Yang C.-C.,National Yang Ming University |
Yang C.-C.,National Taiwan University Hospital |
Yao C.-A.,National Taiwan University Hospital |
Yang J.-C.,National Taiwan Normal University |
Chien C.-T.,Ministry of Health and Welfare
Toxicological Sciences | Year: 2014
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induce systemic inflammation where oxidative damage plays a key role in multiple organ failure. Because of the neutralization of LPS toxicity by sialic acid (SA), we determined its effect and mechanisms on repurified LPS (rLPS)-evoked acute renal failure. We assessed the effect of intravenous SA (10 mg/kg body weight) on rLPS-induced renal injury in female Wistar rats by evaluating blood and kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS) responses, renal and systemic hemodynamics, renal function, histopathology, and molecular mechanisms. SA can interact with rLPS through a high binding affinity. rLPS dose- and time-dependently reduced arterial blood pressure, renal microcirculation and blood flow, and increased vascular resistance in the rats. rLPS enhanced monocyte/macrophage (ED-1) infiltration and ROS production and impaired kidneys by triggering p-IRE1α/p-JNK/CHOP/GRP78/ATF4-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Bax/PARP-mediated apoptosis, Beclin-1/Atg5-Atg12/LC3-II-mediated autophagy, and caspase 1/IL-1Β-mediated pyroptosis in the kidneys. SA treatment at 30 min, but not 60 min after rLPS stimulation, gp91 siRNA and protein kinase C-α (PKC) inhibitor efficiently rescued rLPS-induced acute renal failure via inhibition of TLR4/PKC/NADPH oxidase gp91-mediated ER stress, apoptosis, autophagy and pyroptosis in renal proximal tubular cells, and rat kidneys. In response to rLPS or IFNγ, the enhanced Atg5, FADD, LC3-II, and PARP expression can be inhibited by Atg5 siRNA. Albumin (10 mg/kg body weight) did not rescue rLPS-induced injury. In conclusion, early treatment (within 30 min) of SA attenuates rLPS-induced renal failure via the reduction in LPS toxicity and subsequently inhibiting rLPS-activated TLR4/PKC/gp91/ER stress/apoptosis/autophagy/pyroptosis signaling. © The Author 2014.
Wang S.-I.,National Health Research Institute |
Shi H.-C.,Ministry of Health and Welfare |
Chiou S.-J.,National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety | Year: 2014
Purpose: Tuberculosis is a health threat in Taiwan. Previous research is mainly focused on patients' compliance, and research on medicines prescribed by physicians is limited. This study endeavors to present the prescription patterns of Tuberculosis treatment and its adherence to the guidelines. Methods: Newly diagnosed Tuberculosis patients in 2008 were selected from the National Health Insurance claims database. We divided prescriptions into standard prescriptions, non-standard prescriptions, and second-line medicines on the basis of the fourth edition of Taiwan's guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Tuberculosis. We first described the distribution of these prescriptions of TB regimen in the first 2months among the new patients. Furthermore, a graphical presentation was used to visualize physician's complex prescription behavior. Results: In total, 11,164 patients were included in this analysis; 28,291 prescriptions were prescribed during the first 2months after diagnosis. Among these prescriptions, 53.34% were standard prescriptions, 45.81% were non-standard prescriptions, and 0.84% were second-line medicines. Prescribing medicines for 28days at the first visit was the most common scenario. Approximately 35 patterns can be derived from the prescriptions in Taiwan. Conclusions: The prescriptions suggested in the guideline are considered to have better therapeutic effects. However, this study revealed that approximately 55% prescriptions adhered to the regimen recommended by the guidelines. The Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety results of this study can help to explore possible reasons to the poor control of the disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
News Article | November 28, 2016
SEOUL, Korea, Nov 28, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- Nature Cell Co., Ltd. (Nature Cell) (CEO, Dr. Jeongchan Ra), a leading biotechnology company, announces AstroStem's approval for Phase I and Phase II clinical trials for treatment of Alzheimer's disease by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on November 23. AstroStem is a therapeutic agent for adult stem cells that collects about 10g of fat from the patient's own abdominal subcutaneous tissue and separates only pure stem cells into a finished product, which is repeatedly administered intravenously to the patient. Production of the approved clinical trial materials will be done by the RBio Biostar Stem Cell Research Institute (Biostar), which has been developing technology for dementia reduction for more than 10 years. Dr. Jeongchan Ra of Biostar has collaborated with professor Yoohun Suh, a global brain research leader, to isolate the stem cell, which was cultivated with patented technology as an animal model for Alzheimer's disease. The results were published in PLoS One, a respected scientific journal, and recognized worldwide. The approval of the US FDA is significant milestone and is the first time in the world that a commercial clinical trial in which autologous adipose-derived stem cells are cultured and repeatedly administered intravenously has been approved. Biostar's technology for repeated intravenous administration of stem cells has already been applied more than 3,000 times in the past year to patients with autoimmune diseases who have been approved by Japan's Ministry of Health