Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry

Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar

Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry

Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar
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Linkie M.,Fauna and Flora International | Linkie M.,University of Kent | Guillera-Arroita G.,University of Kent | Guillera-Arroita G.,University of Melbourne | And 36 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2013

The loss and fragmentation of substantial areas of forest habitat, in combination with rampant hunting, has pushed many of Southeast Asia's megafauna species to the verge of extinction. However, the extent of these declines is rarely quantified, thereby weakening lessons learned and species-based management. This need not be the case as a proliferation of camera trap surveys for large-bodied mammals across Southeast Asia, which use a standardized sampling technique, presents a rich yet under-utilized wildlife data set. Furthermore, advances in statistical techniques for assessing species distribution provide new opportunities for conducting comparative regional analyses. Here, we focus on one of Southeast Asia's least known species of megafauna, the Endangered Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus), to investigate the performance of a camera trap-based spatial modeling approach in conducting a range-wide species assessment. Detection data were collectively collated from 52,904 trap days and 1,128 camera traps located across 19 study areas drawn from the Asian tapir's entire range. Considerable variation in tapir occurrence was found between study areas in: Malaysia (0.52-0.77); Sumatra, Indonesia (0.12-0.90); Thailand (0.00-0.65); and, Myanmar (0.00-0.26), with generally good levels of estimate precision. Although tapirs were widespread (recorded in 17 of the 19 study areas), their occurrence was significantly and negatively correlated with human disturbance. Thus, this study extends the previously known applicability of camera traps to include a threatened and cryptic species by identifying where and how tapirs persist (including new records of occurrence), where future surveys should be conducted and providing a benchmark for measuring future conservation management efforts. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Khine P.K.,University of Marburg | Lindsay S.,Gardens by the Bay | Fraser-Jenkins C.,Student Guest House | Kluge J.,University of Marburg | And 2 more authors.
PhytoKeys | Year: 2016

We describe Selliguea kachinensis as a new species from Northern Myanmar and discuss its generic placement in either Selliguea or Arthromeris. The conservation status is assessed as Data Deficient. In addition, we make the new combination Selliguea erythrocarpa (Mett. ex Kuhn) Hovenkamp, S. Linds., Fraser-Jenk. © Phyo Kay Khine et al.


Thant N.W.L.,Seoul National University | Kim B.-J,Seoul National University | Ko H.-S.,Yeungnam University | Yi K.M.,Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry | Lee W.-S.,Seoul National University
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2013

Phayre's leaf monkey (Trachypithecus phayrei) is an endangered endemic species distributed predominantly in Southeast Asia. Although, three subspecies (T. p. phayrei, T. p. crepusculus and T. p. shanicus) are known, molecular phylogenetic studies on this monkey are still limited. In Myanmar, there was a controversy for the species identity of Phayre's leaf monkey inhabiting the Popa Mountain Park (PMP). Here, 32 non-invasive fecal samples and one non-destructive bone sample were used to infer the phylogenetic status of T. phayrei from PMP. Two DNA markers, nuclear Protamine PI (Prml) and mitochondrial Cytochrome b (Cyt-b) were selected for PCR and sequencing. Three haplotypes for Cyt-b gene and two unique sequences for Prml gene were detected from 33 samples. The Cyt-b phylogenetic trees showed that the population of Phayre's leaf monkey in PMP is more closely related to the subspecies T. p. shanicus. However, the Prml phylogenetic trees could not resolve the phylogenetic position of T. phayrei subspecies. The results suggest the population from PMP as the subspecies T. p. shanicus but further taxonomic studies for all populations of this threatened monkey in Myanmar should be recommended for the species' conservation and management. © Medwell Journals, 2013.


