Tatarsky A.,Clinton Health Access Initiative |
Tatarsky A.,University of California at San Francisco |
Aboobakar S.,Ministry of Health and Quality of Life |
Cohen J.M.,Clinton Health Access Initiative |
And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011
Sustaining elimination of malaria in areas with high receptivity and vulnerability will require effective strategies to prevent reestablishment of local transmission, yet there is a dearth of evidence about this phase. Mauritius offers a uniquely informative history, with elimination of local transmission in 1969, re-emergence in 1975, and second elimination in 1998. Towards this end, Mauritius's elimination and prevention of reintroduction (POR) programs were analyzed via a comprehensive review of literature and government documents, supplemented by program observation and interviews with policy makers and program personnel. The impact of the country's most costly intervention, a passenger screening program, was assessed quantitatively using simulation modeling. On average, Mauritius spent $4.43 per capita per year (pcpy) during its second elimination campaign from 1982 to 1988. The country currently spends $2.06 pcpy on its POR program that includes robust surveillance, routine vector control, and prompt and effective treatment and response. Thirty-five percent of POR costs are for a passenger screening program. Modeling suggests that the estimated 14% of imported malaria infections identified by this program reduces the annual risk of indigenous transmission by approximately 2%. Of cases missed by the initial passenger screening program, 49% were estimated to be identified by passive or reactive case detection, leaving an estimated 3.1 unidentified imported infections per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The Mauritius experience indicates that ongoing intervention, strong leadership, and substantial predictable funding are critical to consistently prevent the reestablishment of malaria. Sustained vigilance is critical considering Mauritius's enabling conditions. Although the cost of POR is below that of elimination, annual per capita spending remains at levels that are likely infeasible for countries with lower overall health spending. Countries currently embarking on elimination should quantify and plan for potentially similar POR operations and costs. © 2011 Tatarsky et al.
Atyame C.M.,Montpellier University |
Pasteur N.,Montpellier University |
Dumas E.,Montpellier University |
Tortosa P.,University of Reunion Island |
And 6 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2011
The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s). Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT), a species-specific control approach in which field females are sterilized by inundative releases of incompatible males. We show that the Wolbachia wPip(Is) strain, naturally infecting Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes from Turkey, is a good candidate to control Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations on four islands of the south-western Indian Ocean (La Réunion, Mauritius, Grande Glorieuse and Mayotte). The wPip(Is) strain was introduced into the nuclear background of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from La Réunion, leading to the LR[wPip(Is)] line. Total embryonic lethality was observed in crosses between LR[wPip(Is)] males and all tested field females from the four islands. Interestingly, most crosses involving LR[wPip(Is)] females and field males were also incompatible, which is expected to reduce the impact of any accidental release of LR[wPip(Is)] females. Cage experiments demonstrate that LR[wPip(Is)] males are equally competitive with La Réunion males resulting in demographic crash when LR[wPip(Is)] males were introduced into La Réunion laboratory cages. These results, together with the geographic isolation of the four south-western Indian Ocean islands and their limited land area, support the feasibility of an IIT program using LR[wPip(Is)] males and stimulate the implementation of field tests for a Cx. p. quinquefasciatus control strategy on these islands. © 2011 Atyame et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
PubMed | University of Witwatersrand, Dallah Establishment, Kenya Medical Research Institute, King Saud University and 15 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular ecology | Year: 2016
Mosquitoes, especially Aedes aegypti, are becoming important models for studying invasion biology. We characterized genetic variation at 12 microsatellite loci in 79 populations of Ae.aegypti from 30 countries in six continents, and used them to infer historical and modern patterns of invasion. Our results support the two subspecies Ae.aegypti formosus and Ae.aegypti aegypti as genetically distinct units. Ae.aegypti aegypti populations outside Africa are derived from ancestral African populations and are monophyletic. The two subspecies co-occur in both East Africa (Kenya) and West Africa (Senegal). In rural/forest settings (Rabai District of Kenya), the two subspecies remain genetically distinct, whereas in urban settings, they introgress freely. Populations outside Africa are highly genetically structured likely due to a combination of recent founder effects, discrete discontinuous habitats and low migration rates. Ancestral populations in sub-Saharan Africa are less genetically structured, as are the populations in Asia. Introduction of Ae.aegypti to the New World coinciding with trans-Atlantic shipping in the 16th to 18th centuries was followed by its introduction to Asia in the late 19th century from the New World or from now extinct populations in the Mediterranean Basin. Aedes mascarensis is a genetically distinct sister species to Ae.aegypti s.l. This study provides a reference database of genetic diversity that can be used to determine the likely origin of new introductions that occur regularly for this invasive species. The genetic uniqueness of many populations and regions has important implications for attempts to control Ae.aegypti, especially for the methods using genetic modification of populations.