and Welfare. The clinical approval of Nature Cell's Alzheimer's disease treatment reconfirmed that the stem cells were cultured in Korea and received intravenous administration to U.S. patients during JontStem's Phase II clinical trial in the U.S. It is a great result that affirms the technological developments of the RBio Biostar Stem Cell Research Institute: Dr. Jeongchan Ra, who is in charge of the Alzheimer's disease Conversion Project, said, "The JointStem treatment of degenerative arthritis, AstroStem, a treatment for Alzheimer's disease, passing the U.S. FDA's examination and gaining approval to conduct clinical trials is a great opportunity. Adult stem cells are definitely Korea's future growth engine, so I ask for encouragement and support from the government and people." Dr. Jeongchan Ra talks more about the hope of overcoming dementia in his book "Dementia, It Has A Hope Now". To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/nature-cell-co-ltd-receives-us-fda-approval-for-phase-i-and-ii-alzheimers-clinical-trial-300368572.html
Chang F.-C.,National Taiwan Normal University |
Sung H.-Y.,University of California at San Francisco |
Zhu S.-H.,University of California at San Diego |
Chiou S.-T.,Ministry of Health and Welfare
Addiction | Year: 2014
Aims: In January 2009, the government of Taiwan amended the 1997 Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act by extending smoke-free areas to include almost all enclosed work-places and public places, adding graphic health warnings to cigarette packages, totally banning tobacco advertisements, promotion and sponsorship and increasing tobacco taxes. This study examined the impact of the 2009 amended Act on smoking cessation in Taiwan. Design: Taiwan Adult Tobacco Surveys 2007 and 2010, each with a nationally representative sample of adults aged 18 years and older (n=16588, and n=16295, respectively). Participants: All recent active smokers (current smokers plus former smokers who quit smoking within the past 12 months) were used for the analyses (n=3783 in 2007, and n=2777 in 2010). Measurements: Quit attempt rate and annual cessation rate (defined as having succeeded in quitting for at least 3 months) among recent active smokers were compared between the pre-Act (2007) and post-Act (2010) periods. Findings: The quit attempt rate increased significantly from 39.4% in 2007 to 42.9% in 2010. The annual cessation rate increased significantly from 7.1 to 8.9%. A multivariate analysis, controlling for demographic characteristics, showed that the implementation of the 2009 Act was associated with an increase in the quit attempt rate [odds ratio (OR)=1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.03-1.25] and the annual cessation rate (OR=1.28; 95% CI=1.08-1.53). Conclusions: The comprehensive tobacco control programme introduced in 2009 in Taiwan, which combined smoke-free legislation with a tobacco tax increase, graphic health warning labels and a total ban on tobacco advertisements, was associated with increases in quit attempt rate and annual cessation rate. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Huang Y.-F.,Ministry of Health and Welfare |
Huang Y.-F.,National Taiwan University |
Yang J.-Y.,Ministry of Health and Welfare |
Nelson K.E.,Johns Hopkins University |
And 6 more authors.
PLoS Medicine | Year: 2014
Background:Harm reduction strategies for combating HIV epidemics among people who inject drugs (PWID) have been implemented in several countries. However, large-scale studies using sensitive measurements of HIV incidence and intervention exposures in defined cohorts are rare. The aim of this study was to determine the association between harm reduction programs and HIV incidence among PWID.Methods and Findings:The study included two populations. For 3,851 PWID who entered prison between 2004 and 2010 and tested HIV positive upon incarceration, we tested their sera using a BED HIV-1 capture enzyme immunoassay to estimate HIV incidence. Also, we enrolled in a prospective study a cohort of 4,357 individuals who were released from prison via an amnesty on July 16, 2007. We followed them with interviews at intervals of 6-12 mo and by linking several databases. A total of 2,473 participants who were HIV negative in January 2006 had interviews between then and 2010 to evaluate the association between use of harm reduction programs and HIV incidence. We used survival methods with attendance at methadone clinics as a time-varying covariate to measure the association with HIV incidence. We used a Poisson regression model and calculated the HIV incidence rate to evaluate the association between needle/syringe program use and HIV incidence. Among the population of PWID who were imprisoned, the implementation of comprehensive harm reduction programs and a lower mean community HIV viral load were associated with a reduced HIV incidence among PWID. The HIV incidence in this population of PWID decreased from 18.2% in 2005 to 0.3% in 2010. In an individual-level analysis of the amnesty cohort, attendance at methadone clinics was associated with a significantly lower HIV incidence (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.06-0.67), and frequent users of needle/syringe program services had lower HIV incidence (0% in high NSP users, 0.5% in non NSP users). In addition, no HIV seroconversions were detected among prison inmates.Conclusions:Although our data are affected by participation bias, they strongly suggest that comprehensive harm- reduction services and free treatment were associated with reversal of a rapidly emerging epidemic of HIV among PWID.Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. © 2014 Huang et al.