Nesheim I.,Norwegian Institute for Water Research | Wathne B.M.,Norwegian Institute for Water Research | Ni B.,Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry | Tun Z.L.,Design Branch
GWF, Wasser - Abwasser | Year: 2016

Myanmar has an abundance of natural resources; including water, oil and natural gas, gemstones, industrial minerals and timber, yet there are still challenges for management. Rainfall is unevenly distributed leading to damage related floods, flash floods, and to water shortages and droughts. Point source discharges and non-point source discharges cause in places poor water quality. To take responsibility for the overall management of national water resources and to facilitate for a coordinated approach, the Myanmar National Water Resources Committee (NWRC) was established in 2013. The NWRC adopted in 2014 an important policy framework entitled, the National Water Framework Directive (NWFD). This policy framework, inspired by the EU WFD covers principles such as river-basin management, good ecological status of water bodies, integration, and stakeholder participation. This paper presents the NWFD and a project initiative to pilot introduce its principles in the Sittaung River Basin in Myanmar. A brief overview of Myanmar's environmental and socio-economic situation is presented along with information on general governance of water resources in Myanmar. To support the pilot introduction of the IWRM concept, the project also involves IWRM technical components, such as a special surveillance programme for Inlay Lake, the upgrading of a water quality lab, a water quality database, and water quality criteria. The rational for the project is to learn from the experiences gained through this pilot initiative of river basin management approach for future benefits in Myanmar.


Thwe-Thwe-Win,Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry | Thwe-Thwe-Win,Tokyo University of Agriculture | Hirao T.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Goto S.,Tokyo University of Agriculture
Conservation Genetics | Year: 2015

With the rapid fragmentation of tropical forests harboring valuable tree species, conservation of natural genetic resources is an important issue. In Myanmar, teak plantations have been established by Myanmar government since the 1700 s using local Myanmar teak. Commercial plantations have recently been established by the private sector using both exotic and Myanmar teak without consideration of their genetic make-up. If the genetic composition of commercial teak plantations is severely different from that of Myanmar teak, introgression of non-indigenous genes could damage the remaining natural populations. We investigated genetic compositions of commercial plantations using both exotic and Myanmar teak seeds with 10 nuclear simple sequence repeat and three chloroplast single nucleotide polymorphism markers. We then compared the genetic compositions of these populations with those of neighboring native teak forests. The genetic diversity and composition of one exotic plantation using Costa Rican seeds was similar to those of native populations. However, the diversity of the other three exotic plantations was low and their composition was markedly different from those of native populations. Our results suggest that exotic gene flow would cause serious genetic disturbance. Commercial plantations using Myanmar seeds were characterized by relatively high genetic diversity and by many genetic components. These results suggest that these plantations may be established using various seed sources in Myanmar. Given that native teak in Myanmar is geographically structured, native gene pools will be homogenized by gene flow from these commercial plantations. Seed transfer guidelines based on genetic information should be considered in future. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Htun N.Z.,Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry | Mizoue N.,Kyushu University | Yoshida S.,Kyushu University
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2012

The attitudes and perceptions of local people are important for long-term survival of protected areas. Some studies have shown that people's perceptions and attitudes are shaped by knowledge about protected area goals and characteristics and related to socioeconomic factors. In this study, socioeconomic status, knowledge of protected area characteristics, perceptions of benefits and costs of protected areas, and attitudes toward two management programs were examined for people in 208 households from 14 villages around Popa Mountain Park, Central Myanmar. Approximately 50% of respondents had basic knowledge about the park; 38% perceived benefits and 45% perceived losses due to the park. Approximately half held positive attitudes toward buffer zone establishment and replacement of banana plantations. Logistic regression revealed that perceptions of benefits and positive attitudes toward management were correlated with both sociodemographic characteristics and knowledge, while perceptions of losses and negative attitudes toward management were influenced by economic concerns. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Mon M.S.,Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry | Mizoue N.,Kyushu University | Htun N.Z.,Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry | Kajisa T.,Kyushu University | Yoshida S.,Kyushu University
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2012

Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have importance to the global carbon budget and biodiversity conservation disproportionately greater than the area concerned. Many studies have examined the patterns and processes of deforestation, but information about factors influencing forest degradation is still limited. In this study, we examined the factors influencing both deforestation and forest degradation in production forests of the central Bago Mountain area, Myanmar, which have been managed under the Myanmar Selection System (MSS) since 1856. We used forest canopy density maps derived from 1989 and 2006 satellite imagery together with environmental factors, locational attributes and selective logging records in logistic regression models. Our results showed that elevation and distance to the nearest town strongly influenced the likelihood of both deforestation and forest degradation, while logging intensity and distance to the nearest village were correlated only with the likelihood of forest degradation and not deforestation. We conclude that selective logging in this study area does not cause forest degradation provided that logging intensity is below the allowable cut prescribed under the MSS, but above that intensity, the likelihood of forest degradation increases markedly. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..


