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Hodgins S.,Nepal Family Health Program | Sanghvi H.,Jhpiego | Pradhan Y.V.,Ministry of Health and Population
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2010

Objective: To determine feasibility of community-based distribution of misoprostol for preventing postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) to pregnant woman through community volunteers working under government health services. Methods: Implemented in one district in Nepal. The primary measure of performance was uterotonic protection after childbirth, measured using pre- and postintervention surveys (28 clusters, each with 30 households). Maternal deaths were ascertained through systematic health facility and community-based surveillance; causes of death were assigned based on verbal autopsy. Results: Of 840 postintervention survey respondents, 73.2% received misoprostol. The standardized proportion of vaginal deliveries protected by a uterotonic rose from 11.6% to 74.2%. Those experiencing the largest gains were the poor, the illiterate, and those living in remote areas. Conclusion: Community-based distribution of misoprostol for PPH prevention can be successfully implemented under government health services in a low-resource, geographically challenging setting, resulting in much increased population-level protection against PPH, with particularly large gains among the disadvantaged. © 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

Bar-Zeev N.,University of Malawi | Bar-Zeev N.,University of Liverpool | Kapanda L.,University of Malawi | Tate J.E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 18 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: Rotavirus is the main cause of severe acute gastroenteritis in children in Africa. Monovalent human rotavirus vaccine (RV1) was added into Malawi's infant immunisation schedule on Oct 29, 2012. We aimed to assess the impact and effectiveness of RV1 on rotavirus gastroenteritis in the 2 years after introduction. Methods: From Jan 1, 2012, to June 30, 2014, we recruited children younger than 5 years who were admitted into Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi, with acute gastroenteritis. We assessed stool samples from these children for presence of rotavirus with use of ELISA and we genotyped rotaviruses with use of RT-PCR. We compared rotavirus detection rates in stool samples and incidence of hospital admittance for rotavirus in children from Jan 1 to June 30, in the year before vaccination (2012) with the same months in the 2 years after vaccination was introduced (2013 and 2014). In the case-control portion of our study, we recruited eligible rotavirus-positive children from the surveillance platform and calculated vaccine effectiveness (one minus the odds ratio of vaccination) by comparing infants with rotavirus gastroenteritis with infants who tested negative for rotavirus, and with community age-matched and neighbourhood-matched controls. Findings: We enrolled 1431 children, from whom we obtained 1417 stool samples (99%). We detected rotavirus in 79 of 157 infants (50%) before the vaccine, compared with 57 of 219 (40%) and 52 of 170 (31%) in successive calendar years after vaccine introduction (p=0·0002). In the first half of 2012, incidence of rotavirus hospital admission was 269 per 100 000 infants compared with 284 in the same months of 2013 (rise of 5·8%, 95% CI -23·1 to 45·4; p=0·73) and 153 in these months in 2014 (a reduction from the prevaccine period of 43·2%, 18·0-60·7; p=0·003). We recruited 118 vaccine-eligible rotavirus cases (median age 8·9 months; IQR 6·6-11·1), 317 rotavirus-test-negative controls (9·4 months; 6·9-11·9), and 380 community controls (8·8 months; 6·5-11·1). Vaccine effectiveness for two doses of RV1 in rotavirus-negative individuals was 64% (95% CI 24-83) and community controls was 63% (23-83). The point estimate of effectiveness was higher against genotype G1 than against G2 and G12. Interpretation: Routine use of RV1 reduced hospital admissions for several genotypes of rotavirus in children younger than 5 years, especially in infants younger than 1 year. Our data support introduction of rotavirus vaccination at the WHO recommended schedule, with continuing surveillance in high-mortality countries. Funding: Wellcome Trust, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals. © 2015 Bar-Zeev, et al.

Gb B.C.,Ministry of Health and Population | Basel P.L.,Institute of Medicine IOM
Kathmandu University Medical Journal | Year: 2013

