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DUBAI, UAE / ACCESSWIRE / May 24, 2017 / An innovative battery that is in the process of being built could change the landscape for electric run cars as well as oil run cars. The average person drives about 30 miles (48 kilometers) per day, according to AAA, and yet, many people are still hesitant to buy electric cars that can travel three times the said distance on a single charge. This driving range anxiety is one of the reasons why gasoline and oil-powered vehicles still rule the road. A team of scientists are working to ease those fears. Mareike Wolter, Project Manager of Mobile Energy Storage Systems at Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft in Dresden, Germany, is working with a team to develop a new battery that will give electric cars the ability to travel a range of approximately 620 miles (1,000 km) on a single charge - thus giving electric cars more edge than oil-powered vehicles. Wolter said his team was working on the project three years ago when researchers from Fraunhofer as well as ThyssenKrupp System Engineering and IAV Automotive Engineering started researching how they could improve the energy density of automotive lithium batteries. His team turned to the popular electric car producer, Tesla, as their starting point. Tesla's latest vehicle unit, the Model S 100D has a 100-kilowatt-hour battery pack, which gives it an estimated range of 335 miles (540 km). The pack is 16 feet long, 6 feet wide and 4 inches thick. Each pack contains 8,000 lithium-ion battery cells individually packaged inside a cylinder that measures about 2 to 3 inches (6 to 7 centimeters) high. "We thought if we could use the same space as the battery in the Tesla, but improve the energy density and finally drive 1,000 km, this would be nice," Wolter said. Wolter also added that one way of improving the energy density is to refine the materials inside the battery so that it can store more energy. They have also improved the design to be able to carry the 16 feet long battery stylishly. 50 percent of each battery cell is made of components such as the housing, the anode (battery's negative terminal), the cathode (battery's positive terminal) and the electrolyte, the liquid that transports all the charged particles. They have added an additional space inside the car to wire the battery packs in the vehicle's electrical system. "It's a lot of wasted space. You have a lot of inactive components in the system, and that's a problem from our point of view," said Wolter. The scientists were challenged to reimagine the entire design, they said. To make the design work, they got rid of the housings and encased each battery to a thin sheet-like design instead of the normal cylindrical space. The metallic sheet is coated with an energy-storage material made from powdered ceramic mixed with a polymer binder. One side serves as the cathode while the other side serves as the anode. The researchers stacked several of these so-called bipolar electrodes one on top of the other, like sheets of paper in a ream, separating the electrodes by thin layers of electrolytes and a material that prevents electrical charges from shorting out the whole system. The " ream" is sealed within a package measuring about 10 square feet (1 square meter), and connects on the top and bottom to the car's electrical system. The goal is to build a battery system that fits in the same space as the one used by Tesla's vehicles or other electric vehicles, the researchers said. "We can put more electrodes storing the energy in the same amount of space," Wolter said. She added that the researchers aim to have such a system ready to test in cars by 2020. In Yemen, most cars are still reliant on oil and gas. 33.9% of the population live in urban areas and up until now the means for transportation is limited. In fact, Yemen remains to be one of the few countries worldwide that continue to use gasoline to power its cars and other vehicles. This is because there are very few lead-free petrol stations in the country. With research focused on bringing electric cars to Yemen, the impact on the environment would be astronomical. In 2008, Yemen's Ministry of Environment and Water acknowledged the severity of the problem and started working on a national strategy to reduce air pollution. The authorities have implemented a few simple measures to improve the air quality. Vehicles which were manufactured before the year 2000 are no longer permitted entry in the country. The authorities have also reduced the tax on new cars to encourage more people to invest in modern and more environment-friendly vehicles. Most of all, electric cars do not emit climate-damaging CO2 or health-harming nitrogen oxide. They do not make any noise and they are very easy to operate. Electric vehicles seem to have a lot of advantages over cars that run on gasoline or diesel. It is easy to see how they come in handy for the German government to reach its aim of a 40% cut in greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 compared to 1994. By then, there is to be one million electric cars on German roads. Germany was once regarded as the 'sleeping giant of electric vehicles' and now, they are aggressively working towards this vision. This is a lofty ambition considering that the milestone of one million global cumulative EV sales was only passed in the fall of last year, and the German EV fleet currently only numbers 55,000. If