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Vild O.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Vild O.,Masaryk University | Rolecek J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Rolecek J.,Masaryk University | And 3 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2013

A substantial part of European lowland woodlands was managed as coppices or wood pastures for millennia. However, traditional management forms were almost completely abandoned in Central Europe by the middle of the 20th century. Combined with the effects of nitrogen deposition and herbivore pressure, shifts in management resulted in biodiversity loss affecting particularly light-demanding oligotrophic plant species. Experimental thinning was applied in a former oak coppice-with-standards in an attempt to restore vanishing understorey plant communities. Two levels of thinning intensity and zero management as control were used on 90 plots. Ten years after the treatment, significant changes in species composition and diversity were observed in heavily thinned plots, while moderate thinning had mostly insignificant effects. Light-demanding oligotrophic species significantly increased, indicating positive consequences of restoration. However, heavy thinning also brought about the expansion of native ruderal species. Alien species remained unchanged. We conclude that the restoration of coppice-with-standards can be an efficient tool to support vanishing light-demanding woodland species. Combined with biodiversity benefits, the increasing demand for biofuel may contribute to the renaissance of traditional management forms in forestry. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Klenova-Jirakova H.,Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic | Leisova-Svobodova L.,Czech Republic Crop Research Institute | Hanzalova A.,Czech Republic Crop Research Institute | Kucera L.,Czech Republic Crop Research Institute
Plant Protection Science | Year: 2010

Forty Puccinia coronata f.sp. avenae isolates from several European countries and Israel were tested for virulence to 18 differential oat lines. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was used to evaluate diversity among the studied isolates. Twenty-nine different pathotypes were identified. The prevailing occurrence of pathotypes with a limited number of virulence genes may indicate that oat cultivars grown in Europe possess the limited number of resistance genes. A total of 501 AFLP polymorphic fragments were scored in the studied isolates using twelve primer combinations. All isolates had the unique AFLP molecular pattern. The genetic similarity of isolates from Serbia. Austria and from the Czech Republic indicates that oat crown rust urediniospores may often migrate to particular areas. The number of virulence genes in isolates also seems to play an important role in the clustering. Most isolates possessing a lower number of virulence genes (0-4) were grouped into two clusters, whereas another cluster was composed of a majority of isolates with 4-7 virulence genes. A significant correlation relationship of 0.187 (P = 0.007) was found between AFLP and virulence/avirulence genes based on distance matrices. Source

Hromadko J.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Miler P.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Hromadko J.,Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic | Honig V.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Schwarzkopf M.,Czech University of Life Sciences
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment | Year: 2010

This article deals with the influence of three-way catalysts on the production of basic emissions, such as carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from spark-ignition engines. A virtual simulation of the new European driving cycle is used. Characteristics of components in emissions in the front and back of the catalyst are measured on the test bed to form the basis of the simulation. The results relate to emissions for 1 km travelled. Source

Hromadko J.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Hromadko J.,Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic | Miler P.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Honig V.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Cindr M.,Czech University of Life Sciences
Chemicke Listy | Year: 2010

In the EU, the traffic sector is the second-largest in the amount of produced green-house gases (GHG) after the energy sector. One of the ways of reducing this production is to substitute fossil fuels by biofuels, in particular second-generation biofuels. The latter are produced from cellulosic materials, which show a more favourable GHG balance. Cellulose ethanol could produce less CO2 by 75-90 % than normal petrol, whereas ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet reduces the CO2 amount by 30-50 %. The Fischer-Tropsch diesel could slash CO2 emissions by 90 %, compared with 50 % for currently available biodiesels which are made from rapeseed oil. Production of second-generation biofuels does not compete with food production, as it is able to use a wider range of biomass feedstock (wood, leaves, tree bark, straw or woodchips). Moreover, the quality of second-generation biofuels is better than that of the first generation. Source

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