Johnston L.G.,University of California at San Francisco |
Corceal S.,Ministry of Health and Quality of Life
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2013
Female sex workers (FSW) often have a disproportionately high prevalence of HIV infection and they, along with their clients, are considered a core group contributing to the transmission of HIV in many countries. In 2010, females who reported having vaginal/anal/oral sex in the last 6 months with a male in exchange for money or gifts, aged ≥15 years, and living in Mauritius were recruited into a survey using respondent driven sampling. Consenting females (n = 299) completed a behavioral questionnaire and provided venous blood for HIV, HCV and HBV testing. HIV seroprevalence among FSW was 28.9 % and 43.8 % were infected with HCV; among HIV seropositive FSW, 88.2 % were also infected with HCV. Almost 40 % of FSW reported injecting drugs sometime in their lives and 30.5 % of all FSW reported doing so in the previous 3 months. Among those who ever injected drugs, 82.5 % did so in the past 3 months and among those 60 % reported injecting drugs at least once a day. Among FSW who ever injected drugs, 17.5 % reported sharing a needle at last injection. Regression analyses found injection drug use behaviors to be positively associated with HIV seroprevalence. These findings indicate that FSW, especially those who inject drugs, are at high risk for HIV and HCV infection and transmission and illustrates the need for gender responsive HIV and injection drug use prevention and treatment models that respond to the unique situations that affect this population. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Caleyachetty R.,Ministry of Health and Quality of Life |
Caleyachetty R.,Columbia University |
Tait C.A.,Columbia University |
Kengne A.P.,University of Cape Town |
And 6 more authors.
The Lancet Global Health | Year: 2014
Background Worldwide, use of tobacco is viewed as an important threat to the health of pregnant women and their children. However, the extent of tobacco use in pregnant women in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains unclear. We assessed the magnitude of tobacco use in pregnant women in LMICs. Methods We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) done in 54 LMICs between Jan 1, 2001, and Dec 1, 2012, comprising 58 922 pregnant women (aged 15-49 years), which were grouped by WHO region. Prevalence of current tobacco use (smoked and smokeless) was estimated for every country. Pooled estimates by regions and overall were obtained from random-eff ects meta-analysis. Findings Pooled prevalence of any tobacco use in pregnant women in LMICs was 2·6% (95% CI 1·8-3·6); the lowest prevalence was in the African region (2·0%, 1·2-2·9) and the highest was in the Southeast Asian region (5·1%, 1·3-10·9). The pooled prevalence of current tobacco smoking in pregnant women ranged from 0·6% (0·3-0·8) in the African region to 3·5% (1·5-12·1) in the Western Pacific region. The pooled prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use in pregnant women was lowest in the European region (0·1%, 0·0-0·3) and highest in the Southeast Asian region (2·6%, 0·0-7·6). Interpretation Overall, tobacco use in pregnant women in LMICs was low; however high prevalence estimates were noted in some LMICs. Prevention and management of tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke in pregnancy is crucial to protect maternal and child health in LMICs. © Caleyachetty et al.
