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Kilmarx P.H.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Mutasa-Apollo T.,Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Welfare
Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS | Year: 2013

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed recent literature on the cascade of HIV care from HIV testing to suppression of viral load, which has emerged as a critical focus as HIV treatment programs have scaled up. RECENT FINDINGS: In low-and middle-income countries, HIV testing and diagnosis of people living with HIV (PLHIV), although rapidly expanding, are generally relatively low. Linkage and retention in care are global challenges, with substantial attrition between diagnosis, laboratory or clinical staging, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, and additional substantial attrition on ART due to loss to follow-up and death. ART coverage is rapidly expanding but is still relatively low, especially when considered as a percentage of all PLHIV. Adherence is also suboptimal and virological suppression is incomplete. SUMMARY: Taken together, the attrition at each step of the cascade of care results in overall low levels of viral load suppression in the total population of PLHIV. More robust monitoring from the facility to global levels and implementation of established and emerging interventions are needed at each step of the cascade to enhance HIV diagnosis, linkage to and retention in care, ART use, and adherence, and ultimately reduce viral load, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce HIV transmission. © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Mukaratirwa A.,University of Zimbabwe | Mukaratirwa A.,Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Welfare | Berejena C.,University of Zimbabwe | Nziramasanga P.,University of Zimbabwe | And 18 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND:: In anticipation of rotavirus vaccine introduction, the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health initiated rotavirus surveillance in 2008 to describe the rotavirus epidemiological trends and circulating genotypes among children <5 years of age. METHODS:: Active hospital-based surveillance for diarrhea was conducted at 3 sentinel sites from January 2008 to December 2011. Children aged <5 years, who presented with acute gastroenteritis as a primary illness and who were admitted to a hospital ward or treated at the emergency unit, were enrolled in the surveillance program and had a stool specimen collected and tested for rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay. Genotyping of a sample of positive specimens was performed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:: A total of 3728 faecal samples were collected and tested during the 4 year surveillance period and 1804 (48.5%) tested rotavirus positive. The highest prevalence of rotavirus diarrhea was found during the dry, cool season. Rotavirus positivity peaked in children 3-17 months of age with almost 80% of cases. Compared with rotavirus-negative cases, rotavirus-positive cases were more likely to be dehydrated (26% vs. 14%, P ≤ 0.001) and have vomiting (77% vs. 57%, P ≤ 0.001) and less likely to have fever (17% vs. 24%, P = 0.03). G9P[8] (43.3%), G1P[8] (11.8%), G2P[4] (8.7%), G2P[6] (8.7%) and G12P[6] (8.7%) were the most common genotypes detected. DISCUSSION:: Rotavirus causes a significant disease burden among children <5 years of age in Zimbabwe. This active surveillance system can serve as a platform to monitor the impact of rotavirus vaccine on disease burden following vaccine introduction. © 2013 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.


Sibanda E.L.,University of Zimbabwe | Sibanda E.L.,University College London | Hatzold K.,Population Services International | Mugurungi O.,Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Welfare | And 8 more authors.
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2012

Background: Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) is widely recommended to ensure timely treatment of HIV. The Zimbabwe Ministry of Health introduced PITC in 2007. We aimed to evaluate institutional capacity to implement PITC and investigate patient and health care worker (HCW) perceptions of the PITC programme. Methods: Purposive selection of health care institutions was conducted among those providing PITC. Study procedures included 1) assessment of implementation procedures and institutional capacity using a semi-structured questionnaire; 2) in-depth interviews with patients who had been offered HIV testing to explore perceptions of PITC, 3) Focus group discussions with HCW to explore views on PITC. Qualitative data was analysed according to Framework Analysis. Results: Sixteen health care institutions were selected (two central, two provincial, six district hospitals; and six primary care clinics). All institutions at least offered PITC in part. The main challenges which prevented optimum implementation were shortages of staff trained in PITC, HIV rapid testing and counselling; shortages of appropriate counselling space, and, at the time of assessment, shortages of HIV test kits. Both health care workers and patients embraced PITC because they had noticed that it had saved lives through early detection and treatment of HIV. Although health care workers reported an increase in workload as a result of PITC, they felt this was offset by the reduced number of HIV-related admissions and satisfaction of working with healthier clients. Conclusion: PITC has been embraced by patients and health care workers as a life-saving intervention. There is need to address shortages in material, human and structural resources to ensure optimum implementation. © 2012 Sibanda et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Chibanda D.,Wake forest University | Chibanda D.,University of Zimbabwe | Mangezi W.,Wake forest University | Mangezi W.,University of Zimbabwe | And 13 more authors.
Archives of Women's Mental Health | Year: 2010

