Ministry of Environmental Protection of The Peoples Republic of China

Beijing, China

Ministry of Environmental Protection of The Peoples Republic of China

Beijing, China
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Yang Y.,Appraisal Center for Environment and Engineering | Yang Y.,China National Offshore Oil Corporation | Yang Y.,Beijing University of Technology | Cui J.,Appraisal Center for Environment and Engineering | And 3 more authors.
Research of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2017

Although the management and control of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) pollution has become a focus in the field of atmospheric environment in China, there is no official definition of VOCs in China yet. The United States (US) was the first country to introduce legislation to control VOCs. In this paper, the historical literatures and cases on the control of VOCs in the US were reviewed and the 3-stage evolution of the VOCs definition in the US was identified: the pre-VOCs stage, the volatility-based stage and the reactivity-based stage. Furthermore, this paper systematically analyzes the evolution of the VOCs definition and classification with respect to the scientific understanding of air pollution and VOCs reactivity, the VOCs control policy, and the definition and connotation of VOCs covering the 3 stages above. The findings revealed that the evolution of the VOCs definition at different stages related closely to the scientific understanding of air pollution and VOCs reactivity, as well as the VOCs control policy at the corresponding stages. The scientific understanding of air pollution and VOCs reactivity is the theoretical basis of control policy, while the definitions of VOCs reflect the control policies accordingly. With the most concentrated and in-depth study on the reactivity of VOCs in the US came the reactivity-based definition of VOCs as the 3rd stage and thus the transformation trend of the VOCs definition was predicted in this paper. Finally, combined with the existing management and control of VOCs in China, the reactivity-based definition of VOCs was proposed for the China national environment management. The exemption policy-based definition of VOCs in the US was also proposed for use and revision: use ethane as the reference compound; abandon the use of KOH (the reaction rate constant with the hydroxyl radical); employ the use of MIR (Maximum Incremental Reactivity) as the benchmark index for exemption; develop and issue China's substance exemption list by studying and revising the current list in the US. By using a national uniform reactivity-based definition of VOCs, the management and control policy based on VOCs reactivity and monitoring methodology from stationary sources will be further developed, representation of VOCs will be consolidated and formalized, and VOCs emission inventory and control technology database will be developed and improved. Consequently, a national management and control system based on VOCs reactivity will be constructed and gradually optimized in China. © 2017, Editorial Board, Research of Environmental Sciences. All right reserved.


Wang X.-T.,Shanghai University | Wang F.,Shanghai University | Jia J.-P.,Shanghai University | Li Y.-C.,Shanghai University | And 6 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2011

The concentrations of 41 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the river sediments from Luqiao were analyzed by GC-NCI-MS. The objectives of this study were to understand the contents, spatial distribution and sources. The ∑ 40PBDEs (excluding BDE209) concentrations in sediments sampled were in the range of 0.177 to 161 ng·g -1, with a mean of 22.5 ng·g -1, and the concentrations of BDE209 were from 0.36 to 958 ng·g -1, with a mean of 148 ng·g -1. Deca-BDE was the most predominant in 9 PBDE homologues in most of samples, accounting for 38.4%-96.0%, with an average of 74.4%, followed by nona-BDEs and hepta-BDEs, accounting for 3.3%-25.8% and 0.01%-14.1%, respectively. Significant correlations were observed among all of PBDEs congeners, which suggested these PBDEs might have the similar sources. The homologue composition of PBDEs and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) showed that most of sampling sites were mainly polluted by deca-BDE formulation, and others polluted by deca-BDE and octa-BDE formulations. Compared to other studies from different countries and regions, the PBDEs concentrations in the present study were at a medium-to-low level. But it should be concerned that a few of sampling sites were highly contaminated by point sources.