Htun N.Z.,Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry | Mizoue N.,Kyushu University | Yoshida S.,Kyushu University
Environmental Management | Year: 2013

Implementing effective conservation requires an understanding of factors affecting deforestation and forest degradation. Previous studies have investigated factors affecting deforestation, while few studies have examined the determinants of both of deforestation and forest degradation for more than one period. To address this gap, this study examined factors influencing deforestation and forest degradation during 1989-2000 and 2000-2005 in the Popa Mountain Park, Myanmar. We applied multinomial logistic regression (MNL) using land cover maps derived from Landsat images as the dependent variables as well as spatial and biophysical factors as the independent variables. The MNL models revealed influences of the determinants on deforestation and forest degradation changes over time. For example, during 1989-2000, deforestation from closed forest was positively correlated to the distance from the park boundary and was negatively correlated with distance from villages, roads, the park circular road, slope, western aspect and elevation. On the other hand, during 2000-2005, deforestation of closed forest was positively correlated with distance from villages, roads, the park circular road, slope and western aspect, and negatively correlated with distance from the park boundary and elevation. Similar scenarios were observed for the deforestation of open forest and forest degradation of closed forest. The study also found most of the determinants influenced deforestation and forest degradation differently. The changes in determinants of deforestation and forest degradation over time might be attributable to the general decrease in resource availability and to the effect of conservation measures conducted by the park. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Aung P.S.,Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry | Adam Y.O.,University of Khartoum | Pretzsch J.,TU Dresden | Peters R.,TU Dresden
Forests Trees and Livelihoods | Year: 2015

Rural households across developing countries rely on diversified sources of income, and forest resources play important role in this regard. There is no background information about the situation in Myanmar in regards forest income. This study analyses how the socio-economic factors determine the households' dependency on forest income among rural households in Chin State of Myanmar. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews, focus group discussions and key informant interviews of 40 households in two villages located around the Natma Taung national park, Myanmar. The results show that the better off households receive more forest income than medium and poor groups in both villages. The household size (p < 0.01) and numbers of adult labour (p < 0.05) are significantly correlated with household total forest income in Tone Nge village. While in Hee Laung village, household size (p < 0.01), size of agricultural land (p < 0.05) and total livestock value (p < 0.05) are significantly associated with household total forest income. The study highlights that national parks full protection and restriction of access could potentially affect households who depend on forest income as a matter of necessity and suggests that households' socio-economic factors should be incorporated in conservation interventions in order to apply target-oriented actions and enforcement activities. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


PubMed | Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental management | Year: 2013

Implementing effective conservation requires an understanding of factors affecting deforestation and forest degradation. Previous studies have investigated factors affecting deforestation, while few studies have examined the determinants of both of deforestation and forest degradation for more than one period. To address this gap, this study examined factors influencing deforestation and forest degradation during 1989-2000 and 2000-2005 in the Popa Mountain Park, Myanmar. We applied multinomial logistic regression (MNL) using land cover maps derived from Landsat images as the dependent variables as well as spatial and biophysical factors as the independent variables. The MNL models revealed influences of the determinants on deforestation and forest degradation changes over time. For example, during 1989-2000, deforestation from closed forest was positively correlated to the distance from the park boundary and was negatively correlated with distance from villages, roads, the park circular road, slope, western aspect and elevation. On the other hand, during 2000-2005, deforestation of closed forest was positively correlated with distance from villages, roads, the park circular road, slope and western aspect, and negatively correlated with distance from the park boundary and elevation. Similar scenarios were observed for the deforestation of open forest and forest degradation of closed forest. The study also found most of the determinants influenced deforestation and forest degradation differently. The changes in determinants of deforestation and forest degradation over time might be attributable to the general decrease in resource availability and to the effect of conservation measures conducted by the park.

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