Ministry of Fisheries

Wellington, New Zealand

Ministry of Fisheries

Wellington, New Zealand
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In the Near East and North Africa region, the importance of addressing food security not only through increasing production but in reducing waste and losses and increasing efficiency of processing and marketing has become critical throughout the agricultural sector. In particular for fisheries, the combination of overfishing, projected climate change impacts, and pollution create an uncertain future for the production of fish in the region. This becomes increasingly critical when considering the growing demand for fish in the region. The fisheries sector in the region encompasses a number of unique challenges with regards to food losses and waste, and require a particular consideration. In an effort to address these issues, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (FAO), in partnership with the Mauritanian Ministry of Fisheries and Maritime Economy and the Center for Marketing Information and Advisory Services for Fishery Products in the Arab Region (Infosamak) will be holding the “Regional conference on food security and income generation through reduction of losses and waste in fisheries”, 15-17 December 2013 in Nouakchott, Mauritania. In particular, the Conference will consider case studies from the region as well as a number of technical topics including; best practices for minimising fish postharvest losses and waste; use of fishery by-products and coproducts for minimising waste, and fishery value chain based approach; sustainable management of fish bycatch and discards. The overall objectives of the conference will be to review the current situation and identify policy level and operational level interventions to improve food security and income generation through reduction of losses and waste in fisheries in Near East and North Africa region.

In view of the economic and social importance of the octopus fishery in Mauritania and its leading role in seafood exports from Mauritania, the SMCP (Seafood marketing and trade promotion of Mauritania) and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) have been exploring since 2015 ways and means to promote sustainable octopus fisheries through eco-labelling. The eco-labelling approach has been framed within the 2015-2019 National strategy for Fisheries Management of the Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Economy (MPEM), which was adopted by the Council of Ministers in February 2015. An FAO/SMCP/MPEM workshop on eco-labelling of octopus in Mauritania was held in Nouadhibou during the period 25 to 26 October 2016. It was attended by national and international experts representing fisheries research, government, academia and industry. Using the FAO guidelines for eco-labelling of fish and fishery products from marine fisheries and the related methodology of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) for fisheries improvement, the workshop reviewed research data, studies and experiences of octopus harvesting and management in Mauritania to identify achievements for consolidations, as well as gaps and deficiencies to address in the 3 main areas of fisheries management: the stock, the eco-system and the management system. The workshop has: Confirmed the interest and usefulness of eco-labelling as a way to promote sustainable management and harvesting of octopus in Mauritania Taken stock of the progress achieved since the  pre-evaluation that was carried out in 2010 using the MSC methodology Designed the major elements of an action plan to address gaps and insufficiencies and assign responsibilities for its implementation The workshop outcome will be used to develop shortly a roadmap for introducing eco-labelling of octopus in Mauritania and to mobilize the necessary resources to that effect. In this respect, the SMCP, that is mandated to promote the quality and label of the seafood exported from Mauritania and which is the major counterpart of seafood importers, will act as a focal point for this initiative. It will work to federate the efforts of the stakeholders and concerned institutions in Mauritania. FAO will make available its technical assistance and expertise for its implementation. A working group of experts from FAO and Mauritania will prepare by January 2017 a detailed action plan for eco-labelling octopus in Mauritania with defined activities, responsibilities, timetable, investment, monitoring and evaluation.

