Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation

Kathmandu, Nepal

Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation

Kathmandu, Nepal
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Luitel D.R.,Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation | Rokaya M.B.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Timsina B.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Timsina B.,Charles University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine | Year: 2014

Background: We can conserve cultural heritage and gain extensive knowledge of plant species with pharmacological potential to cure simple to life-threatening diseases by studying the use of plants in indigenous communities. Therefore, it is important to conduct ethnobotanical studies in indigenous communities and to validate the reported uses of plants by comparing ethnobotanical studies with phytochemical and pharmacological studies.Materials and methods: This study was conducted in a Tamang community dwelling in the Makawanpur district of central Nepal. We used semi-structured and structured questionnaires during interviews to collect information. We compared use reports with available phytochemical and pharmacological studies for validation.Results: A total of 161 plant species belonging to 86 families and 144 genera to cure 89 human ailments were documented. Although 68 plant species were cited as medicinal in previous studies, 55 different uses described by the Tamang people were not found in any of the compared studies. Traditional uses for 60 plant species were consistent with pharmacological and phytochemical studies.Conclusions: The Tamang people in Makawanpur are rich in ethnopharmacological understanding. The present study highlights important medicinal plant species by validating their traditional uses. Different plant species can improve local economies through proper harvesting, adequate management and development of modern techniques to maximize their use. © 2014 Luitel et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Paudel S.,Himalaya | Levesque J.C.,Environmental Resources Management Inc. | Saavedra C.,CO Vigo | Pita C.,University of Aveiro | And 2 more authors.
PeerJ | Year: 2016

The Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) (GRD) is classified as one of the most endangered of all cetaceans in the world and the second scarcest freshwater cetacean. The population is estimated to be less than 2,000 individuals. In Nepal's Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali river systems, survival of GRD continues to be threatened by various anthropogenic activities, such as dam construction and interactions with artisanal fisheries. A basic description of the geographic scope, economics, and types of gear used in these fisheries would help managers understand the fishery-dolphin interaction conflict and assist with developing potential solutions. The main goal was to provide new information on the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal. The specific objectives were to identify, compile, and investigate the demographics, economics, fishing characteristics, and perception of fishermen about GRD conservation in the Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali rivers so conservation managers can develop and implement a potential solution to the GRD-fishery interaction problem in Nepal. Based on 169 interviews, 79% of Nepalese fishermen indicated fishing was their primary form of income. Fishermen reported fishing effort was greater in summer than winter; greatest in the afternoon (14:30 hrs ± 0:27) and during low water level conditions; and gear was set 4.8 ± 0.2 days/week. Fishermen reported using eight different types of monofilament nets (gillnets and cast nets). Sixty percent used gillnets less than 10 m long, and nearly 30% preferred gillnets between 10 and 100 m long; a few used gillnets longer than 100 m. Most fishermen reported they believed education, awareness, and changing occupations were important for GRD conservation, but they indicated that alternative occupational options were currently limited in Nepal. Nepalese fishermen acknowledged that fisheries posed a risk to GRD, but they believed water pollution, and dam/irrigation developments were the greatest threats. © 2016 Paudel et al.

Chaudhary S.,Khan Research Laboratories | Chaudhary S.,Macquarie University | Chettri N.,Khan Research Laboratories | Uddin K.,Khan Research Laboratories | And 5 more authors.
Ecological Complexity | Year: 2016

Protected areas, a corestone of biodiversity conservation, provide a vast array of ecosystem services to support livelihoods of people. However, protected areas, especially freshwater, are under threat with overexploitation of resources changing the land covers and degrading their capacity to supply services. Information on land cover changes and its implications on ecosystems, its services and people, especially in developing countries at a local scale, is largely absent. This study, therefore, seeks to understand people's dependency on ecosystem services and implications of land cover change on ecosystem services and people, with a case study in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve of Nepal. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, our findings show high dependency of the locals on a vast array of ecosystem services provided by the reserve. More than half of the sampled households were found to directly derive income from ecosystem services of the reserve. However, land cover changes especially declines in forest (16%), swamps/marshes (4%), rivers (14%) and other ecosystems over a period of 34-years impacted the provision of ecosystem services and people's dependency notably. The services from forests declined by about 94%, swamps services by 36% and services from river by 57% which were reported to be the high service suppliers. People's dependency, as perceived by the locals, was reduced by 67% over the last ten years. The study highlighting the supply, demand and implications on ecosystem services and people helped to better understand the complex interaction between humans and ecosystems. These results can be used to develop holistic approaches to restore, conserve and manage the ecosystems, and its services by balancing equal supply and demand of ecosystem services required for a self-sustaining human-environment system. It can also contribute to development of important environmental policies and programs in the area. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Ojha H.R.,University of New South Wales | Khatri D.B.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Shrestha K.K.,University of New South Wales | Bhattarai B.,University of Melbourne | And 9 more authors.
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2016

This article examines Nepal's recently prepared Forestry Sector Strategy (FSS) (as of 2014) in terms of the use of scientific evidence and the quality of stakeholder participation. By reviewing the content and analyzing the context of its development during 2012–2014, we found that the transitional politics and overt influence of international development agencies dominated the process and content of the FSS. Although the FSS was developed through a significant stakeholder engagement, there was limited use of the available scientific evidence. The FSS was narrowly conceived as a deliverable of supporting aid programs, with limited demand for a politically meaningful policy processes. While civil society groups were consulted, they largely failed to present an independent voice due to their dependence on funding agencies. Our assessment calls for rethinking policy development in a way that facilitates assertive and independent participation by a range of actors and make better use of the available research. © 2016, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Rossi G.,University of Pavia | Rossi G.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Orsenigo S.,University of Pavia | Orsenigo S.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 9 more authors.
Plant Biosystems | Year: 2014

