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Luitel D.R.,Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation | Rokaya M.B.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Timsina B.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Timsina B.,Charles University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine | Year: 2014

Background: We can conserve cultural heritage and gain extensive knowledge of plant species with pharmacological potential to cure simple to life-threatening diseases by studying the use of plants in indigenous communities. Therefore, it is important to conduct ethnobotanical studies in indigenous communities and to validate the reported uses of plants by comparing ethnobotanical studies with phytochemical and pharmacological studies.Materials and methods: This study was conducted in a Tamang community dwelling in the Makawanpur district of central Nepal. We used semi-structured and structured questionnaires during interviews to collect information. We compared use reports with available phytochemical and pharmacological studies for validation.Results: A total of 161 plant species belonging to 86 families and 144 genera to cure 89 human ailments were documented. Although 68 plant species were cited as medicinal in previous studies, 55 different uses described by the Tamang people were not found in any of the compared studies. Traditional uses for 60 plant species were consistent with pharmacological and phytochemical studies.Conclusions: The Tamang people in Makawanpur are rich in ethnopharmacological understanding. The present study highlights important medicinal plant species by validating their traditional uses. Different plant species can improve local economies through proper harvesting, adequate management and development of modern techniques to maximize their use. © 2014 Luitel et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Rossi G.,University of Pavia | Rossi G.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Orsenigo S.,University of Pavia | Orsenigo S.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 9 more authors.
Plant Biosystems | Year: 2014

With the increased loss of plant biodiversity, the ex situ seed conservation has become of strategic importance. International treaties and conventions encourage more developed countries to cooperate in providing financial and other supports for the establishment and maintenance of ex situ conservation facilities in developing countries. In this regard, the Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (Nepal) and the Ev-K2-CNR (Italy) set up the Himalayan Seed Bank, with the goal of establishing ex situ seed conservation facility of rare, endemic and endangered plants in Nepal. Here, we discuss the importance of training on seed curation, management and research for the seed bank operators in developing countries. Particular attention is given to the procedures for providing power supply and for optimizing seed longevity in dry storage. Finally, the importance of duplicates in high-standard international seed banks is also discussed. © 2014 Società Botanica Italiana. Source


Chaudhary S.,International Center for Integrated Mountain Development | Chaudhary S.,Macquarie University | Chettri N.,International Center for Integrated Mountain Development | Uddin K.,International Center for Integrated Mountain Development | And 5 more authors.
Ecological Complexity | Year: 2016

Protected areas, a corestone of biodiversity conservation, provide a vast array of ecosystem services to support livelihoods of people. However, protected areas, especially freshwater, are under threat with overexploitation of resources changing the land covers and degrading their capacity to supply services. Information on land cover changes and its implications on ecosystems, its services and people, especially in developing countries at a local scale, is largely absent. This study, therefore, seeks to understand people's dependency on ecosystem services and implications of land cover change on ecosystem services and people, with a case study in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve of Nepal. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, our findings show high dependency of the locals on a vast array of ecosystem services provided by the reserve. More than half of the sampled households were found to directly derive income from ecosystem services of the reserve. However, land cover changes especially declines in forest (16%), swamps/marshes (4%), rivers (14%) and other ecosystems over a period of 34-years impacted the provision of ecosystem services and people's dependency notably. The services from forests declined by about 94%, swamps services by 36% and services from river by 57% which were reported to be the high service suppliers. People's dependency, as perceived by the locals, was reduced by 67% over the last ten years. The study highlighting the supply, demand and implications on ecosystem services and people helped to better understand the complex interaction between humans and ecosystems. These results can be used to develop holistic approaches to restore, conserve and manage the ecosystems, and its services by balancing equal supply and demand of ecosystem services required for a self-sustaining human-environment system. It can also contribute to development of important environmental policies and programs in the area. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source


Ojha H.R.,University of New South Wales | Khatri D.B.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Shrestha K.K.,University of New South Wales | Bhattarai B.,University of Melbourne | And 9 more authors.
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2016

This article examines Nepal's recently prepared Forestry Sector Strategy (FSS) (as of 2014) in terms of the use of scientific evidence and the quality of stakeholder participation. By reviewing the content and analyzing the context of its development during 2012–2014, we found that the transitional politics and overt influence of international development agencies dominated the process and content of the FSS. Although the FSS was developed through a significant stakeholder engagement, there was limited use of the available scientific evidence. The FSS was narrowly conceived as a deliverable of supporting aid programs, with limited demand for a politically meaningful policy processes. While civil society groups were consulted, they largely failed to present an independent voice due to their dependence on funding agencies. Our assessment calls for rethinking policy development in a way that facilitates assertive and independent participation by a range of actors and make better use of the available research. © 2016, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Chapagain T.R.,Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation | Sharma R.P.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Bhandari S.K.,Tribhuvan University
Forest Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Accurate prediction of biomass for juveniles (sapling and seedling) of any stand is important to estimate total biomass or carbon stock in the stand. In this study allometric biomass models were developed for prediction of above-ground biomass for three major tropical tree species (Shorea robusta, Terminalia tomentosa, and Acacia catechu) at their juvenile stage. Biomass data for this study were acquired from 120 destructively sampled juvenile individuals (40 for each species) of these species in the lowland of western Nepal. Among several mathematical models tested, an exponential model with diameter and total height as explanatory variables showed the best fits to the data (i.e. smallest root mean square error (RMSE) and Akaike information criterion (AIC), and largest R2 adj). Also the same model form with diameter, height and wood density as explanatory variables fitted the data equally well. All other models with diameter alone or its combination with other variables showed relatively poorer fits. The first two best models of the forms and explained >92% above-ground biomass proportion, resulting in a small random variation of residuals around zero (RMSE = 62 g). Thus, for more accuracy, one of these two models was recommended to predict above-ground biomass of juveniles of three species. Since the models developed in this study are explicitly site-specific, their application should be restricted to site, size and stand conditions similar to the basis of this study. Further works for validation and verification of the presented models with new data from a wider range of site, size and stand conditions of Shorea robusta, Terminalia tomentosa, and Acacia catechu are recommended. © 2014 © 2014 Korean Forest Society. Source

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