Funded by the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and co-organized with the Ministry of Fisheries (MoF), the Biosecurity Agency of Fiji (BAF), the University of South Pacific (USP) and facilitated by FAO, the workshop participated by 39 representing the government, the academe (USP), producers (Pacific Ocean Culture Pte Ltd., The Crab Company of Fiji Ltd., Valili Pearls Co., Ltd., Pacific Ocean Culture Pte Ltd., Aquarium Fish (Fiji) Ltd. and Vet Essentials Fiji Ltd.) and regional and international organizations (FAO, JICA, Secretariat of the Pacific Community), prepared a draft NAAHB Strategy. A broad yet comprehensive strategy for building and enhancing capacity for the management of national aquatic biosecurity and aquatic animal health, the strategy will focus on five priority commodities, namely: prawn & shrimp, seaweeds, pearls, Nile tilapia, giant clam & sandfish. The strategy contains the national action plans at the short-, medium- and long-term using phased implementation based on national needs and priorities. The strategy framework consists of Purpose and Vision Statements and Guiding Principles. The strategy includes 10 Programme Component/Elements, each one contains a description of the scope, objectives, current status and projects/activities that will be implemented at the short-, medium- and long-term based on national needs and priorities. Responsible entities for each project/activity are also included as well as an Implementation Plan. The 10 Programme Components/Elements are: (1) Policy, Legislation and Enforcement, (2) Risk Analysis, (3) Pathogen List, (4) Border Inspection and Quarantine, (5) Surveillance, Monitoring and Reporting, (6) Emergency Preparedness and Contingency Planning, (7) Institutional Structure (Including Infrastructure), (8) Research and Development, (9) Regional and International Cooperation, and (10) Capacity Building. Development of a NAAHB Strategy involves an extensive & iterative process led by the Competent Authority and extensive consultation with key stakeholders from other government agencies, academia and the private sector. It is a proactive measure without which a country can only react in a piecemeal fashion to new developments in international trade and the global situation with regard to serious transboundary aquatic animal diseases (TAADs), and its aquaculture and fisheries sectors will remain highly vulnerable to new and emerging diseases that may severely affect capture fisheries and aquaculture production, leading to major social and economic impacts. Fiji can take an important lead role in setting an example for the Pacific region with a vision that Fiji's aquatic wildlife and aquaculture species thrive in a healthy environment, valued by its society that embraces and sustainably benefits from the diversity of its aquatic resources. Fiji's MoF has taken the initial necessary steps for developing a NAAHB Strategy for the country. The development of this strategy is a very timely initiative and is in line and in parallel to a number of legal and policy instruments (e.g. Aquaculture Bill 2016 scheduled for 3rd hearing at the Parliament; the draft National Fisheries Policy and the draft Fiji Aquaculture Strategy) – all of which will support sustainable aquaculture development. Mr Semi Koroilavesau, The Honorable Minister for Fisheries, Mr Hiroyuki Sawada, JICA Resident Representative, Dr Ciro Rico, Head of the School of Marine Studies of USP, Dr Robin Yarrow, Keynote Speaker and Chairperson of National Trust of Fiji and Dr Melba Reantaso of FAO graced the Opening session of the workshop. Further information can be obtained by writing to

News Article | May 25, 2017

The West Greenland offshore halibut fishery has achieved Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certification as a sustainable and well-managed fishery. This is the first MSC certified Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) fishery in the world and represents half of the total allowable catch (TAC) of the stock. Sustainable Fisheries Greenland (SFG) entered the fishery into MSC assessment in March 2016 and the fish can now be sold globally carrying the blue MSC label. This fishery operates in Baffin Bay and the Davis Strait off West Greenland and has been in operation since the mid-1960s. Fishing in the area is managed by the government of Greenland and the Ministry of Fisheries and Hunting, who set the annual TAC. Enforcement by the Greenland Fishery License Control Authority subjects the fishery to logbook obligations and an observer scheme. Mesh size for nets has a regulated minimum of 100 mm in the underwing and 140 mm in the rest of the trawl, which avoids bycatch, and discards are banned. This coldwater fish can be found all around the Arctic, Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and generally lives at a temperature of 1-4 degrees Celsius. It is a large flatfish that can grow up to 1.2 meters in length and is dark on both sides, unlike other flatfish species that are white underneath and dark on top. Greenland halibut is the most valuable flatfish species in Greenlandic waters with most of the catch being exported to China and Japan. In Europe, the biggest markets are Germany and Spain. “The Greenlandic fishery client, SFG, has made tremendous effort in getting key fisheries certified against the MSC standard," Gisli Gislason, MSC senior program manager for Iceland, Faroe and Greenland, said. "That applies for both their prawn, lumpfish and now the Greenland halibut fishery. By getting this certified as sustainable and well managed against the MSC standard, we hope it will be well received in the global markets, both in Europe and Asia.”

