epidemic. We measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 10,735 Saudis aged 15 years or older and interviewed them through a national multistage survey. We used multivariate logistic regressions to describe sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors of hypertensive, borderline hypertensive, and undiagnosed hypertensive Saudis. We found that 15.2% and 40.6% of Saudis were hypertensive or borderline hypertensive, respectively. Risk of hypertension increased among men, with age, obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. 57.8% of hypertensive Saudis were undiagnosed. These were more likely to be male, older, and diagnosed with diabetes. Among participants diagnosed with hypertension, 78.9% reported taking medication for their condition. About 45% of participants on medication for hypertension had their blood pressure controlled. The prevalence of hypertension and borderline hypertension is very high in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, control of hypertension is poor. With the majority of hypertensive Saudis being unaware of their condition, a national plan is needed to increase utilization of freely available screening, preventive, and medical services. © 2014 Charbel El Bcheraoui et al.


Moradi-Lakeh M.,University of Washington | El Bcheraoui C.,University of Washington | Tuffaha M.,University of Washington | Daoud F.,University of Washington | And 6 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2015

Background: Tobacco consumption is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The Saudi Ministry of Health started a national tobacco control program in 2002 with increased and intensified efforts after joining the World Health Organization Framework Convention for Tobacco Control in 2005. Methods: In order to assess the status of tobacco consumption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), we conducted a survey on 10735 individuals aged 15 years or older (5253 men and 5482 women) which was performed between April and June 2013. The Saudi Health Interview Survey had a multistage sampling and was nationally representative. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews. The survey included questions on socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. Results: Overall prevalence of current smoking was 12.2 % and males were more likely to smoke than females (21.5 % vs. 1.1 %). Mean age of smoking initiation was 19.1 years (±6.5 years) with 8.9 % of ever smokers starting before the age of 15 years. Daily shisha smoking was reported by 4.3 % of the population (7.3 % of men and 1.3 % of women). Around 1.4 % of population (2.6 % of men and 0.1 % of women) were daily smokers of cigarette/cigar and shisha. Receiving advice for quitting smoking by health care professionals during the last 12 months was reported by 53.2 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 49.8-56.5) of ever smokers. Among ever smokers, 51.3 % of individuals reportedly attempted to quit smoking during the last 12 months. Of those, 25.3 % were successful by the time of the survey. Around 23.3 % of the entire population, 32.3 % of men and 13.5 % of women, were exposed to secondhand smoke for at least one day during the past 7 days at home, work, or school. Conclusions: Although the indicators of tobacco consumption in KSA are better than most of the countries of the Middle East region and high-income countries, there are many potential areas for improvement. Our findings call for the development and implementation of programs to prevent smoking initiation and encourage quitting. To achieve its health goals, KSA may consider increasing taxation on tobacco products as well as other measures. © 2015 Moradi-Lakeh et al.


Memish Z.A.,Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia | Jaber S.,University of Washington | Mokdad A.H.,University of Washington | AlMazroa M.A.,Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia | And 2 more authors.
Preventing Chronic Disease | Year: 2014

Introduction: We report the burden of disease and risk factors measured by causes of death, years of life lost attributable to premature mortality (YLLs), years of life lived with disability (YLDs), and disability- adjusted life years (DALYs) for 1990, 2005, and 2010 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: We used the Global Burden of Diseases 2010 (GBD 2010) methodology to estimate the country-level burden of disease in KSA. We used data from systematic reviews of the literature, household survey data, antenatal clinic surveillance data, reportable disease notifications, disease registries, hospital admissions data, outpatient visit data, population-based cancer registries, active screening data, and other administrative data. Results: Noncommunicable diseases and road traffic injuries became the leading cause of death and disability in KSA in 2010. Elevated body mass index was the leading risk factor for disease (7.02% for males and 4.61% for females in 2010). High glucose levels were the second leading disease risk factor for females (3.28%) and third for males (6.25%) in 2010. Preterm birth complications were the main cause for DALYs in 1990; however, in 2010, the leading cause of DALYs for males was road traffic injuries (12.40%) and for females it was major depressive disorder (7.88%). Conclusion: KSA is facing a rising burden of noncommunicable diseases and road traffic injuries as a result of rapid changes in behaviors. Our results demonstrate the need for major intervention to reduce these burdens and to engage other sectors of the government and the community in these efforts.


Memish Z.A.,Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia | El Bcheraoui C.E.,University of Washington | Tuffaha M.,University of Washington | Robinson M.,University of Washington | And 7 more authors.
Preventing Chronic Disease | Year: 2014

Introduction: Data on obesity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) are nonexistent, making it impossible to determine whether the efforts of the Saudi Ministry of Health are having an effect on obesity trends. To determine obesity prevalence and associated factors in the KSA, we conducted a national survey on chronic diseases and their risk factors. Methods: We interviewed 10,735 Saudis aged 15 years or older (51.1% women) through a multistage survey. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, health-related habits and behaviors, diet, physical activity, chronic diseases, access to and use of health care, and anthropometric measurements were collected through computer-assisted personal interviews. We first compared sociodemographic factors and body mass index between men and women. Next, we conducted a sex-specific analysis for obesity and its associated factors using backward elimination multivariate logistic regression models. We used SAS 9.3 for the statistical analyses and to account for the complex sampling design. Results: Of the 10,735 participants evaluated, 28.7% were obese (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2). Prevalence of obesity was higher among women (33.5% vs 24.1%). Among men, obesity was associated with marital status, diet, physical activity, diagnoses of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. Among women, obesity was associated with marital status, education, history of chronic conditions, and hypertension. Conclusion: Obesity remains strongly associated with diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension in the KSA, although the epidemic's characteristics differ between men and women.