Despite the significant burden of common mental disorders (CMD) among women in sub Saharan Africa, data on postnatal depression (PND) is very limited, especially in settings with a high HIV prevalence. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), a widely used screening test for PND has been validated in many countries, but not in Zimbabwe. We assessed the validity of the EPDS scale among postpartum women compared with Diagnostic Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for major depression. Six trained community counselors administered the Shona version of the EPDS to a random sample of 210 postpartum HIV-infected and uninfected women attending two primary care clinics in Chitungwiza. All women were subsequently subjected to mental status examination using DSM IV criteria for major depression by 2 psychiatrists, who were blinded to the subject's EPDS scores. Data were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Of the 210 postpartum mothers enrolled, 64 (33%) met DSM IV criteria for depression. Using a cut-off score of 11/12 on the Shona version of the EPDS for depression, the sensitivity was 88%, and specificity was 87%, with a positive predictive value of 74%, a negative predictive value of 94%, and an area under the curve of 0.82. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the whole scale was 0.87. Conclusion: The Shona version of the EPDS is a reliable and valid tool to screen for PND among HIV-infected and un-infected women in Zimbabwe. Screening for PND should be integrated into routine antenatal and postnatal care in areas with high HIV prevalence. © Springer-Verlag 2010.


Njeuhmeli E.,United States Agency for International Development | Kripke K.,FutuResearch Institute | Hatzold K.,Population Services International | Reed J.,Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Fourteen African countries are scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention. Several devices that might offer alternatives to the three WHO-approved surgical VMMC procedures have been evaluated for use in adults. One such device is PrePex, which was prequalified by the WHO in May 2013. We utilized data from one of the PrePex field studies undertaken in Zimbabwe to identify cost considerations for introducing PrePex into the existing surgical circumcision program. Methods and Findings: We evaluated the cost drivers and overall unit cost of VMMC at a site providing surgical VMMC as a routine service ("routine surgery site") and at a site that had added PrePex VMMC procedures to routine surgical VMMC as part of a research study ("mixed study site"). We examined the main cost drivers and modeled hypothetical scenarios with varying ratios of surgical to PrePex circumcisions, different levels of site utilization, and a range of device prices. The unit costs per VMMC for the routine surgery and mixed study sites were $56 and $61, respectively. The two greatest contributors to unit price at both sites were consumables and staff. In the hypothetical scenarios, the unit cost increased as site utilization decreased, as the ratio of PrePex to surgical VMMC increased, and as device price increased. Conclusions: VMMC unit costs for routine surgery and mixed study sites were similar. Low service utilization was projected to result in the greatest increases in unit price. Countries that wish to incorporate PrePex into their circumcision programs should plan to maximize staff utilization and ensure that sites function at maximum capacity to achieve the lowest unit cost. Further costing studies will be necessary once routine implementation of PrePex-based circumcision is established.


Gregson S.,Biomedical Research and Training Institute | Gregson S.,Imperial College London | Nyamukapa C.,Biomedical Research and Training Institute | Nyamukapa C.,Imperial College London | And 6 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases | Year: 2011

Objective: To add to the evidence on the impact of national HIV prevention programs in reducing HIV risk in sub-Saharan African countries. Methods: Statistical analysis of prospective data on exposure to HIV prevention programs, relatives with AIDS and unemployment, and sexual behavior change and HIV incidence, in a population cohort of 4047 adults, collected over a period (1998-2003) when HIV prevalence and risk-behavior declined in eastern Zimbabwe. Results: Exposure to HIV prevention programs and relatives with AIDS-but not unemployment-increased from 1998 to 2003. Men and women exposed to media campaigns and HIV/AIDS meetings had greater knowledge and self-efficacy, attributes that were concomitantly protective against HIV infection. Women attending community HIV/AIDS meetings before recruitment were more likely than other women to adopt lower-risk behavior (96.4% vs. 90.8%; adjusted odds ratio, 3.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-7.49) and had lower HIV incidence (0.9% vs. 1.8%; adjusted incidence rate ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.32-1.24) during the intersurvey period. Prior exposure to relatives with AIDS was not associated with differences in behavior change. More newly unemployed men as compared with employed men adopted lower-risk behavior (84.2% vs. 76.0%; adjusted odds ratio, 2.13; 95% CI, 0.98-4.59). Conclusions: Community-based HIV/AIDS meetings reduced risk-behavior amongst women who attended them, contributing to HIV decline in eastern Zimbabwe. © 2011 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association All rights reserved.

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