Germany was able to make an ambitious goal, that's so impossible - yet have been thoroughly working on it in baby steps - what more for Yemen? There is so much potential to develop new batteries and solar panels. If this kind of technology will be applied and be funded by the government and enough research will be conducted to produce more electric cars and power sources in Yemen, then, this will surely be a good breakthrough. Our country is known for the rich oil it produces, but coming up with an innovation like this would save our resources and create more jobs for Yemenis. Haitham Alaini is a Yemen entrepreneur and philanthropist. Alaini received a degree in economics from George Washington University, and upon his return to Yemen, created his own construction business specializing in oil and gas infrastructure. Alaini strives to highlight beneficial resources for his fellow citizens, exemplify how businesses can support Yemen, and demonstrate his love for his country. DUBAI, UAE / ACCESSWIRE / May 24, 2017 / An innovative battery that is in the process of being built could change the landscape for electric run cars as well as oil run cars. The average person drives about 30 miles (48 kilometers) per day, according to AAA, and yet, many people are still hesitant to buy electric cars that can travel three times the said distance on a single charge. This driving range anxiety is one of the reasons why gasoline and oil-powered vehicles still rule the road. A team of scientists are working to ease those fears. Mareike Wolter, Project Manager of Mobile Energy Storage Systems at Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft in Dresden, Germany, is working with a team to develop a new battery that will give electric cars the ability to travel a range of approximately 620 miles (1,000 km) on a single charge - thus giving electric cars more edge than oil-powered vehicles. Wolter said his team was working on the project three years ago when researchers from Fraunhofer as well as ThyssenKrupp System Engineering and IAV Automotive Engineering started researching how they could improve the energy density of automotive lithium batteries. His team turned to the popular electric car producer, Tesla, as their starting point. Tesla's latest vehicle unit, the Model S 100D has a 100-kilowatt-hour battery pack, which gives it an estimated range of 335 miles (540 km). The pack is 16 feet long, 6 feet wide and 4 inches thick. Each pack contains 8,000 lithium-ion battery cells individually packaged inside a cylinder that measures about 2 to 3 inches (6 to 7 centimeters) high. "We thought if we could use the same space as the battery in the Tesla, but improve the energy density and finally drive 1,000 km, this would be nice," Wolter said. Wolter also added that one way of improving the energy density is to refine the materials inside the battery so that it can store more energy. They have also improved the design to be able to carry the 16 feet long battery stylishly. 50 percent of each battery cell is made of components such as the housing, the anode (battery's negative terminal), the cathode (battery's positive terminal) and the electrolyte, the liquid that transports all the charged particles. They have added an additional space inside the car to wire the battery packs in the vehicle's electrical system. "It's a lot of wasted space. You have a lot of inactive components in the system, and that's a problem from our point of view," said Wolter. The scientists were challenged to reimagine the entire design, they said. To make the design work, they got rid of the housings and encased each battery to a thin sheet-like design instead of the normal cylindrical space. The metallic sheet is coated with an energy-storage material made from powdered ceramic mixed with a polymer binder. One side serves as the cathode while the other side serves as the anode. The researchers stacked several of these so-called bipolar electrodes one on top of the other, like sheets of paper in a ream, separating the electrodes by thin layers of electrolytes and a material that prevents electrical charges from shorting out the whole system. The " ream" is sealed within a package measuring about 10 square feet (1 square meter), and connects on the top and bottom to the car's electrical system. The goal is to build a battery system that fits in the same space as the one used by Tesla's vehicles or other electric vehicles, the researchers said. "We can put more electrodes storing the energy in the same amount of space," Wolter said. She added that the researchers aim to have such a system ready to test in cars by 2020. In Yemen, most cars are still reliant on oil and gas. 33.9% of the population live in urban areas and up until now the means for transportation is limited. In fact, Yemen remains to be one of the few countries worldwide that continue to use gasoline to power its cars and other vehicles. This is because there are very few lead-free petrol stations in the country. With research focused on bringing electric cars to Yemen, the impact on the environment would be astronomical. In 2008, Yemen's Ministry of Environment and Water acknowledged the severity of the problem and started working on a national strategy to reduce air pollution. The authorities have implemented a few simple measures to improve the air quality. Vehicles which were manufactured before the year 2000 are no longer permitted entry in the country. The authorities have also reduced