Iyaloo D.P.,Ministry of Health and Quality of Life |
Elahee K.B.,Ministry of Health and Quality of Life |
Bheecarry A.,Ministry of Health and Quality of Life |
Lees R.S.,International Atomic Energy Agency |
Acta Tropica | Year: 2014
Many novel approaches to controlling mosquito vectors through the release of sterile and mass reared males are being developed in the face of increasing insecticide resistance and other limitations of current methods. Before full scale release programmes can be undertaken there is a need for surveillance of the target population, and investigation of parameters such as dispersal and longevity of released, as compared to wild males through mark-release-recapture (MRR) and other experiments, before small scale pilot trials can be conducted. The nature of the sites used for this field work is crucial to ensure that a trial can feasibly collect sufficient and relevant information, given the available resources and practical limitations, and having secured the correct regulatory, community and ethical approvals and support. Mauritius is considering the inclusion of the sterile insect technique (SIT), for population reduction of Aedes albopictus, as a component of the Ministry of Health and Quality of Life's 'Operational Plan for Prevention and Control of Chikungunya and Dengue'. As part of an investigation into the feasibility of integrating the SIT into the Integrated Vector Management (IVM) scheme in Mauritius a pilot trial is planned. Two potential sites have been selected for this purpose, Pointe des Lascars and Panchvati, villages in the North East of the country, and population surveillance has commenced. This case study will here be used to explore the considerations which go into determining the most appropriate sites for mosquito field research. Although each situation is unique, and an ideal site may not be available, this discussion aims to help researchers to consider and balance the important factors and select field sites that will meet their needs. © 2013 International Atomic Energy Agency 2013.
Hare M.J.L.,Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute |
Hare M.J.L.,Monash University |
Magliano D.J.,Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute |
Magliano D.J.,Monash University |
And 12 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013
OBJECTIVE - To determine whether glucose-independent differences in HbA1c exist between people of African, South Asian, and Chinese ethnicities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Data from 6,701 people aged 19-78 years, without known diabetes, from Mauritius, and participating in the population-based Non-Communicable Disease Surveys of the main island and the island of Rodrigues were included. Participants were African (n = 1,219 from main island, n = 1,505 from Rodrigues), South Asian (n = 3,820), and Chinese (n = 157). Survey data included HbA1c, plasma glucose during oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT), anthropometry, demographics, and medical and lifestyle history. RESULTS - Mean HbA1c, after adjustment for fasting and 2-h plasma glucose and other factors known to influence HbA1c, was higher in Africans from Rodrigues (6.1%) than in South Asians (5.7%, P < 0.001), Chinese (5.7%, P < 0.001), or Africans from the main island of Mauritius (5.7%, P < 0.001). The age-standardized prevalence of diabetes among Africans from Rodrigues differed substantially depending on the diagnostic criteria used [OGTT 7.9% (95% CI 5.8-10.0); HbA1c 17.3% (15.3-19.2)]. Changing diagnostic criteria resulted in no significant change in the prevalence of diabetes within the other ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS - People of African ethnicity from Rodrigues have higher HbA1c than those of South Asian or African ethnicity from the main island of Mauritius for reasons not explained by plasma glucose during an OGTT or traditional factors known to affect glycemia. Further research should be directed at determining the mechanism behind this disparity and its relevance to clinical outcomes. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.
Cameron A.J.,Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute |
Cameron A.J.,Deakin University |
Magliano D.J.,Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute |
Magliano D.J.,Monash University |
And 12 more authors.
International Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2012
Background: Higher waist circumference and lower hip circumference are both associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, despite being directly correlated. The real effects of visceral obesity may therefore be underestimated when hip circumference is not fully taken into account. We hypothesized that adding waist and hip circumference to traditional risk factors would significantly improve CVD risk prediction. Methods: In a population-based survey among South Asian and African Mauritians (n = 7978), 1241 deaths occurred during 15 years of follow-up. In a model that included variables used in previous CVD risk calculations (a Framingham-type model), the association between waist circumference and mortality was examined before and after adjustment for hip circumference. The percentage with an increase in estimated 10-year cumulative mortality of >25% and a decrease of >20% after waist and hip circumference were added to the model was calculated. Results: Waist circumference was strongly related to mortality only after adjustment for hip circumference and vice versa. Adding waist and hip circumference to a Framingham-type model increased estimated 10-year cumulative CVD mortality by >25% for 23.7% of those who died and 15.7% of those censored. Cumulative mortality decreased by >20% for 4.5% of those who died and 14.8% of those censored. Conclusions: The effect of central obesity on mortality risk is seriously underestimated without adjustment for hip circumference. Adding waist and hip circumference to a Framingham-type model for CVD mortality substantially increased predictive power. Both may be important inclusions in CVD risk prediction models. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association © The Author 2012; all rights reserved.
