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Aryal A.,Massey University | Lamsal R.P.,Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation | Lamsal R.P.,Kathmandu University | Ji W.,Massey University | Raubenheimer D.,University of Sydney
Ethology Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2016

Tigers are a globally endangered species that encounter conflict with humans throughout their distribution range. The government of Nepal recently announced in a survey report that the tiger population has increased by 63% (from 121 in 2009 to 198), and aims by 2022 to reach a population size of 250 tigers. Here we analyse the requirement for prey and the size of protected area needed to sustain the projected increased tiger population. The results suggest that the prey biomass and size of current protected areas are insufficient to maintain 250 tigers within the current protected area systems. Therefore, further programmes should be implemented to increase prey populations and increase the area of protected tiger habitat. As Nepal is a pioneer in community-based participatory conservation practices in Asia, a strong, integrated monitoring system in protected parks, a buffer zone and a national forest should be established. Otherwise, an increasing tiger population will frequently range beyond the protected areas, resulting in intensified human-tiger conflict. © 2015 Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Firenze, Italia. Source


Mandal R.A.,Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation | Dutta I.C.,Kathmandu University | Karmacharya S.B.,Trichandra College
International Journal of Conservation Science | Year: 2015

There is an imperative interrelationship between people and forests however forests loss is continued which causes several complexities. This research was objectively done to show the effects of carbon stock on species ranking in collaborative forests (CFMs). The randomized block design (RBD) was set and stratified random sampling was applied to collect the biophysical data. Total 33, 32 and 31 samples were collected from Banke- Maraha, Tuteshwarnath and Gadhanta- Bardibash CFMs respectively; establishing 20*25m2 plot for trees using GPS coordinates. The height and diameter of plants were measured. Additionally, frequency and density of plant species were also recorded. Latter biomass was calculated using equation by Chave et al. and importance value index (IVI) was also calculated to prioritize the species. Additionally, mix rank was also estimated by using IVI and carbon to evaluate effects of carbon on species ranking. It showed that, estimated highest IVI was 68.59 in Shorea robusta in Tuteshwarnath CFM. The carbon stock of Shorea robusta was the highest 50.43±0.43 t ha-1 in Gadhanta- Bardibash CFM. Total 11 species like Dalbergia latifolia, Schleichera trijuga, Croton roxburghii and Acacia catechu were promoted their rank under mix criteria. This showed that there was effect of carbon on species ranking. Source


Carter N.H.,Michigan State University | Carter N.H.,National Socio Environmental Synthesis Center | Gurung B.,Nepal Tiger Trust | Vina A.,Michigan State University | And 3 more authors.
Ecosphere | Year: 2013

Human-induced habitat loss and degradation are increasing the extinction probability of many wildlife species worldwide, thus protecting habitat is crucial. The habitat of thousands of imperiled wildlife species occurs in a variety of land management regimes (e.g., protected areas, multiple-use areas), each exerting differing effects. We used the globally endangered tiger (Panthera tigris) to examine the relationships between habitat change and land management in Nepal's Chitwan district, a global biodiversity hotspot. We evaluated the effects of environmental and human factors on tiger habitat based on data acquired by motion-detecting cameras and space-borne imaging sensors. Spatiotemporal habitat dynamics in Chitwan National Park and a multiple-use area outside the park were then evaluated in three time periods (1989, 1999, and 2009). Our results indicate that tigers preferred areas with more grasslands and higher landscape connectivity. The area of highly suitable habitat decreased inside the park over the entire 20 year interval, while outside the park habitat suitability increased, especially from 1999 to 2009. The loss of highly suitable habitat inside the park may be associated with an increasing trend of unauthorized resource extraction by a rapidly growing human population, coupled with natural processes such as flooding and forest succession. In contrast, community-based management of natural resources and the prohibition of livestock grazing since the late 1990s likely improved tiger habitat suitability outside the park. Results of this study are useful for evaluating habitat change and guiding conservation actions across the tiger range, which spans 13 countries. Moreover, quantitatively assessing habitat change across different land management regimes in human-dominated areas provides insights for conserving habitat of other imperiled wildlife species around the world. © 2013 Carter et al. Source


Oli B.N.,Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation | Treue T.,Copenhagen University | Smith-Hall C.,Copenhagen University
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2016

To investigate the household-level economic importance of income from forests under different tenure arrangements, data were collected from 304 stratified randomly sampled households within 10 villages with community forest user groups in Tanahun District, Western Nepal. We observed that forest income contributed 5.8% to total household income, ranging from 3.8% in the top income quartile to 17.4% in the lowest quartile. Analyses of poverty indices and Gini decomposition showed that incorporating forest incomes in total household income reduces measured rural poverty and income inequality. Community forestry income constituted 49.7% of forest income, followed by 27.5% from government-managed forest, and 22.8% from private forests/trees. Community forestry income, however, contributed more than other sources of forest income to income inequality, indicating elite capture. We argue that a full realisation of community forestry's poverty reduction and income equalizing potential requires modifications of rules that govern forest extraction and pricing at community forest user group level. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source


Oli B.N.,Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation | Treueb T.,Copenhagen University
International Forestry Review | Year: 2015

Determinants of people's participation in community forestry activities in Tanahun district, Nepal were investigated through a survey of 304 households across ten community forest user groups, key informant interviews, and informal group discussions. Data were analysed through an ordered probit model as well as through the marginal effects of socio-economic factors on the probability of households' participation. Of the 12 variables considered in this study, only gender, caste, household size, livestock holding, network, and amount of firewood extraction proved statistically significant. In all household wealth categories, a moderate level of participation was by far the most common. Further, the results indicate that users participating more in community forestry activities have extracted higher amounts of firewood, fodder and timber although this relation was not statistically significant. Female headed and low caste households, however, participated significantly less than other household categories. Source

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