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Welfare, South Korea

Tsai C.-F.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Kuo C.-H.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Shih D.Y.-C.,Ministry of Health and Welfare
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis | Year: 2015

A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is developed to simultaneously determine 20 synthetic dyes (New Coccine, Indigo Carmine, Erythrosine, Tartrazine, Sunset Yellow FCF, Fast Green FCF, Brilliant Blue FCF, Allura Red AC, Amaranth, Dimethyl Yellow, Fast Garnet GBC, Para Red, Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, Sudan IV, Sudan Orange G, Sudan Red 7B, Sudan Red B, and Sudan Red G) in food samples. This method offers high sensitivity and selectivity through the selection of two fragment ion transitions under multiple reaction monitoring mode to satisfy the requirements of both quantitation and qualitation. Using LC-MS/MS, the newly developed extraction protocol used in this study is rapid and simple and does not require the use of solid-phase extraction cartridges. The linearities and recoveries of the method are observed at the concentration range of 0.10-200 μg/kg and more than 90% for all dyes, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to screen 18 commercial chili powders and six commercial syrup-preserved fruits purchased from retail establishments in Taipei City. The results show that three legal food dyes, Tartrazine, and/or Sunset Yellow FCF, and/or New Coccine, are present in some syrup-preserved fruits. Amaranth, an illegal food dye in certain countries but declared illegal in Taiwan, is found in an imported syrup-preserved fruit. Copyright © 2014, Food and Drug Administration, Taiwan. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved. Source


Lee K.-H.,Ministry of Health and Welfare | Bowen S.,University of Washington
International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction | Year: 2015

We examined the relationship between the “Big-Five” personality factors and levels of mindfulness at baseline, and the predictive value of these personality factors on changes in mindfulness after eight weeks of mindfulness-based training. All participants were followed-up for eight weeks. Sixty-three incarcerated adult males with drug abuse disorders completed self-report assessments of mindfulness, depression, and personality. Four of the five personality factors (Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism) were significantly associated with Decentering of mindfulness at baseline. Neuroticism and OPENNESS to Experience were significantly related to Curiosity. There was a significant baseline-to-post-course difference on the Decentering subscale; however, the results unexpectedly contradicted our hypothesis. There were no significant baseline-to-post-course differences on the Curiosity subscale. After controlling for post-course depression, none of the Big-Five personality factor traits significantly predicted post-course Curiosity and Decentering. The effects of the Big-Five personality factors on outcomes of mindfulness-based intervention for drug abusers were preliminarily confirmed, but a randomized longitudinal study is required to reconfirm our findings. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Kong S.,Ministry of Health and Welfare
Journal of the Korean Medical Association | Year: 2010

Emergency Medical Services, more commonly known as Emergency Medical Services (EMS), is a system that provides emergency medical care and public safety. EMS is infamous as a market failure, which cannot reach the break-even point financially due to operation of 24 hours and 365 days, and maintenance personnel. Thus, government's intervention is inevitable to balance the allocation of medical resources. Vulnerable area still exists for transport and patient care, and quality of EMS is behind the advanced countries. Furthermore, professionalism of 119 ambulance service is below par, also survival rate of cardiac arrest patient is low in Korea. To solve these problems, the Ministry of Health and Welfare plans to provide EMS within 30minutes by resolving of emergency vulnerable area for EMS. To improve quality of emergency medical centers, criteria of evaluation will be changed from structure to process and outcome. According to the result, differential financial support will be applied. To lower the preventable death rate as of advanced countries, 6 regional trauma centers will be run 24-hours operation for severe trauma patients. Professional education programs for emergency medical technician such as 119 providers will be reinforced. The quality management of medical consulting will be improved by appointment of medical consultants in 119 situation rooms. Also, medical safety for individuals suffering from sudden cardiac arrest will be provided in the place where large numbers of people gather by installing 1,000 Automatic External Defibrillator equipment every year. © Korean Medical Association. Source


Yang C.-C.,National Yang Ming University | Yang C.-C.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Yao C.-A.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Yang J.-C.,National Taiwan Normal University | Chien C.-T.,Ministry of Health and Welfare
Toxicological Sciences | Year: 2014

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induce systemic inflammation where oxidative damage plays a key role in multiple organ failure. Because of the neutralization of LPS toxicity by sialic acid (SA), we determined its effect and mechanisms on repurified LPS (rLPS)-evoked acute renal failure. We assessed the effect of intravenous SA (10 mg/kg body weight) on rLPS-induced renal injury in female Wistar rats by evaluating blood and kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS) responses, renal and systemic hemodynamics, renal function, histopathology, and molecular mechanisms. SA can interact with rLPS through a high binding affinity. rLPS dose- and time-dependently reduced arterial blood pressure, renal microcirculation and blood flow, and increased vascular resistance in the rats. rLPS enhanced monocyte/macrophage (ED-1) infiltration and ROS production and impaired kidneys by triggering p-IRE1α/p-JNK/CHOP/GRP78/ATF4-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Bax/PARP-mediated apoptosis, Beclin-1/Atg5-Atg12/LC3-II-mediated autophagy, and caspase 1/IL-1Β-mediated pyroptosis in the kidneys. SA treatment at 30 min, but not 60 min after rLPS stimulation, gp91 siRNA and protein kinase C-α (PKC) inhibitor efficiently rescued rLPS-induced acute renal failure via inhibition of TLR4/PKC/NADPH oxidase gp91-mediated ER stress, apoptosis, autophagy and pyroptosis in renal proximal tubular cells, and rat kidneys. In response to rLPS or IFNγ, the enhanced Atg5, FADD, LC3-II, and PARP expression can be inhibited by Atg5 siRNA. Albumin (10 mg/kg body weight) did not rescue rLPS-induced injury. In conclusion, early treatment (within 30 min) of SA attenuates rLPS-induced renal failure via the reduction in LPS toxicity and subsequently inhibiting rLPS-activated TLR4/PKC/gp91/ER stress/apoptosis/autophagy/pyroptosis signaling. © The Author 2014. Source


Chen H.-Y.,Mackay Memorial Hospital | Chang H.-R.,Ministry of Health and Welfare | Lang H.-C.,National Yang Ming University
Patient Preference and Adherence | Year: 2014

Objectives: To evaluate the effects on physicians' prescribing behavior and on the therapeutic outcome of non-insulin-dependent diabetes patients of substituting different generic brands of metformin. Methods: We adopt a retrospective cohort study involving 280 type-2 diabetes patients who regularly used the outpatient services of one medical center and who had changed metformin brands five times between 2003 and 2008. The aim was to examine the effects of switching brands. The generalized estimating equation was used to determine whether drug brand switching affected patient glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, their prescribed daily dose, or their adherence to medication with metformin. Results: HbA1c levels increased from 7.91 to 8.34 throughout the study period, although it was found that brand switching did not adversely affect HbA1c levels after controlling for patient characteristics and the time course of the study. Furthermore, the prescribed daily dose of metformin was stable throughout the study period, and was approximately 0.8 of the defined daily dose. Finally, although adherence was significantly higher with the original metformin than with the four generic brands, patients still maintained high levels of adherence of >0.8. Conclusion: Although switching between different brands of metformin slightly affected the prescribing behavior of the physicians, there was no unfavorable effect on patient HbA1c levels. Thus, the policy of substituting between different generic brands of metformin is a good cost-effective approach that does not adversely affect the quality of diabetes patient care. © 2014 Chen et al. Source

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