News Article | September 8, 2016

For a startup founder, Charlie Sweat carries a particularly heavy burden. In 2006, he was CEO of Earthbound Farm, the California-based farm and factory that produces the majority of the country’s packaged organic salads, when an E. coli outbreak struck the company’s spinach. Three people died, and 200 more were sickened. The source, investigators later surmised, was likely at the source of the spinach: an Angus cattle ranch that had leased land to a spinach grower. The experience left Sweat unnerved, but it gave him an idea, too. Preventing outbreaks was a matter of knowing where the tainted food came from. But for legacy food companies, supply chain transparency is a daunting task, complicated by a vast number of suppliers, plants, distributors, and products. Different producers use different tagging systems and different sensors to track different things. Piecing together the details of what comes from where and goes where from seed to table had never really been done successfully before. If it could be, the implications for both public health, corporate transparency, and anti-counterfeiting efforts would be huge: Between food and pharmaceuticals, the market for tracking technologies is expected to grow to an expected revenue of $14.1 billion by 2020, according to a report by Allied Market Research in 2014. That year, Sweat stepped down from Earthbound, capping a 16-year stint at the company, but he took his idea with him. A few months later, with money from the owners of Earthbound, friends and family and investors, he founded Frequentz, a Palo Alto-based startup that touts a comprehensive "track-and-trace" system for food safety—like FedEx tracking, but for each piece of the food supply chain, from seed to table. Sweat says that by uploading and integrating any kind of data collected from any kind of tag or sensor, the system can discover the source of a food-borne pathogen, be it a contaminated farm or a broken refrigeration unit. The data could not only help companies identify inefficiencies on their supply chain, but also meet a rising crop of food safety regulations, and help satisfy our growing hunger for more transparency about the foods we eat. Named for the frequency of updates required for a transparent food supply chain, Frequentz aims to slash the number of food-borne illness outbreaks—and make a killing among efficiency- and transparency-conscious food companies. "Since it is possible now to know everything about your product, the stakes are much higher if you haven’t done everything you can to validate what you sell," says Sweat. The food safety problem alone is immense and costly. Last year, Food Safety magazine counted 622 food safety recalls globally due to contamination, with each recall estimated to mean losses on average of $10 million. Food-borne pathogens affect as many as 48 million Americans a year, and according to research by Robert Scharff, an associate professor at Ohio State University, the annual cost of medical treatment, lost productivity, and illness-related mortality is $55.5 billion. There's also the threat of illegal practices like unregulated fishing or adulteration, in which suppliers might add something to food to lower their costs. Said to be most prevalent in liquids such as olive oil and in powders such as spices, this form of fraud is estimated to cost the industry $10 billion to $15 billion a year. In one example last year, ground cumin had been covertly mixed with peanut protein, prompting about 20 recalls and leading the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to issue a consumer warning. The Frequentz software, custom-designed for each client, depends in part on a growing transportation "internet of things," including sensors on food crates, in trucks, and on packages. It's built to accept mobile data from sensors measuring the condition of produce, such as freshness and temperature, as well as scanners picking up packing label data and geographic coordinates. Unlike its handful of competitors, including HarvestMark and FoodLogiQ, Sweat says Frequentz has been designed to combine any data collected from any sensor. Data from even the smallest farms and fishing vessels can be uploaded on the fly. Eventually, says Sweat, consumers at supermarkets will be able to access that data on their smartphones, including whether a product is fair trade, was harvested or made by workers earning living wages, or contains GMOs or gluten. The concept of "track and trace" for food is still a relatively new one for the legacy supply chains that bring the world its food. So far, the cost of such systems has been prohibitive for the food industry, which, despite trillion-dollar revenues in the U.S. alone, faces persistently thin margins. That hesitation can be seen in Frequentz's business: In its first year, 2014, sales totaled $3 million; last year’s inched up to $4.5 million. That calculus began to change last year, after an estimated 500 people fell ill after eating at Chipotle outlets in several states, most from norovirus. At least 60 suffered salmonella poisoning and more than 50 ate E. coli-contaminated food. (E. coli and salmonella bacteria tend to originate in feces and usually reach humans through raw or undercooked meat and other foods.) According to Chipotle, sales at locations that have been open for more than a year were down 23.6% for the quarter ending July 2016. Profits fell to $25.6 million from $140.2 million the year before. Investors weren’t kind either: After shutting down all of its stores for safety training and giving away 6 million free burritos to generate a bit of positive PR, the restaurant chain lost nearly half its market capitalization from its pre-crisis high, or close to $11 billion. Chipotle executives have said they believe it could take 18 months for the stock price to recover. In a report, Deutsche Bank analyst Brett Levy noted Chipotle's willingness to take drastic action, "but we also question whether [Chipotle] will ever regain its lost luster." Chipotle’s failure to promptly resolve and explain the outbreaks—and to offer more transparency to its customers—caused other companies to take notice, says Sweat. Now, Frequentz’s customers include food-based subsidiaries of the $65-billion German retail giant Metro AG, and he has projects in development at Costco and the Campbell Soup Co. "If you can respond proactively in real time and explain to consumers what happened during an outbreak and how you are going to keep it from happening again, you can retain that consumer," says Sweat. "Chipotle’s revenues are still down. Consumers vote with their wallets." Frequentz is also spreading out to the pharmaceutical industry, and expects cosmetics and personal products to soon embrace ingredient tracking as well. The company has received a total of $20 million in equity investment