Backgroud Unhealthy premarital sex behavior leads to several health problems namely; sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), Human Immune Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), unwanted pregnancies, abortions and maternal deaths. Unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions are rampant in Nepal despite introduction of legal provision for safe abortion since 2003. Lately, unsafe sex and sex without condoms and drinking before sex is increasing in trend in youth population. The primary aim of this study was to explore the factors associated with premarital sex behaviors. Objectives The main objective of the study was to identify the premarital sex behaviors and related factors among college youths in Kathmandu, Nepal. Methods Descriptive and explorative study of size 230 college youths aged between 18- 24 years. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire from February 26 to March 15, 2012. The reliability of the questionnaire was ensured by using Cronbach's alpha. Results Late youths of age 20-24 were more likely to experience premarital sex than early youths of age 18-19 years old. Urban youths were less involved in premarital sex behavior than rural youth. Youths having negative attitudes towards premarital sex were more likely to experience premarital sex than a positive attitude. Youths who had good relationship with their parents had less premarital sex experience than youths having poor relationship with their parents. Conclusion One fifth of college youth had premarital sex experience where alcohol drinker had higher premarital sex experience than non-drinker. Youths having good peer norms were significantly less likely to experience premarital sex behaviors than youths having poor peer norms.

Pries A.M.,Helen Keller International | Adhikary I.,Helen Keller International | Upreti S.R.,Ministry of Health and Population | Champeny M.,Helen Keller International | Zehner E.,Helen Keller International
Maternal and Child Nutrition | Year: 2016

Commercially produced complementary foods can help improve nutritional status of young children if they are appropriately fortified and of optimal nutrient composition. However, other commercially produced snack food products may be nutritionally detrimental, potentially increasing consumption of foods high in salt or sugar and displacing consumption of other more nutritious options. Helen Keller International, in collaboration with the Nepal government, implemented a study to assess mothers' utilization of commercial food products for child feeding and exposure to commercial promotions for these products. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 309 mothers of children less than 24 months of age across 15 health facilities. Utilization of breastmilk substitutes was low, having been consumed by 6.2% of children 0-5 months of age and 7.5% of children 6-23 months of age. Approximately one-fourth (24.6%) of children 6-23 months age had consumed a commercially produced complementary food in the prior day. Twenty-eight percent of mothers reported observing a promotion for breastmilk substitutes, and 20.1% reported promotions for commercially produced complementary foods. Consumption of commercially produced snack food products was high at 74.1% of children 6-23 months. Promotions for these same commercially produced snack food products were highly prevalent in Kathmandu Valley, reported by 85.4% of mothers. In order to improve diets during the complementary feeding period, development of national standards for complementary food products is recommended. Nutritious snack options should be promoted for the complementary feeding period; consumption of commercially produced snack food products high in sugar and salt and low in nutrients should be discouraged. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Bruce M.C.,University of Glasgow | MacHeso A.,Ministry of Health and Population | McConnachie A.,University of Glasgow | Molyneux M.E.,Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme | Molyneux M.E.,University of Liverpool
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Background: Described here is the first population genetic study of Plasmodium malariae, the causative agent of quartan malaria. Although not as deadly as Plasmodium falciparum, P. malariae is more common than previously thought, and is frequently in sympatry and co-infection with P. falciparum, making its study increasingly important. This study compares the population parameters of the two species in two districts of Malawi with different malaria transmission patterns - one seasonal, one perennial - to explore the effects of transmission on population structures. Methods. Six species-specific microsatellite markers were used to analyse 257 P. malariae samples and 257 P. falciparum samples matched for age, gender and village of residence. Allele sizes were scored to within 2 bp for each locus and haplotypes were constructed from dominant alleles in multiple infections. Analysis of multiplicity of infection (MOI), population differentiation, clustering of haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium was performed for both species. Regression analyses were used to determine association of MOI measurements with clinical malaria parameters. Results: Multiple-genotype infections within each species were common in both districts, accounting for 86.0% of P. falciparum and 73.2% of P. malariae infections and did not differ significantly with transmission setting. Mean MOI of P. falciparum was increased under perennial transmission compared with seasonal (3.14 vs 2.59, p = 0.008) and was greater in children compared with adults. In contrast, P. malariae mean MOI was similar between transmission settings (2.12 vs 2.11) and there was no difference between children and adults. Population differentiation showed no significant differences between villages or districts for either species. There was no evidence of geographical clustering of haplotypes. Linkage disequilibrium amongst loci was found only for P. falciparum samples from the seasonal transmission setting. Conclusions: The extent of similarity between P. falciparum and P. malariae population structure described by the high level of multiple infection, the lack of significant population differentiation or haplotype clustering and lack of linkage disequilibrium is surprising given the differences in the biological features of these species that suggest a reduced potential for out-crossing and transmission in P. malariae. The absence of a rise in P. malariae MOI with increased transmission or a reduction in MOI with age could be explained by differences in the duration of infection or degree of immunity compared to P. falciparum. © 2011 Bruce et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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