the tax on new cars to encourage more people to invest in modern and more environment-friendly vehicles. Most of all, electric cars do not emit climate-damaging CO2 or health-harming nitrogen oxide. They do not make any noise and they are very easy to operate. Electric vehicles seem to have a lot of advantages over cars that run on gasoline or diesel. It is easy to see how they come in handy for the German government to reach its aim of a 40% cut in greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 compared to 1994. By then, there is to be one million electric cars on German roads. Germany was once regarded as the 'sleeping giant of electric vehicles' and now, they are aggressively working towards this vision. This is a lofty ambition considering that the milestone of one million global cumulative EV sales was only passed in the fall of last year, and the German EV fleet currently only numbers 55,000. If Germany was able to make an ambitious goal, that's so impossible - yet have been thoroughly working on it in baby steps - what more for Yemen? There is so much potential to develop new batteries and solar panels. If this kind of technology will be applied and be funded by the government and enough research will be conducted to produce more electric cars and power sources in Yemen, then, this will surely be a good breakthrough. Our country is known for the rich oil it produces, but coming up with an innovation like this would save our resources and create more jobs for Yemenis. Haitham Alaini is a Yemen entrepreneur and philanthropist. Alaini received a degree in economics from George Washington University, and upon his return to Yemen, created his own construction business specializing in oil and gas infrastructure. Alaini strives to highlight beneficial resources for his fellow citizens, exemplify how businesses can support Yemen, and demonstrate his love for his country.


DUBAI, UAE / ACCESSWIRE / May 24, 2017 / An innovative battery that is in the process of being built could change the landscape for electric run cars as well as oil run cars. The average person drives about 30 miles (48 kilometers) per day, according to AAA, and yet, many people are still hesitant to buy electric cars that can travel three times the said distance on a single charge. This driving range anxiety is one of the reasons why gasoline and oil-powered vehicles still rule the road. A team of scientists working to ease those fears. Mareike Wolter, Project Manager of Mobile Energy Storage Systems at Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft in Dresden, Germany, is working with a team to develop a new battery that will give electric cars the ability to travel a range of approximately 620 miles (1,000 km) on a single charge - thus giving electric cars more edge than oil-powered vehicles. Wolter said his team was working on the project three years ago when researchers from Fraunhofer as well as ThyssenKrupp System Engineering and IAV Automotive Engineering started researching how they could improve the energy density of automotive lithium batteries. His team turned to the popular electric car producer, Tesla, as their starting point. Tesla's latest vehicle unit, the Model S 100D has a 100-kilowatt-hour battery pack, which gives it an estimated range of 335 miles (540 km). The pack is 16 feet long, 6 feet wide and 4 inches thick. Each pack contains 8,000 lithium-ion battery cells individually packaged inside a cylinder that measures about 2 to 3 inches (6 to 7 centimeters) high. "We thought if we could use the same space as the battery in the Tesla, but improve the energy density and finally drive 1,000 km, this would be nice," Wolter said. Wolter also added that one way of improving the energy density is to refine the materials inside the battery so that it can store more energy. They have also improved the design to be able to carry the 16 feet long battery stylishly. 50 percent of each battery cell is made of components such as the housing, the anode (battery's negative terminal), the cathode (battery's positive terminal) and the electrolyte, the liquid that transports all the charged particles. They have added an additional space inside the car to wire the battery packs in the vehicle's electrical system. "It's a lot of wasted space. You have a lot of inactive components in the system, and that's a problem from our point of view," said Wolter. The scientists were challenged to reimagine the entire design, they said. To make the design work, they got rid of the housings and encased each battery to a thin sheet-like design instead of the normal cylindrical space. The metallic sheet is coated with an energy-storage material made from powdered ceramic mixed with a polymer binder. One side serves as the cathode while the other side serves as the anode. The researchers stacked several of these so-called bipolar electrodes one on top of the other, like sheets of paper in a ream, separating the electrodes by thin layers of electrolytes and a material that prevents electrical charges from shorting out the whole system. The " " is sealed within a package measuring about 10 square feet (1 square and connects on the top and bottom to the car's electrical system. The goal is to build a battery system that fits in the same space as the one used by Tesla's vehicles or other electric vehicles, the researchers said. "We can put more electrodes storing the energy in the same amount of space," Wolter said. She added that the