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Mpembeni R.N.M.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences | Chitama D.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences | Urassa D.P.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences | Kilewo C.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Human Resources for Health | Year: 2015

Background: In 2012, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), Tanzania, approved national guidelines and training materials for community health workers (CHWs) in integrated maternal, newborn and child health (Integrated MNCH), with CHWs trained and deployed across five districts of Morogoro Region soon after. To inform future scale up, this study assessed motivation and satisfaction among these CHWs. Methods: A survey of all CHWs trained by the Integrated MNCH Programme was conducted in the last quarter of 2013. Motivation and satisfaction were assessed using a five-point Likert scale with 29 and 27 items based on a literature review and discussions with CHW programme stakeholders. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify motivation and satisfaction determinants. Results: Out of 238 eligible CHWs, 96% were included in the study. Findings showed that respondents were motivated to become CHWs due to altruism (work on MNCH, desire to serve God, work hard) and intrinsic needs (help community, improve health, pride) than due to external stimuli (monetary incentives, skill utilization, community respect or hope for employment). CHWs were satisfied by relationships with health workers and communities, job aids and the capacity to provide services. CHWs were dissatisfied with the lack of transportation, communication devices and financial incentives for carrying out their tasks. Factors influencing motivation and satisfaction did not differ across CHW socio-demographic characteristics. Nonetheless, older and less educated CHWs were more likely to be motivated by altruism, intrinsic needs and skill utilization, community respect and hope for employment. Less educated CHWs were more satisfied with service and quality factors and more wealthy CHWs satisfied with job aids. Conclusion and recommendations: A combination of financial and non-financial incentives is required to support motivation and satisfaction among CHWs. Although CHWs joined mainly due to their altruistic nature, they became discontented with the lack of monetary compensation, transportation and communication support received. With the planned rollout of the national CHW cadre, improved understanding of CHWs as a heterogeneous group with nuanced needs and varied ambitions is vital for ensuring sustainability. © 2015 Mpembeni et al. Source

Zhang J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Pals S.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Medley A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Nichols C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 4 more authors.
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2013

Sample size calculations for a group-randomized trial (GRT) require an estimate of the expected intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). However, few ICC estimates from GRTs in HIV/AIDS research have been published, leaving investigators with little data on which to base expectations. We used data from a multi-country study to estimate ICCs for variables related to physical and mental health and HIV risk behaviors. ICCs for perceptions of physical and mental health tended to be higher than those for HIV risk behavior variables, which were higher than ICCs for CD4 count. Covariate adjustment for country and socio-demographic variables reduced most ICC estimates. For risk behavior variables, adjustment for country and socio-demographic variables reduced ICC estimates by as much as 84 %. Variability in ICC estimates has important implications for study design, as a larger ICC reduces power. ICC estimates presented in this analysis will allow more precise sample size estimates for future GRTs. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA). Source

Makene C.L.,Jhpiego Tanzania | Plotkin M.,Jhpiego Tanzania | Currie S.,Jhpiego Baltimore | Bishanga D.,Jhpiego Tanzania | And 5 more authors.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2014

Background: Every year, more than a million of the world's newborns die on their first day of life; as many as two-thirds of these deaths could be saved with essential care at birth and the early newborn period. Simple interventions to improve the quality of essential newborn care in health facilities - for example, improving steps to help newborns breathe at birth - have demonstrated up to 47% reduction in newborn mortality in health facilities in Tanzania. We conducted an evaluation of the effects of a large-scale maternal-newborn quality improvement intervention in Tanzania that assessed the quality of provision of essential newborn care and newborn resuscitation. Methods: Cross-sectional health facility surveys were conducted pre-intervention (2010) and post intervention (2012) in 52 health facilities in the program implementation area. Essential newborn care provided by health care providers immediately following birth was observed for 489 newborns in 2010 and 560 in 2012; actual management of newborns with trouble breathing were observed in 2010 (n = 18) and 2012 (n = 40). Assessments of health worker knowledge were conducted with case studies (2010, n = 206; 2012, n = 217) and a simulated resuscitation using a newborn mannequin (2010, n = 299; 2012, n = 213). Facility audits assessed facility readiness for essential newborn care. Results: Index scores for quality of observed essential newborn care showed significant overall improvement following the quality-of-care intervention, from 39% to 73% ( <0.0001). Health worker knowledge using a case study significantly improved as well, from 23% to 41% ( <0.0001) but skills in resuscitation using a newborn mannequin were persistently low. Availability of essential newborn care supplies, which was high at baseline in the regional hospitals, improved at the lower-level health facilities. Conclusions: Within two years, the quality improvement program was successful in raising the quality of essential newborn care services in the program facilities. Some gaps in newborn care were persistent, notably practical skills in newborn resuscitation. Continued investment in life-saving improvements to newborn care through the health services is a priority for reduction of newborn mortality in Tanzania. © Makene et al. Source

Andiric L.R.,Outreach | Massambu C.G.,Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare
American Journal of Clinical Pathology | Year: 2015

Objectives: The article describes the implementation and improvement in the first groups of medical laboratories in Tanzania selected to participate in the training program on Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA). Methods: As in many other African nations, the selected improvement plan consisted of formalized hands-on training (SLMTA) that teaches the tasks and skills of laboratory management and provides the tools for implementation of best laboratory practice. Implementation of the improvements learned during training was verified before and after SLMTA with the World Health Organization African Region Stepwise Laboratory Improvement Process Towards Accreditation checklist. Results: During a 4-year period, the selected laboratories described in this article demonstrated improvement with a range of 2% to 203% (cohort I) and 12% to 243% (cohort II) over baseline scores. Conclusions: The article describes the progress made in Tanzania's first cohorts, the obstacles encountered, and the lessons learned during the pilot and subsequent implementations. © American Society for Clinical Pathology. Source

Mmbuji P.,Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare
The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2011

The Tanzania Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (TFELTP) was established in 2008 as a partnership among the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, National Institute for Medical Research, and local and international partners. TFELTP was established to strengthen the capacity of MOHSW to conduct public health surveillance and response, manage national disease control and prevention programs, and to enhance public health laboratory support for surveillance, diagnosis, treatment and disease monitoring. TFELTP is a 2-year full-time training program with approximately 25% time spent in class, and 75% in the field. TFELTP offers two tracks leading to an MSc degree in either Applied Epidemiology or, Epidemiology and Laboratory Management. Since 2008, the program has enrolled a total of 33 trainees (23 males, 10 females). Of these, 11 were enrolled in 2008 and 100% graduated in 2010. All 11 graduates of cohort 1 are currently employed in public health positions within the country. Demand for the program as measured by the number of applicants has grown from 28 in 2008 to 56 in 2011. While training the public health leaders of the country, TFELTP has also provided essential service to the country in responding to high-profile disease outbreaks, and evaluating and improving its public health surveillance systems and diseases control programs. TFELTP was involved in the country assessment of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR) core capabilities, development of the Tanzania IHR plan, and incorporation of IHR into the revised Tanzania Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) guidelines. TFELTP is training a competent core group of public health leaders for Tanzania, as well as providing much needed service to the MOHSW in the areas of routine surveillance, outbreak detection and response, and disease program management. However, the immediate challenges that the program must address include development of a full range of in-country teaching capacity for the program, as well as a career path for graduates. Source

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