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Wawire S.A.,Ministry of Fisheries Development | Wawire S.A.,Maseno University | Miruka D.O.,Maseno University | Nelson N.,Maseno University | Ofulla A.,Maseno University
Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology | Year: 2013

Faecal coliform levels in Lake Victoria waters progressively reduced away (0-150 m) from the lake shores. Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, Klebseilla, Proteus and Citrobacter were recovered at high frequencies from water and fish than domesticated animals. Goats, chicken, donkey and cattle are important reservoirs of E. coli susceptibility to antimicrobials varied, based on the bacterial species, with about 53.8% of the isolates showing resistance to at least one class of antibiotics. The study provides a picture of resistance factors readily retained by the Enterobacteriaceae within the basin and implies that the lake may be an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes. © 2013 European Regional Centre for Ecohydrology of Polish Academy of Sciences.


Nyamweya C.S.,Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute | Mlewa C.M.,Pwani University | Ngugi C.C.,Ministry of Fisheries Development | Kaunda-Arara B.,Moi University | And 4 more authors.
Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management | Year: 2012

Aspects of the biology of Labeo cylindricus from Lake Baringo were investigated, based on experimental beach seining and gillnetting between August and October 2007. The length-weight relationship indicated the species exhibited positive allometric growth (b=3.7083), with a condition factor (K) of 0.84±0.0298 S.D. Males dominated fish catches, with an adult sex ratio of males/females of 1:1.7. The fish length-at-50% maturity (Lm50) was 127.7 and 126.1mm total length (TL) for males and females, respectively. Fish age and growth were determined from sagittal otoliths considered to be from the young-of-the-year. Clear circuli observed in the otoliths were used to determine fish age in days. Validation by oxytetracycline marking indicated that a single growth increment (1.1±0.1SE) is formed daily on fish otoliths. Fish length (TL mm) was correlated significantly with age (in days), TL=1.398 Age+26.523 (r2=0.91). Fish growth was subsequently estimated to be 1.398mmday-1. The weights and ages (in days) of fish exhibited a significant (P<0.05) power relationship defined by the equation: W=0.0003 Age2.5804 (r2=0.88). The results of this study provide parameters that, if appropriately monitored, can be used to predict responses of fish populations in Lake Baringo and elsewhere to human interventions (exploitation) and natural environmental change. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.


Mokoro A.,Moi University | Oyoo-Okoth E.,Moi University | Oyoo-Okoth E.,University of Amsterdam | Ngugi C.C.,Ministry of Fisheries Development | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2014

We evaluated the effect of varying cage stocking density (60, 90 and 120 fish m-3) and feeding duration (10, 30 and 60 min) in a cage-cumpond-integrated system on growth performance, water quality and economic benefits in Labeo victorianus culture. Interactions between stocking density and feeding duration significantly (P < 0.05) affected the fish growth performance and yields in the cages-cum-pond system. Stocking density of 60 fish m-3 resulted in the highest growth in cages and in ponds regardless of the feeding duration, but produced lower yields than at stocking density 90 fish m-3 . The lowest Apparent Food Conversion Ratio (AFCR) in cages occurred at stocking density of 60 fish m-3 and feeding duration of 30 min. Growth performance in the open ponds declined with increased feeding duration of the caged fish. Survival in cages and in the open ponds decreased with increased cage density, but was not affected by feeding duration. Low dissolved oxygen were recorded, at stocking density of 120 fish m-3, the lowest DO occurred when feeding of caged fish lasted 60 min. Growth performance, water quality and economic benefits in Labeo victorianus culture positively respond to interaction between stocking density and feeding durations. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons Ltd.


Kundu R.,Ministry of Fisheries Development | Aura C.M.,Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute | Muchiri M.,Moi University | Njiru J.M.,Moi University | Ojuok J.E.,Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute
Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management | Year: 2010

Unlike other lakes in tropical regions, Lake Naivasha exhibits low fish species diversity. The fishery is based on introduced fish species that are not native to the lake. The lake ecosystem is very fragile, as reflected in its fluctuating fish catches. The fishery almost completely collapsed in 2001, due partly to mismanagement and ignorance about needed conservation measures. The Kenyan government, like many governments around the world, recognized the need to involve fishers and other stakeholders, in order to ensure better management of the lake fisheries resources. Also referred to as collaborative management (co-management), this management approach provides the opportunity to share responsibility for managing the fishery resources between the government and the community. A total ban on fishing was imposed in February 2001, lasting for 1 year, to allow lake fish stocks to recover. This study analyses the co-management process for Lake Naivasha, and discusses the role played by the community during the fishing ban, as well as the successes and challenges encountered, and the tribulations and perceptions of the fishers regarding the new management strategy. It also comprises the first documentation of community participation in fisheries management begun for Lake Naivasha in the year 2001. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.