With the increased loss of plant biodiversity, the ex situ seed conservation has become of strategic importance. International treaties and conventions encourage more developed countries to cooperate in providing financial and other supports for the establishment and maintenance of ex situ conservation facilities in developing countries. In this regard, the Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (Nepal) and the Ev-K2-CNR (Italy) set up the Himalayan Seed Bank, with the goal of establishing ex situ seed conservation facility of rare, endemic and endangered plants in Nepal. Here, we discuss the importance of training on seed curation, management and research for the seed bank operators in developing countries. Particular attention is given to the procedures for providing power supply and for optimizing seed longevity in dry storage. Finally, the importance of duplicates in high-standard international seed banks is also discussed. © 2014 Società Botanica Italiana.

Chapagain T.R.,Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation | Sharma R.P.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Bhandari S.K.,Tribhuvan University
Forest Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Accurate prediction of biomass for juveniles (sapling and seedling) of any stand is important to estimate total biomass or carbon stock in the stand. In this study allometric biomass models were developed for prediction of above-ground biomass for three major tropical tree species (Shorea robusta, Terminalia tomentosa, and Acacia catechu) at their juvenile stage. Biomass data for this study were acquired from 120 destructively sampled juvenile individuals (40 for each species) of these species in the lowland of western Nepal. Among several mathematical models tested, an exponential model with diameter and total height as explanatory variables showed the best fits to the data (i.e. smallest root mean square error (RMSE) and Akaike information criterion (AIC), and largest R2 adj). Also the same model form with diameter, height and wood density as explanatory variables fitted the data equally well. All other models with diameter alone or its combination with other variables showed relatively poorer fits. The first two best models of the forms and explained >92% above-ground biomass proportion, resulting in a small random variation of residuals around zero (RMSE = 62 g). Thus, for more accuracy, one of these two models was recommended to predict above-ground biomass of juveniles of three species. Since the models developed in this study are explicitly site-specific, their application should be restricted to site, size and stand conditions similar to the basis of this study. Further works for validation and verification of the presented models with new data from a wider range of site, size and stand conditions of Shorea robusta, Terminalia tomentosa, and Acacia catechu are recommended. © 2014 © 2014 Korean Forest Society.

Pandit R.,University of Western Australia | Paudel K.C.,Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation
Small-scale Forestry | Year: 2013

Fodder trees are integral part of farming system in the hills of Nepal, but designed agroforestry interventions targeted to particular trees and crops are not widely available. This paper examines the joint productivity of an agroforestry practice in which Raikhanim (Ficus semicordata) is planted in a maize (Zea mays) and finger-millet (Eleusine coracana) cropping system at Keware Bhanjyang of the western mid-hills of Nepal. Raikhanim seedlings were planted in a row on terrace risers 2, 4 and 6 m apart in ordinary farming conditions, in a randomized block design with three replications. Maize and finger-millet were grown on the terraces as intercrops with a control plot without trees on risers in each replicate. Growth parameters of Raikhanim-height, diameter at 30 cm above ground (D30) and survival rate-were recorded annually in December until trees were lopped for fodder biomass, and crop yields were measured to determine tree-crop interaction effects. Tree height and D30 differed significantly between spacings until trees reached the lopping stage 31/2 years after planting, with the highest growth in 4 m spacing. Tree lopping checked the height growth but the diameter growth continued to increase and differed among spacings after lopping. Fodder biomass increased with tree age and was highest under 4 m spacing (7.294 t/ha) followed by 6 m (5.256 t/ha) and 2 m (3.84 t/ha). Finger-millet yield in the experimental plots decreased with tree age due to shading effects, while maize yield was not substantially affected. Among spacings, control plots produced the highest finger-millet yield (1,624 kg/ha) while the 6 m spacing produced the highest maize yield (2,463 kg/ha). It is concluded that planting Raikhanim at 6 m intervals will produce additional fodder without significant effect on maize yield and only a moderate effect on finger-millet yield. The agroforestry practice of planting fodder trees on under-utilised terrace risers is a viable option for mid-hill farmers for simultaneous production of fodder and cereal crops while sustaining the hill farming system. © 2012 Steve Harrison, John Herbohn.

Lamichhane D.,Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation | Thapa H.B.,Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2011

An international provenance trial of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) was established in July 1996 at Butwal Research Station of western Terai region of Nepal. It comprised the seed sources of 23 provenances collected from 10 countries including Nepal. A randomized complete block design was used for the experiment with two replications in an area of 1.5 hectares. The objectives of this trail were similar to that of other provenance trials under the International Neem Network. The assessments were made for survival rate, diameter at breast height (DBH), height, crown diameter and straightness of stem at age 5 and age 10. Average survival rates of the provenances in the two assessments were 69.74 and 63.5% respectively. The survival rate ranged from 33% for Kuliyapitiya, Sri Lanka to 92% for Ramannagudu, India. The four provenances Ramannagudu, Sagar, Sunyani, and Lamahi showed ≥80% survival rate. Similarly, Sunyani, Ban Bo, Yezin, Ramannagudu and Doitao showed best performance for DBH. The mean DBH of provenances was 8.74 cm (SD = 2.07). The five provenances namely, Sunyani, Yezin, Ban Bo, Ghaati and Bandia were the best performer for height. The mean height and SD of provenances were 6.29 m and 0.79 respectively. Sunyani had the widest crown diameter at both ages. Ban Nong showed the highest score for the straightness of main stem. Out of the two local provenances of Nepal, Lamahi showed better performance than Geta in many characteristics. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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