as well as investments from insiders and owners, with Sweat the largest individual investor. This month, Sweat says Frequentz will complete a Series C financing round led by investment firm Capricorn Healthcare & Special Opportunities, which also provided seed financing. For its part, Chipotle recently launched its own track-and-trace program with one of Frequentz’s competitors, Durham, North Carolina-based FoodLogiQ. Chipotle had previously relied on its own tracking system, but last year's outbreak exposed a critical lapse: Once ingredients got to stores, all tracking stopped. Tomatoes, for instance, from any number of sources, were mixed together during food prep. That's why, even after an extensive investigation by the Centers for Disease Control, the exact source of the two Chipotle outbreaks was never found. In February, the CDC concluded its investigation without tracking down exactly which food or ingredient was responsible, citing the problem of ingredients mixed at stores. Chipotle welcomed the decision. Chris Arnold, a Chipotle representative, said the company now knows which supplier sent which item to which restaurant using package bar codes, "in much the same way overnight delivery services track package shipments around the world," with the aim of tracking food "from seed to stomach." With FoodLogiQ, they now track every ingredient all the way through food preparation. If you get sick at Chipotle and you know where you ate and what time, the company can more readily nail the source of the contamination. Track-and-trace companies like Frequentz, FoodLogiQ, and HarvestMark specialize in gathering and analyzing data around the movement of food, but actually detecting viruses and bacteria on site is a different challenge. Other startups like Clear Labs, Ancera, and SnapDNA are racing to market with faster, cheaper, more reliable mobile pathogen tests, aimed at identifying the pathogens responsible for an outbreak in just hours and accelerating a process that typically takes weeks. Working together, tracking and testing technology companies could make future food-borne pathogen outbreaks inexcusable. After a recent E. coli outbreak in flour sickened hundreds, the maker of the flour, General Mills, recalled 45 million pounds of it, about 2% of its annual output, and issued a set of recommendations to the Food and Drug Administration, including that it convene experts focused on identifying long-term solutions, like whole genome sequencing. Still, supply chain transparency remains a venture fund backwater, with few new companies entering the space. Investments are relatively small—a few million dollars each. Tracking ingredients is a time-consuming slough that technology makes possible, but not easy. Most food companies are waiting for costs to come down, says Melissa Tilney, cofounder of AgFunder, a company that tracks investments in agriculture and food technology. "This is not considered the land of technology unicorns." After using Frequentz for a year and a half, Andres Cuka, chief operating officer at Marbelize, a giant Ecuador-based tuna processor, estimates it may be another three years before the Frequentz system pays for itself. That estimate is based not just on improved efficiencies, but on the assumption that increased transparency will allow him to raise prices and convince consumers to buy more Marbelize tuna. Still, Sweat believes the food industry is at a tipping point, as consumers start to demand more transparent labeling. A law passed in May 2014 in Vermont pushed Congress to create a more comprehensive national food labeling law requiring GMO disclosure, which President Obama signed into law last month. "This is going to drive more communication between consumers and food producers," Sweat says. "It is a communication Frequentz facilitates." That level of transparency is valuable for small vendors as well, says Rob Trice, a partner in Better Food Ventures, a two-year-old seed stage food-tech investment fund. He’s invested in eHarvestHub, a startup providing mobile tagging and tracking to small family farms, enabling them to work efficiently with larger distributors and retailers. "Investors are fuming about Chipotle," says Trice. "Starting now, companies are expected to have this technology in place." Marbelize, which moves 4,000 tons of fish a month sold under 950 different labels around the world, turned to Frequentz a year ago when it wanted to distance itself from the proliferation of illegal fishing operations. The system is designed to log events as simple as when a box of canned tuna moves from a truck to a processing plant or as complex as turning that tuna into a frozen entree. "We verify every time there is a chain of custody event or transformative event of the product," Sweat says. "If we could identify ourselves as having met all of the certifications—we are ‘dolphin safe’—it increases our marketability," says Cuka, of Marbelize. "Consumers want to know where their tuna comes from, how it is caught. We want to show them everything about our tuna." Today, when a Marbelize boat hauls in a catch, the captain stands on deck with a computer tablet in hand taking photos that show the species, the dimensions of individual fish, and the abundance of the catch. The photos record the geolocation of the fishing boat, proving the catch was in legal waters. "We can see all of this in real time long before the boat comes in," says Cuka. Formerly hidden operating inefficiencies, he adds, are now becoming obvious. This year, Sweat has also signed up the Honduran Ministry of Fisheries, representing 2,400 fishing companies, and is negotiating with Myanmar’s wild shrimp industry, which has as many as 20,000 fishing vessels. "They have to have electronic solutions that validate their seafood was caught legally and sustainably" to comply with international fishing regulations, he says. To Cuka, the dream is that consumers at the grocery store will someday be able to scan a QR code on a tuna can and see the photos of the fish at the moment of capture. Millennials in particular want to know what they are putting in their bodies, says Eve Turow Paul, author of A Taste of Generation Yum, who consults with food companies about how to reach this target market. The trick to a premium price can be as simple as wrapping food in clear plastic, as Kind does with its bars. "[Millennials] are anxious about an uncertain world and lack trust in the big companies that dominate it," Paul says. Often the only thing they feel they can control is what they eat, or don’t eat. Thanks largely to millennial consumers, transparency now "is not negotiable," Campbell’s senior manager for corporate social responsibility Niki King told a gathering of food and agriculture company executives this month during a webinar sponsored by the Center for Food Integrity, a food industry advocacy