Kim D.S.H.L.,CORE , Inc. |
Kim J.Y.,Ministry of Health and Welfare |
Han Y.,Konkuk University
Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery | Year: 2012
Neurodegeneration is a term used to describe progressive deterioration of structure and/or function of neurons that affects different parts of the central nervous system and leads to eventual death. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD), and Down's syndrome (DS), multiple sclerosis (MS), glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and diabetic encephalopathy (DE). Although the initial events that trigger these disorders may be different from each other, they share similar biochemical reactions that lead to neurodegeneration. Curcuminoids, polyphenol compounds from turmeric (Curcuma longa), possess diverse biological properties that modulate debilitating biochemical processes involved in AD that include attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses to inflammatory cytokines, COX-2, and iNOS. Curcuminoids also bind to β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques to inhibit amyloid accumulation and aggregation in the brain, in addition to inhibiting the toxic Aβ oligomer formation and oligomer-dependent Aβ toxicity. These properties can be further elaborated to DS, glaucoma and AMD. Curcuminoids also prevent α-synuclein aggregation in PD; attenuate ROS-induced COX-2 expression in ALS; ameliorate the symptoms of MS, DE and traumatic brain injury, in addition to neurodamages caused by heavy metal poisoning. These results demonstrate curcuminoids may be potentially effective therapeutic means to treat neurodegenerative diseases. A bulk of patents discloses methods to improve bioavailability of curcuminoids for therapeutic development. This review provides a comprehensive description on the current progress on curcuminoids against neurodegenerative diseases. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.
Yoon S.-J.,Korea University |
Oh I.-H.,Kyung Hee University |
Seo H.-Y.,Korea University |
Kim E.-J.,Ministry of Health and Welfare
Public Health | Year: 2014
Objectives: Climate change influences human health in various ways, and quantitative assessments of the effect of climate change on health at national level are becoming essential for environmental health management. Study design: This study quantified the burden of disease attributable to climate change in Korea using disability-adjusted life years (DALY), and projected how this would change over time. Methods: Diseases related to climate change in Korea were selected, and meteorological data for each risk factor of climate change were collected. Mortality was calculated, and a database of incidence and prevalence was established. After measuring the burden of each disease, the total burden of disease related to climate change was assessed by multiplying population-attributable fractions. Finally, an estimation model for the burden of disease was built based on Korean climate data. Results: The total burden of disease related to climate change in Korea was 6.85 DALY/1000 population in 2008. Cerebrovascular diseases induced by heat waves accounted for 72.1% of the total burden of disease (hypertensive disease 1.82 DALY/1000 population, ischaemic heart disease 1.56 DALY/1000 population, cerebrovascular disease 1.56 DALY/1000 population). According to the estimation model, the total burden of disease will be 11.48 DALY/1000 population in 2100, which is twice the total burden of disease in 2008. Conclusions: This study quantified the burden of disease caused by climate change in Korea, and provides valuable information for determining the priorities of environmental health policy in East Asian countries with similar climates. © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health.
Korea Health And Welfare Information Service and Ministry Of Health And Welfare | Date: 2013-04-18
Provided are an integrated management method and integrated management system for health information, and a recording medium therefor. According to the disclosure, a variety of health information generated during performing health-related projects and administrative services, medical treatment, medical treatment support or the like can be integrated and managed by various health institutes established in each region according to their functions, wherein reference codes generated and managed separately by each health institute are standardized so that integrated business processing and automatic statistical analysis can be carried out, and user-centered atypical analysis can be performed, thereby enabling users of each health institute, a local government or a management agency, to efficiently conduct business transactions and to efficiently create and utilize performance data and statistical data appropriate for each purpose of use.
Kwon O.,Kyung Hee University |
Shim J.M.,Kyung Hee University |
Lim G.,Ministry of Health and Welfare
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2012
Public health monitoring for solitary elderly people must be implemented in a particularly economic way because of their low-income status. The aim of this paper is to propose a model-based method combined with conventional reasoning methods such as multiple regression and the boosting strategy. The role of model-based reasoning is to generate secondary situational information from activity data gathered at home. Current health condition information is then provided as part of an activity-based smart management system for health monitoring. Only one activity sensor per house is considered. In this paper, we also discuss how the Korean government has actually applied this method in smart-care services for more than ten thousand solitary elderly people. The experiments are conducted based on the u-care system, which is composed of an activity sensor connected to a remote server using a wireless sensor network. The remote server includes multi-agents which analyze and diagnose current health conditions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yang C.-C.,Ministry of Health and Welfare |
Shih C.-L.,Ministry of Health and Welfare
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2016
In June 2015, nearly 500 concert attendees suffered injuries from smoke inhalation and severe burns following a color-dust explosion at a waterpark in Taiwan. Wereport on the progressions of the incident and government responses, share crossdepartmental mobilization and case management lessons, and reflect on clinical and complex policy issues emerged. The timely and coordinated emergency responses, a high-quality universal health care system, and dedicated clinicians voluntarily working overtime resulted in an unprecedented 2.4% mortality rate (international statistics predicted 26.8%).