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Putrajaya, Malaysia

Ahmad N.S.,Ministry of Health Malaysia | Islahudin F.,National University of Malaysia | Paraidathathu T.,National University of Malaysia
Journal of Diabetes Investigation | Year: 2014

Aims/Introduction: The aim of the present study was to determine the status of glycemic control and identify factors associated with good glycemic control among diabetic patients treated at primary health clinics. Materials and Methods: A systematic random sample of 557 patients was selected from seven clinics in the Hulu Langat District. Data were collected from patients' medication records, glycemic control tests and structured questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to predict factors associated with good glycemic control. Results: Variables associated with good glycemic control included age (odds ratio 1.033; 95% confidence interval 1.008-1.059) and duration of diabetes mellitus (odds ratio 0.948; 95% confidence interval 0.909-0.989). Compared with the patients who were receiving a combination of insulin and oral antidiabetics, those receiving monotherapy (odds ratio 4.797; 95% confidence interval 1.992-11.552) and a combination of oral antidiabetics (odds ratio 2.334; 95% confidence interval 1.018-5.353) were more likely to have good glycemic control. In the present study, the proportion of patients with good glycemic control was lower than that in other published studies. Older patients with a shorter duration of diabetes who were receiving monotherapy showed better glycemic control. Conclusions: Although self-management behavior did not appear to influence glycemic control, diabetic patients should be consistently advised to restrict sugar intake, exercise, stop smoking and adhere to medication instructions. Greater effort by healthcare providers in the primary health clinics is warranted to help a greater number of patients achieve good glycemic control. © 2013 The Authors. Source

Hassan H.A.,Ministry of Health Malaysia | Aziz N.A.,University Technology of MARA | Hassan Y.,University Technology of MARA | Hassan F.,University Technology of MARA
International Journal of COPD | Year: 2014

Background: Lack of awareness among ex-smokers on the benefits of sustaining smoking cessation may be the main cause of their smoking relapse. This study explored health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and hospital admission amongst chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients according to the duration of smoking cessation. Materials and methods: This study recruited COPD patients from a chest clinic who agreed to participate in a medication therapy-adherence program from January to June 2013. They were interviewed during their visits to obtain information regarding their smoking history and HRQoL. They were divided into three groups according to smoking status (sustained quitters, quit ≥5 years; quitters, quit <5 years; and smokers, smoking at least one cigarette/day). The effects of the duration of cessation on HRQoL and hospital admission were analyzed using a multinomial logistic model. Results: A total of 117 participants with moderate COPD met the inclusion criteria, who were comprised of 41 sustained quitters, 40 quitters, and 36 smokers. Several features were similar across the groups. Most of them were married elderly men (aged >64 years) with low-to-middle level of education, who smoked more than 33 cigarettes per day and had high levels of adherence to the medication regimen. The results showed that sustained quitters were less likely to have respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm and dyspnea) than smokers (odds ratio 0.02, confidence interval 0-0.12; P<0.001). The hospital admission rate per year was increased in quitters compared to smokers (odds ratio 4.5, confidence interval 1.91-10.59; P<0.005). Conclusion: A longer duration of quitting smoking will increase the benefits to COPD patients, even if they experience increased episodic respiratory symptoms in the early period of the cessation. Thus, the findings of this study show the benefits of early smoking cessation. © 2014 Abu Hassan et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited. Source

Dunn R.A.,Texas A&M University | Tan A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Samad I.,Ministry of Health Malaysia
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2010

Objectives: Breast self-examination (BSE) was evaluated to see if it is a significant predictor of mammography. Methods: The decisions of females above age 40 in Malaysia to test for breast cancer using BSE and mammography are jointly modeled using a bivariate probit so that unobserved attributes affecting mammography usage are also allowed to affect BSE. Data come from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1, which was collected between September 2005 and February 2006. Results: Having ever performed BSE is positively associated with having ever undergone mammography among Malay (adjusted OR=7.343, CI=2.686, 20.079) and Chinese (adjusted OR=3.466, CI=1.330, 9.031) females after adjusting for household income, education, marital status and residential location. Neither relationship is affected by jointly modelling the decision problem. Although the association is also positive for Indian females when mammography is modelled separately (adjusted OR=5.959, CI=1.546 - 22.970), the relationship is reversed when both decisions are modelled separately. Conclusions: De-emphasizing BSE in Malaysia may reduce mammography screening among a large proportion of the population. Previous work on the issue in developed countries may not apply to nations with limited resources. Source

Rashid R.M.A.,University of Malaya | Dahlui M.,University of Malaya | Mohamed M.,Ministry of Health Malaysia | Gertig D.,Victoria Cervical Cancer Registry
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

Cervical cancer is the third most common form of cancer that strikes Malaysian women. The National Cancer Registry in 2006 and 2007 reported that the age standardized incidence (ASR) of cervical cancer was 12.2 and 7.8 per 100,000 women, respectively. The cumulative risk of developing cervical cancer for a Malaysian woman is 0.9 for 74 years. Among all ethnic groups, the Chinese experienced the highest incidence rate in 2006, followed by Indians and Malays. The percentage cervical cancer detected at stage I and II was 55% (stage I: 21.0%, stage II: 34.0 %, stage III: 26.0 % and stage IV: 19.0 %). Data from Ministry of Health Malaysia (2006) showed a 58.9 % estimated coverage of pap smear screening conducted among those aged 30-49 years. Only a small percentage of women aged 50-59 and 50-65 years old were screened, 14% and 13.8% coverage, respectively. Incidence of cervicalcancer was highest (71.6%) among those in the 60-65 age group (MOH, 2003). Currently, there is no organized population-based screening program available for the whole of Malaysia. A pilot project was initiated in 2006, to move from opportunistic cervical screening ofwomen who attend antenatal and postnatal visits to a population based approach to be ableto monitor the women through the screening pathway and encourage women at highest risk tobe screened. The project was modelled on the screening program in Australia with some modifications to suit the Malaysian setting. Substantial challenges have been identified, particularly in relation to information systems for call and recall of women, as well as laboratory reporting and quality assurance. A cost-effective locally-specific approach to organized screening, that will provide the infrastructure for increasing participation in the cervical cancer screening program, is urgently required. Source

Tan A.K.G.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Yen S.T.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Feisul M.I.,Ministry of Health Malaysia
International Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Objective To investigate the roles of sociodemographic and health lifestyle factors in affecting body mass index (BMI) across ethnic groups in Malaysia. Methods Data are obtained from 2,436 observations from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1. The multi-ethnic sample is segmented into Malay, Chinese, and Indian/other ethnicities. Ordered probit analysis is conducted and marginal effects of sociodemographic and health lifestyle variables on BMI calculated. Results Malays between 41 and 58 years are more likely to be overweight or obese than their 31-40 years counterparts, while the opposite is true among Chinese. Retirees of Chinese and Indian/other ethnicities are less likely to be obese and more likely to have normal BMI than those between 31 and 40 years. Primary educated Chinese are more likely to be overweight or obese, while tertiaryeducated Malays are less likely to suffer from similar weight issues as compared to those with only junior high school education. Affluent Malays and Chinese are more likely to be overweight than their low-middle income cohorts. Family illness history is likely to cause overweightness or obesity, irrespective of ethnicity. Malay cigarette smokers have lower overweight and obesity probabilities than non-cigarette smokers. Conclusions There exists a need for flexible policies to address cross-ethnic differences in the sociodemographic and health-lifestyle covariates of BMI. © Swiss School of Public Health 2011. Source

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