group. With no clear definition for "ethical," "sustainable," or even "healthy," complete transparency is becoming the universal standard for a company’s trustworthiness with consumers. After Chipotle, track-and-trace technologies are simply "a cost of being in the food business," says Charlie Piper, who recently stepped down as the CEO of HarvestMark. Still, he warns, the technologies alone are only as effective at monitoring the supply chain as the human beings who manage it. "The client has to be focused on continued improvement," he says. Chipotle's new track-and-trace system, FoodLogiQ, is the most established of the new track-and-trace service companies. Eight years ago, after a mad cow disease outbreak in Canada, FoodLogiQ’s parent company Clarkston Consulting was hired to create a birth-to-slaughter tracing system for beef. In 2013, operating as a wholly owned subsidiary, FoodLogiQ was hired to design the track-and-trace system for Wholefoods’ "Responsibly Grown" program, which ranks produce suppliers on environmental sustainability. FoodLogiQ’s business took off last fall when it was able to move its clients from paper spreadsheets to a cloud-based software service that could be accessed anywhere via smartphones. "Our clients don’t need their own servers now. They don’t need an IT department," says Dean Wiltse, FoodLogiQ's CEO, echoing a mantra now heard throughout the growing cloud services industry. Revenues at the privately held company are expected to triple this year, he says. "Brands need to get their supply chain in order. They are being called to task." He echoes Sweat, underscoring that supply chain transparency will eventually sweep through all food-related supply chains for the cost savings alone. "We cut the time spent dealing with suppliers in half," he says. He tells customers to expect $1 savings for every 25 cents they invest in track-and-trace services. Sweat's chief selling point is regulatory compliance, but he closes deals by talking about saving money, through efficiencies and lower insurance rates. At Earthbound, he says, "we were able to show our insurance carriers that we reduced product recalls and reduced the cost of goods. So they reduced our insurance premiums." None of this was obvious until recently. Five years ago, HarvestMark, another seed-to-table service inspired by the Earthbound E. coli outbreak, partnered with the Cincinnati, Ohio-based grocery chain Kroger to provide detailed supply chain information on food products in a few of its stores. "Kroger stopped it after one year," says HarvestMark founder Elliott Grant, who cited the cost—two cents per SKU, or individual inventory item—as impossible to justify. There was another lesson too: People buying fish didn’t necessarily want to see their future dinner on the hook. "We learned consumers don’t really care that much. They want to trust that the store where they shop has done this work. They don’t want to do it themselves." In 2011, Grant sold HarvestMark for an undisclosed amount to ag-tech giant Trimble Navigation, which posted sales of $2.5 billion in 2015. Today, HarvestMark, which unlike Frequentz relies on proprietary QR-code labels, counts among its clients Sam’s Club, Woolworth’s of Australia, and Driscoll’s, the Watsonville, California, fresh berry company. Driscoll’s packs berries in the field into the individual plastic clamshells that shoppers pick up in the grocery store. The fruit is never washed. No one touches the berries after the picker closes the clamshell. Driscoll’s has long coded each case of clamshells and tracked them to store shelves, allowing fast, easy trace-back in cases of contamination. Five years ago, the company hired HarvestMark to help it create a system to add their QR codes to each individual berry clamshell package they sell. Consumers could then use their smartphones to scan the code on the package they bought into the company’s website and tell Driscoll’s exactly what they thought about the berries they had just eaten. Using that QR code, the company could trace those berries back through every inch of the distribution trail, from the customer on their website to the field where they could identify the picker by name. It turns out people are passionate about their berries. The flood of detailed and actionable data direct from consumers—the condition of the berries, the condition of the store where they were purchased—made expensive focus group market research obsolete. Soon, kinks in the supply chain became more apparent. Rather than blaming the farmers for less than perfect berries, Driscoll’s knew which drivers turned off their truck refrigeration to save gas, and which stores' refrigeration was broken. Driscoll’s system has greatly advanced the market for berries, says Soren Bjorn, Driscoll’s executive vice president for the Americas. As quality improved and became more consistent, demand grew. This occasional luxury became a must-have fruit. "It was an a-ha moment for us," he says. "It has taken a lot of the tension out of our relationships with growers," says Bjorn. The system quickly paid for itself. "There is less waste, improved sales, increased consumer loyalty. Overall berry quality has increased, which allows us to charge a premium price. We sell a billion clamshells of berries a year. If we could grow more berries, we could sell them." A transparent connection with growers can present challenges. Veteran farm workers—some of whom hail from indigenous communities from Oaxaca, Mexico, and who are often paid by the weight of their haul—are fighting for fairer pay and working conditions. Workers at Washington state’s family-owned berry farm and packaging plant Sakuma Brothers have called for a national boycott of Driscoll’s berries—the primary purchaser of Sakuma blueberries and blackberries—hoping to enlist the brand’s customers in their cause. Dan Sun, the Trimble executive responsible for bringing HarvestMark into the company and its new CEO, says food safety and regulatory requirements are the initial draw for clients. Perhaps, 15% of the companies that purchase HarvestMark services pursue supply chain transparency strictly to satisfy consumer demand. Overall, cost savings are now the stronger incentive. Internal studies show clients experience a 20% to 30% reduction in product waste, he says. For a large food company, that can translate into billions of dollars in savings. "We make sure the supply chain is tight enough that the food reaches the grocery store shelf without waste," says Sun. "The food and agriculture industry is very conservative, but when they see the savings, they change. I’m surprised there aren’t more players offering track-and-trace." These are early days for this technology, says Sweat. Prospective clients want the results. Overhauling their systems, however, is daunting. "Big changes like this take time."

