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Lilja M.,Research and Development Unit | Lilja M.,Umea University | Rolandsson O.,Umea University | Shaw J.E.,Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2010

Background and purpose:Leptin predicts cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes, diseases to which Asian Indians are highly susceptible. As a risk marker, leptin's intra-individual and seasonal stability is unstudied and only small studies have compared leptin levels in Asian Indians with other populations. The aim of this study was to explore ethnicity related differences in leptin levels and its intra-individual and seasonal stability.Methods:Leptin and anthropometric data from the northern Sweden MONICA (3513 Europids) and the Mauritius Non-communicable Disease (2480 Asian Indians and Creoles) studies were used. In both studies men and women, 25-to 74-year old, participated in both an initial population survey and a follow-up after 5-13 years. For the analysis of seasonal leptin variation, a subset of 1780 participants, 30-to 60-year old, in the Västerbotten Intervention Project was used.Results:Asian Indian men and women had higher levels of leptin, leptin per body mass index (BMI) unit (leptin/BMI) or per cm in waist circumference (WC; leptin/waist) than Creoles and Europids when adjusted for BMI (all P<0.0005) or WC (all P<0.005). In men, Creoles had higher leptin, leptin/BMI and leptin/waist than Europids when adjusted for BMI or WC (all P<0.0005). In women, Creoles had higher leptin/BMI and leptin/waist than Europids only when adjusted for WC (P<0.0005). Asian Indian ethnicity in both sexes, and Creole ethnicity in men, was independently associated with high leptin levels. The intra-class correlation for leptin was similar (0.6-0.7), independently of sex, ethnicity or follow-up time. No seasonal variation in leptin levels was seen.Conclusion: Asian Indians have higher levels of leptin, leptin/BMI and leptin/waist than Creoles and Europids. Leptin has a high intra-individual stability and seasonal leptin variation does not appear to explain the ethnic differences observed here. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Caleyachetty R.,Ministry of Health and Quality of Life | Caleyachetty R.,Columbia University | Tait C.A.,Columbia University | Kengne A.P.,University of Cape Town | And 5 more authors.
The Lancet Global Health | Year: 2014

Background Worldwide, use of tobacco is viewed as an important threat to the health of pregnant women and their children. However, the extent of tobacco use in pregnant women in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains unclear. We assessed the magnitude of tobacco use in pregnant women in LMICs. Methods We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) done in 54 LMICs between Jan 1, 2001, and Dec 1, 2012, comprising 58 922 pregnant women (aged 15-49 years), which were grouped by WHO region. Prevalence of current tobacco use (smoked and smokeless) was estimated for every country. Pooled estimates by regions and overall were obtained from random-eff ects meta-analysis. Findings Pooled prevalence of any tobacco use in pregnant women in LMICs was 2·6% (95% CI 1·8-3·6); the lowest prevalence was in the African region (2·0%, 1·2-2·9) and the highest was in the Southeast Asian region (5·1%, 1·3-10·9). The pooled prevalence of current tobacco smoking in pregnant women ranged from 0·6% (0·3-0·8) in the African region to 3·5% (1·5-12·1) in the Western Pacific region. The pooled prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use in pregnant women was lowest in the European region (0·1%, 0·0-0·3) and highest in the Southeast Asian region (2·6%, 0·0-7·6). Interpretation Overall, tobacco use in pregnant women in LMICs was low; however high prevalence estimates were noted in some LMICs. Prevention and management of tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke in pregnancy is crucial to protect maternal and child health in LMICs. © Caleyachetty et al.

Johnston L.G.,University of California at San Francisco | Corceal S.,Ministry of Health and Quality of Life
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2013

Female sex workers (FSW) often have a disproportionately high prevalence of HIV infection and they, along with their clients, are considered a core group contributing to the transmission of HIV in many countries. In 2010, females who reported having vaginal/anal/oral sex in the last 6 months with a male in exchange for money or gifts, aged ≥15 years, and living in Mauritius were recruited into a survey using respondent driven sampling. Consenting females (n = 299) completed a behavioral questionnaire and provided venous blood for HIV, HCV and HBV testing. HIV seroprevalence among FSW was 28.9 % and 43.8 % were infected with HCV; among HIV seropositive FSW, 88.2 % were also infected with HCV. Almost 40 % of FSW reported injecting drugs sometime in their lives and 30.5 % of all FSW reported doing so in the previous 3 months. Among those who ever injected drugs, 82.5 % did so in the past 3 months and among those 60 % reported injecting drugs at least once a day. Among FSW who ever injected drugs, 17.5 % reported sharing a needle at last injection. Regression analyses found injection drug use behaviors to be positively associated with HIV seroprevalence. These findings indicate that FSW, especially those who inject drugs, are at high risk for HIV and HCV infection and transmission and illustrates the need for gender responsive HIV and injection drug use prevention and treatment models that respond to the unique situations that affect this population. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Atyame C.M.,Montpellier University | Pasteur N.,Montpellier University | Dumas E.,Montpellier University | Tortosa P.,University of Reunion Island | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2011

The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s). Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT), a species-specific control approach in which field females are sterilized by inundative releases of incompatible males. We show that the Wolbachia wPip(Is) strain, naturally infecting Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes from Turkey, is a good candidate to control Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations on four islands of the south-western Indian Ocean (La Réunion, Mauritius, Grande Glorieuse and Mayotte). The wPip(Is) strain was introduced into the nuclear background of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from La Réunion, leading to the LR[wPip(Is)] line. Total embryonic lethality was observed in crosses between LR[wPip(Is)] males and all tested field females from the four islands. Interestingly, most crosses involving LR[wPip(Is)] females and field males were also incompatible, which is expected to reduce the impact of any accidental release of LR[wPip(Is)] females. Cage experiments demonstrate that LR[wPip(Is)] males are equally competitive with La Réunion males resulting in demographic crash when LR[wPip(Is)] males were introduced into La Réunion laboratory cages. These results, together with the geographic isolation of the four south-western Indian Ocean islands and their limited land area, support the feasibility of an IIT program using LR[wPip(Is)] males and stimulate the implementation of field tests for a Cx. p. quinquefasciatus control strategy on these islands. © 2011 Atyame et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Gungadin S.K.,Police Medical Unit | Ananda S.,Ministry of Health and Quality of Life
Romanian Journal of Legal Medicine | Year: 2014

Body packing is the term used for the intracorporeal concealment of illicit drugs and body packers are persons who, voluntarily or through coercion, swallow, or insert drug-filled packets into a body cavity, generally in an attempt to smuggle them across secure borders. Though this practice is not new, its medical complications have always been a matter of concern. Some have reported improved packaging methods to deal with such complications. Body packing is an on-going drug smuggling method and authorities across the world are always on the alert. Here we describe a retrospective study on illicit drug trafficking, via body packing, in the Republic of Mauritius. The investigation has focused on the criminal and forensic aspects of body packing. As far as we know, this is the first report in forensic literature concerning body packing in Mauritius. © 2014 Romanian Society of Legal Medicine.

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