researchers aim to have such a system ready to test in cars by 2020. In Yemen, most cars are still reliant on oil and gas. 33.9% of the population live in urban areas and up until now the means for transportation is limited. In fact, Yemen remains to be one of the few countries worldwide that continue to use gasoline to power its cars and other vehicles. This is because there are very few lead-free petrol stations in the country. With research focused on bringing electric cars to Yemen, the impact on the environment would be astronomical. In 2008, Yemen's Ministry of Environment and Water acknowledged the severity of the problem and started working on a national strategy to reduce air pollution. The authorities have implemented a few simple measures to improve the air quality. Vehicles which were manufactured before the year 2000 are no longer permitted entry in the country. The authorities have also reduced the tax on new cars to encourage more people to invest in modern and more environment-friendly vehicles. Most of all, electric cars do not emit climate-damaging CO2 or health-harming nitrogen oxide. They do not make any noise and they are very easy to operate. Electric vehicles seem to have a lot of advantages over cars that run on gasoline or diesel. It is easy to see how they come in handy for the German government to reach its aim of a 40% cut in greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 compared to 1994. By then, there to be one million electric cars on German roads. Germany was once regarded as the 'sleeping giant of electric vehicles' and now, they are aggressively working towards this vision. This is a lofty ambition considering that the milestone of one million global cumulative EV sales was only passed in the fall of last year, and the German EV fleet currently only numbers 55,000. If Germany was able to make an ambitious goal, that's so impossible - yet have been thoroughly working on it in baby steps - what more for Yemen? There is so much potential to develop new batteries and solar panels. If this kind of technology will be applied and be funded by the government and enough research will be conducted to produce more electric cars and power sources in Yemen, then, this will surely be a good breakthrough. Our country is known for the rich oil it produces, but coming up with an innovation like this would save our resources and create more jobs for Yemenis. Haitham Alaini is a Yemen entrepreneur and philanthropist. Alaini received a degree in economics from George Washington University, and upon his return to Yemen, created his own construction business specializing in oil and gas infrastructure. Alaini strives to highlight beneficial resources for his fellow citizens, exemplify how businesses can support Yemen, and demonstrate his love for his country.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SPA.2010.1.1-01 | Award Amount: 3.21M | Year: 2011

PanGeo is a service proposed in response to FP7 GMES Downstream Call 3 (released July 2009). The objective of PanGeo is to enable free and open access to geohazard information in support of GMES. This will be achieved by the generation of a validated Geohazard Data Layer supported by a Geohazard Summary for 52 of the largest towns listed in the GMES Land Themes Urban Atlas involving all 27 countries of the EU. Upon user enquiry, a PanGeo web-portal will automatically integrate the geohazard data with the Urban Atlas to highlight the polygons influenced. The datasets will be made discoverable, accessible and useable via a distributed web-map system as built and demonstrated by OneGeology Europe (www.onegeology-europe.eu). The key users of PanGeo are anticipated as: Local Authority planners and regulators who are concerned with managing development risk, National geological surveys and geoscience institutes who are obliged to collect geohazard data for public benefit, Policy-makers concerned with assessing and comparing European geological risk, much as the Urban Atlas data is used to compare the landcover/use status of European towns. Products will be made by integrating: a) interpreted InSAR terrain-motion data (derived from existing projects, e.g. ESA GSE Terrafirma plus new processing), b) geological information, and c) the landcover and landuse data contained within the Urban Atlas. The integration and interpretation, plus a validation of key features observed, will be made by the corresponding national Geological Survey for the towns concerned. It is planned to deliver the service for two Urban Atlas towns in each country of the EU (Luxembourg and Cyprus only 1), equalling fifty-two towns in total. The geological survey concerned will choose the towns for processing from the Urban Atlas list using their own knowledge as to where the information will be of most use, probably the largest towns, which, when extrapolated, would equal (13% of total EU urban population). User input to design will be facilitated by the Surveys contracted into the project and initiation of Local Authority Feedback Group. Terrafirma has shown the potential for the self-sustainability of services providing InSAR-derived terrain-motion data, as 30% of users have gone on to procure further product on a commercial basis. In PanGeo, it is anticipated that, by adding considerably more value as described above, and promoting the clear benefits of such key environmental information, that the local authorities of neighbouring towns will begin to demand similar.