Waugh S.M.,BirdLife Global Seabird Programme | Filippi D.P.,Sextant Technology Ltd. | Kirby D.S.,British Petroleum | Abraham E.,Dragonfly Ltd. | Walker N.,Ministry of Fisheries
Marine Policy | Year: 2012

The risk of seabird-fishery interactions in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) was examined by analysing the overlap of seabird distributions with tuna and swordfish pelagic longline fisheries managed by the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) and its constituent members. The study used spatially-explicit Productivity-Susceptibility Analysis (PSA). Key data inputs were species productivity, fishing effort, likelihood of capture and species density by region. The outputs tailored results to the needs of fisheries- and wildlife-managers, indicating areas of greatest risk of species interactions, species of greatest concern for population impacts, and the flags or fisheries most likely to contribute to the risk. Large albatross species were found to be most likely to suffer population effects when exposed to longline fishing activity, followed by the larger petrels from the genuses Procellaria, Macronectes and Pterodroma. A mixture of coastal states with nesting seabird populations in their Exclusive Economic Zones (New Zealand, Australia and United States of America), distant water fishing nations (Japan, Taiwan) and flags of convenience (Vanuatu) contributed 90% of the risk to seabird populations. Recommendations include enhancing the level of fisheries observer monitoring in areas indicated as high to medium risk for seabird interactions, and consideration of spatial management tools, such as more intensive or more stringent seabird bycatch mitigation requirements in high- to medium-risk areas. The methods used, and similar studies conducted in the Atlantic Ocean could lead to improved targeting of monitoring resources, and greater specificity in the needs for seabird-mitigation measures. This will assist in reducing seabird mortality in longline fishing operations and with more effective use of resources for fishery managers in both domestic fisheries and RFMOs. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Sinan H.,Ministry of Fisheries | Whitmarsh D.,University of Portsmouth
Marine Policy | Year: 2010