PubMed | University of Washington and Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Type: | Journal: Journal of public health (Oxford, England) | Year: 2015

We conducted a large national survey in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 2013. We report on the health status of Saudi women and their health challenges.A total of 10 735 participants, including 5482 women, completed the survey and were invited to local health clinics for biomedical exams.About 33.5% of women were obese and 28.0% were overweight. Hypertension was higher among women who were separated, divorced or widowed [adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-2.4], were obese (AOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.6-3.0) and had never received a routine medical exam or last received one prior to the last 2 years (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3-2.4). Older women (AOR = 1.0; 95% CI: 1.0-1.1) and those who were separated, divorced or widowed (AOR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3) were more likely to be diabetics. A large proportion of diabetic women were undiagnosed (48.4%), and 27.8% of those receiving treatment had uncontrolled diabetes.Our study revealed that women need to improve their health behaviors in order to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in the Kingdom. Saudi women need to be involved in the design and implementation of disease prevention and health promotion programs.


PubMed | University of Washington and Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of family medicine and primary care | Year: 2015

It is unknown whether Saudis receive health examinations periodically. To inform health authorities on the health-seeking behavior of the Saudi population, we investigated patterns of periodic health examination (PHE) use by Saudis.We conducted a nationally representative multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older on sociodemographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, and self-reported chronic conditions. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to measure associations between PHE and sociodemographic, behavioral, and health characteristics.Between April and June 2013, a total of 12,000 households were contacted, and 10,735 participants completed the survey (response rate of 89.4%). Among participants, 2542 (22.9%), representing more than 2.7 million Saudis aged 15 years or older, received a PHE during the past 2 years. Moreover, 7463 (73.5%) participants, representing 9.1 million Saudis, visited a healthcare setting in the past 2 years due to illness or injury. The likelihood of receiving a PHE in the past 2 years increased with age, education, being married, consumption of five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, diagnoses of prediabetes, diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia, and a visit to a healthcare setting within the last 2 years due to an illness or an injury.This is the first national study to investigate the use of PHE in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) where healthcare is freely available. Few Saudis seek preventive healthcare and most healthcare visits are for injuries or sickness. KSA may reduce its health expenditures by routinizing PHE and detecting chronic conditions at early stages.


PubMed | University of Washington and Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Type: | Journal: BMC family practice | Year: 2016

The health status of the young people is an important indicator for future health and health care needs of the next generation. In order to understand the health risk factors of Saudi youth, we analyzed data from a large national survey in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.The Saudi Health Information Survey sample included 2382 youths aged 15 to 24 years old. The questionnaire included information on socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, risky behaviors, chronic conditions, functional status, health care utilization, and anthropometric and blood pressure measurements.Only 45.9% of men and 48.4% of women had normal body mass index (BMI). Men were more likely than women to smoke cigarettes or shisha. The prevalence of daily consumption of at least five servings of fruits and vegetables was 6.6%. The prevalence of no or insufficient physical activity was 41.8% in men and 75.6% in women (P<0.001). Around 40% of men and 25% of women had abnormal blood pressure. Mean BMI and prevalence of insufficient physical activity, current smoking, and hypertension washigher in 20-to 24-year-olds than younger ages. Women were more likely to report that they never use seatbelts (82.2% vs. 65.4%).The prevalence of modifiable risk factors and risky driving behaviors is very high among Saudi youth. If these current behaviors are not reversed during this crucial age period, the burden of disease and injuries will rise in the future. Our findings call for developing health prevention programs for youths in Saudi Arabia.


PubMed | University of Washington and Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety | Year: 2016

Chronic diseases and their risk factors are believed to be common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Most of them require long-term management through medications. We examined patterns of medication use for chronic health conditions (CHC) in KSA based on a national survey.The Saudi Health Interview Survey was a cross-sectional nationally representative household survey of 10,735 individuals aged 15years or older in 2013. The survey consisted of a detailed health questionnaire. Current medications for CHC were assessed and classified based on the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification.Among the respondents, 11.8% (standard error=0.4) reported taking at least one medication for CHC with a mean number of 2.05 (standard error=0.05) medication items. In addition to older age (odds ratio=1.94 per each decade, 95%CI: 1.83-2.05) and male gender (odds ratio=1.22, 95%CI: 1.06-1.41), those with higher income were more likely to take medication. The most common medicines were drugs used for diabetes (A10 Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code). The top 20 drugs accounted for about 80% of all medications. Only 32.7% of medications were reported to be used exactly as prescribed.Compared with the prevalence of CHC in KSA, our study indicates a potential underuse of medications as well as non-adherence to the directions for use. Interventions such as improved clinical guidelines for healthcare providers to increase utilization of necessary medication and educational programs to improve patients adherence are needed.

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