Wang X.-T.,Shanghai University | Li Y.-C.,Shanghai University | Zhang Y.,Shanghai University | Miao Y.,Shanghai University | And 6 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2012

The concentrations of 144 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the soils from Luqiao were analyzed by GC-μECD. The objectives of this study were to understand the contents, spatial distribution and sources. The ∑PCBs concentrations in soils samples were in the range of 0.779 ng·g-1 to 937 ng·g-1, with a mean of 75.7 ng·g-1, and the relatively high level of PCBs were mainly distributed in the south central area. Penta-CBs, hexa-CBs and tetra-CBs were the primary homologues in 38 samples, with the range of 13.0%-61.1%, 4.59%-48.8% and 10.1%-31.5%, respectively. Di-CBs was the most predominant homologues in other samples, with the range of 47.1%-75.2%. The hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) showed that most of samples were mainly polluted by Ar1254, few samples were polluted by Ar1221. Significant correlations were observed between ∑PCBs and TOC, which suggested PCBs were affected by TOC in soils. The correlation analysis also showed significant correlation among the PCBs homologues (except di-CBs and nona-CBs), which suggested PCBs might have the similar sources. Compared to other studies from different countries and regions, the PCBs concentrations in the present study were at an upper-middle level.


Wang X.-T.,Shanghai University | Jia J.-P.,Shanghai University | Li Y.-C.,Shanghai University | Sun Y.-Z.,Ministry of Environmental Protection of the Peoples Republic of China | And 5 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2012

The concentration of 46 polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the agricultural soils from Luqiao was analyzed by GC-NCI-MS. The objectives of this study were to investigate the contents, spatial distribution and sources of PCNs. The total concentrations of PCNs (ΣPCNs) in soil samples were in the range of 0.062 to 2.92 ng·g-1, with a mean of 0.630 ng·g-1.Tetra-CNs and penta-CNs were the predominant homologues in most of the samples, accounting for 18.4% -88.8% and 8.40% -53.1%, with average values of 46.7% and 30.7%, respectively, followed by tri-CNs, accounting for 0 -47.3%, with a mean of 10.6%. Cluster analysis and combustion marker analysis showed that the sampling sites were mainly polluted by Halowax 1014 and Halowax 1013, also possibly polluted by PCBs mixtures and e-waste combustion process. Compared to other studies, the PCNs concentration in this study was at a medium level.


Yang R.,Anhui Polytechnic University | Li X.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Wu J.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Zhang X.,Ministry of Environmental Protection of the Peoples Republic of China | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering | Year: 2012

To study the effects of La modifier on Ni/?-Al2O3 catalysts for the hydrotreating of crude 2-ethylhexanol, four samples with various La contents were prepared by the hydrothermal deposition method and characterized by ICP-AES, XRD, XPS, TPR, and H2 chemisorption. It was found that the number of catalytic active sites of the four samples with a similar Ni loading follows the order: Ni/La0/Al (13.2?mol gcat-1) < Ni/La0.5/Al (15.1?mol gcat-1) < Ni/La2.0/Al (15.8?mol gcat-1) < Ni/La1.0/Al (17.1?mol gcat-1). The results indicate that the catalyst modified by an appropriate La can obtain more active centers and higher hydrogenation performance because it possesses a higher surface Ni content and an appropriate Ni dispersion degree. Copyright © 2012 De Gruyter. All rights reserved.


Hong S.,University of Sichuan | Liang C.,University of Sichuan | Zhang H.,University of Sichuan | Li H.,University of Sichuan | Wu X.,Ministry of Environmental Protection of The Peoples Republic of China
Shuili Fadian Xuebao/Journal of Hydroelectric Engineering | Year: 2012

To make algae forecast, on-line warning and monitoring and algae control through ecological operation of reservoirs, this paper applies methods of hydrology, ecology, algae taxonomy and physiology to a general investigation of algae on the species level for the Songhuaba water source region of Yunnan, including algae community structure, spatial distribution, dynamic biomass and succession, etc. The results show that the algae in this region can be categorized into 7 phyla, 11 classes, 12 orders, 18 families, 30 genera and 48 species and that its structure and distribution are featured by obvious regionality with seasonal changes. Although most of the algae in the water is rinsing, potential risk of algae erupt remains. The algae that would probably cause water blooms is pyrrophyta and its erupt would occur in Gucangba between late May and early June. When the velocity exceeds (0.5-0.85) m/s, the water level has 0.05 m changes, or the water temperature has 2°C changes, the algae community structure and composition changes dramatically. By examining the impacts of water stage and velocity on algae growth, this study demonstrates the feasibility of algae removal and control by reservoir ecological operation and irrigation measures.

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