The economic value of marine fisheries can be measured by the resource rent that may potentially be earned, which represents a flow of real wealth for the community at large. For the island state of the Maldives we estimate that the resource rent that could be generated by the marine fisheries is in the order of $50 million per annum, constituting some 27% of the current value of landings. This rent is lost due to the de facto open-access nature of fishing. A wealth-based approach to fisheries management would seek to capture the rent, and the paper discusses the constraints and trade-offs that would be faced in applying this in the Maldivian context. We argue that such an approach is entirely consistent with the aim of the 7th National Development Plan which rightly emphasises the need to ensure the sustainability of marine resources for present and future generations. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

In the last few decades Western democracies, predominately those of British origin, have debated vigorously about how to improve public management performance. These debates have created an influx of new ideas and initiatives regarding the concept and practise of public management. New Zealand implemented public management reform further and faster than most other nations. At the same time, New Zealand implemented sweeping reforms to the management of fisheries, which led to the quota management system based on the allocation of individual transferable quota. This article briefly outlines the history of changes in New Zealand's public management system and the effect these changes have had on institutional arrangements for managing fisheries. Each institutional arrangement has been devised to accommodate the priorities and policies of the government of the day, spanning the Marine Department established in 1866 to recent structural changes made to the Ministry of Fisheries. The recent structural changes have placed greater emphasis on governance to improve performance, but have also led to substantial losses of in-house experience and institutional knowledge. This article contributes to the broader discussion about whether structural changes provide measureable benefits or the most cost effective way to deliver improvements in performance. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

New Zealand's brief history of human habitation has led to widespread and often irreversible change in the biophysical environment. Most of the wetlands were drained and de-forestation led to major gully and channel erosions and high amounts of sediment yield in the estuarine and marine environments. The scale of land-based effects on marine species is indeterminable. The legislation for managing the land-sea interface is widely acknowledged as having fallen short of its full potential. After the 2008 general election the new government commenced review of this legislation while consideration was given to 'unlocking New Zealand's energy potential' as a key component to an export-led economic recovery. The government is promoting oil, gas and mineral exploration on land and at sea. The government is also enacting boundaries that extend continental shelf jurisdiction. These developments may lead to further progress on an integrated system that covers all aspects of marine management that began in 2000. In any case, New Zealanders face important decisions regarding the tradeoffs between further resource utilisation and environmental protection. This article contributes to the discussion on integrated management to maintain a balance between utilisation and protection and does not reflect the view of the Ministry of Fisheries. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Since the advent of Western European exploration questions have been raised about the legality and morality of claims to new territories and the ensuing, often brutal colonisation patterns. The doctrine of discovery justified the acquisition of territories by conquest or other means. By the 19th century British common law included the doctrine of continuity, which recognised that the property rights of the indigenous people survived after the Crown acquired sovereignty over their territories. The Crown used a general treaty of cession and protection as the instrument for gaining sovereignty. In the context of Western European colonisation, this article discusses the statutory and judicial recognition of New Zealand's Treaty of Waitangi 1840 and native title to land. The ensuing discussion highlights statute and judicial decisions that depart from the Treaty and are unique within the British colonies. This article also discusses the settlement of Treaty-based claims to land and fisheries and the current debate regarding ownership of the land along the seacoast and beneath the sea. The article contributes to the broader discussion on indigenous rights. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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