Maina J.G.,University of Nairobi | Mbuthia P.G.,University of Nairobi | Ngugi J.,Kenya Agricultural Research Institute | Omolo B.,Ministry of Fisheries Development | And 5 more authors.
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2014

Fish contribute 7 billion shillings to the Kenyan economy annually and fish processing, value addition and marketing provide excellent opportunities for the development of Public-Private partnerships. Government intervention in fish farming in Kenya started in 1921 when the colonial government introduced trout, common carp and black bass into the country. Despite many government initiatives, fish farming has not been fully integrated with other farming systems and its contribution to the national economy is small. A study was done to characterize fish farming practices in Mwea Division of Kirinyaga County, in Kenya. Specific objectives of the study were to evaluate how social-economic and gender factors influenced fish production, and to explore the preliminary influence of the Fish Farming Enterprise and Productivity Program (FFEPP) on fish farming practices and production in Mwea Division. Over 80% of fish farmers in the division were recruited and funded through the FFEPP. Gender had a significant influence on fish management practices. Farmers funded through the FFEPP had larger ponds and stocked and harvested more fish than self-funded farmers while the latter group fertilized and drained their ponds more frequently. They also took less time to harvest (7.6 compared to 9.2 months) and harvested heavier fish (0.5 kg) than farmers under the FFEPP (0.27 kg). Most of the fish harvested were sold on the farm to neighbours, friends and family. All the extension officers sampled had at least a diploma and all of them indicated that they walked to meet farmers. The findings of this study are useful to policy makers, Ministry of Fisheries Development, Researchers and other stake-holders in Agriculture and Development.


Etiegni C.A.,Ministry of Fisheries Development | Ostrovskaya E.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Leentvaar J.,Water Management Inspectorate | Eizinga F.,Water Management Inspectorate
Regional Environmental Change | Year: 2011

Overexploitation of living resources severely affects aquatic ecosystems and is among the most serious environmental issues worldwide. Lake Victoria, the second largest fresh water lake in the world, provides food and jobs to almost 30 million people in three African countries and is nowadays facing significant decrease in fish stock due to its unsustainable use. To analyse reasons behind the illegal fishing activities in the Kenyan part of the lake, the survey programme was designed based on a rational choice framework, and data analysis on compliance with fisheries regulatory law was carried out. Selection of explanatory variables to be considered was guided by the Table of 11, which is a tool elaborated for the Netherlands' Ministry of Justice to analyse the regulated community's behaviour and motivations. Key findings of the study show that existing economic environment and weak enforcement contribute to the low compliance with the fisheries regulations and lead to further degradation of the lake ecosystem. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: KBBE.2011.1.4-07 | Award Amount: 1.06M | Year: 2012

Aquaculture is widely considered as important for enhancing food security, alleviating poverty and improving nutrition. However, little information is available concerning the direct and indirect impacts of aquaculture on food security and poverty alleviation in most developing countries and LIFDCs. Strengthening the knowledge base surrounding aquaculture and food and nutrition security through this project will provide the evidence upon which sound resource allocation and strategies can be based, and subsequently plan, implement and coordinate efficiently development and research programmes supporting the sustainable expansion of aquaculture and increasing its impact to food security and poverty alleviation. The project is to be implemented by 18 partners in 11 selected LIFDCs, 3 EU partners, and 3 international organizations. The project will strengthen the knowledge base on food security and poverty and develop new methodologies or more rigorous methodologies to quantify the contribution of aquaculture in combating hunger and poverty in developing countries and LIFDCs. This will endeavour to better understand aquacultures contribution to human development. Project partner countries were selected based on varied human development conditions and national level efforts in including aquaculture for improving national food security and alleviating poverty. They represent all major aquaculture regions and ICPCs where aquaculture has major contributions to national economy involve high numbers of small-scale aquaculture farms, and with high international trade of fish and fishery products. The results of the project will be brought to the attention of countries and development partners, particularly the EU, and outputs will help LIFDCs and various development partners to improve efficiency and coordination in development initiatives focused on aquaculture as a means of promoting food security and poverty alleviation.

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