Magliano D.J.,Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute |
Soderberg S.,Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute |
Soderberg S.,Umeå University |
Zimmet P.Z.,Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute |
And 11 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2012
OBJECTIVE: Secular trends in the epidemiology of diabetes are best described by studying the same population over time, but few such studies exist. Using surveys from Mauritius in 1987 and 2009, we examined 1) the change in the prevalence of diabetes, 2) the extent to which changes in traditional diabetes risk factors explained the increase, and 3) the change in the distribution of plasma glucose levels over time. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Independent population-based surveys were undertaken in Mauritius in 1987 and 2009 using similar methodology in adults aged 20-74 years. Physical measurements and fasting blood samples were taken, and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed at both surveys. RESULTS: The age-standardized prevalence of diabetes in 2009 was 22.3% (95% CI 20.0-24.6) among men and 20.2%(18.3-22.3) among women, representing an increase since 1987 of 64 and 62% among men and women, respectively. Concurrent changes in the distribution of age, ethnicity, waist circumference, BMI, physical activity, smoking, family history of diabetes, and hypertension explained more of the increase in the prevalence of diabetes in men than in women. Increases in plasma glucose (especially fasting glucose) were seen across the population but were greater at the upper levels. CONCLUSIONS: In Mauritius, there has been a marked increase in diabetes prevalence over 22 years. This mainly results from changes in traditional risk factors, leading to population-wide increases in plasma glucose levels. Interventions to control this escalation of diabetes should focus on population-wide strategies. © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.
Cross-Mating Compatibility and Competitiveness among Aedes albopictus Strains from Distinct Geographic Origins - Implications for Future Application of SIT Programs in the South West Indian Ocean Islands
PubMed | IRD Montpellier, University of Reunion Island, IRD La Reunion Plateforme de Recherche CYROI and Ministry of Health and Quality of Life
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016
The production of large numbers of males needed for a sustainable sterile insect technique (SIT) control program requires significant developmental and operational costs. This may constitute a significant economic barrier to the installation of large scale rearing facilities in countries that are undergoing a transition from being largely dependent on insecticide use to be in a position to integrate the SIT against Aedes albopictus. Alternative options available for those countries could be to rely on outsourcing of sterile males from a foreign supplier, or for one centralised facility to produce mosquitoes for several countries, thus increasing the efficiency of the mass-rearing effort. However, demonstration of strain compatibility is a prerequisite for the export of mosquitoes for transborder SIT applications. Here, we compared mating compatibility among Ae. albopictus populations originating from three islands of the South Western Indian Ocean, and assessed both insemination rates and egg fertility in all possible cross-mating combinations. Furthermore, competitiveness between irradiated and non-irradiated males from the three studied strains, and the subsequent effect on female fertility were also examined. Although morphometric analysis of wing shapes suggested phenoptypic differences between Ae. albopictus strains, perfect reproductive compatibility between them was observed. Furthermore, irradiated males from the different islands demonstrated similar levels of competitiveness and induced sterility when confronted with fertile males from any of the other island populations tested. In conclusion, despite the evidence of inter-strain differences based on male wing morphology, collectively, our results provide a new set of expectations for the use of a single candidate strain of mass-reared sterile males for area-wide scale application of SIT against Ae. albopictus populations in different islands across the South Western Indian Ocean. Cross-mating competitiveness tests such as those applied here are necessary to assess the quality of mass reared strains for the trans-border application of sterile male release programs.