News Article | December 6, 2016
Site: www.prnewswire.co.uk

Leaders, scientists and experts from around the world gathered today at one of the biggest international conferences dedicated to quinoa since 2013 was declared the International Year of Quinoa by the United Nations. More than 150 leaders, policymakers, scientists, experts and professionals from over 46 countries came together to discuss and share the latest developments in quinoa research, production and trade around the world, and develop a set of recommendations for quinoa cultivation in marginal environments which are affected by water scarcity and salinity. The global population is forecast to increase to 9.7 billion in 2050 and there are concerns about the capacity of agriculture to produce enough food for the growing population. By some estimates, food production will need to go up by about 60 percent either through an increase in crop yields per unit area or an expansion in the arable land by 2050 to meet the demand. Furthermore, several regions already suffering from malnutrition, water scarcity and soil degradation are forecast to have a large population growth, which raises concerns about whether traditional agricultural methods and crop species will have the capacity to sustain global food production targets. People living in marginal environments are particularly vulnerable to the impact of climate change on agriculture. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify solutions to sustaining and possibly increasing agricultural productivity in areas where growing traditional crops has become difficult and sometimes uneconomical. Quinoa is widely considered a promising crop that can contribute to addressing these challenges. Addressing participants at the opening ceremony, His Excellency Dr. Thani Ahmed Al Zeyoudi, Minister of Climate Change and Environment of the UAE, said: "Climate change poses one of the greatest threats to humanity. Countries that already suffer from droughts, water shortages, and salinity are at an even greater risk. We urgently need to find solutions and adapt and where possible mitigate effects of climate change on different fronts, including agriculture. Ensuring future food security in marginal environments requires a shift in agricultural practices and innovative approaches to crop production systems. Quinoa can play a major role as a staple crop in marginal environments due to its adaptability to harsh environments including poor saline soils with annual rainfall as little as 200 mm." In his statement, Professor Reyadh AlMehaideb, Vice President of Zayed University, said: "We are pleased to host this international conference at Zayed University. It is a timely event as the world faces the implications of grand environmental challenges, and many countries experience food and nutrition insecurity as well as impacts from climate change. We believe that the conference will be an excellent platform for scientists and experts to look at these challenges and come up with a shared vision on how crops like quinoa that grows in marginal land can help address them." An Oxfam study in 2009 showed that 45.9% of the poor in Sub-Saharan Africa and 25.3% in Asia live in marginal environments. According to FAO's 'The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2015', 793 million people are undernourished globally. Despite the growing global recognition of quinoa's potential, and positive research outcomes in pilot studies in recent years, there are still many constraints and issues to be addressed before quinoa becomes a crop of choice in marginal areas where major crops have long been dominant but are progressively failing to withstand increasing salinity and lack of water. Speaking at the conference, Dr. Ismahane Elouafi, Director General of the International Center for Biosaline Agriculture (ICBA), said: "There has been considerable research on quinoa in recent years. Scientists at ICBA have also evaluated and tested the performance of several quinoa cultivars for their productivity when grown in marginal conditions. However, there are still many areas to be researched and improved as we introduce quinoa into agriculture in marginal environments, in order to make sure its introduction and production systems are beneficial to the communities and their ecosystems now and in the future." These challenges include, among others, limited availability of genetic material for cultivation outside the Andes, limited knowledge of best management practices - especially nutrient and water requirements, pest and disease control, harvesting and processing under marginal growing conditions, and lack of suitable marketing channels where smallholder farmers could sell their produce. Mr. Abdessalam Saleh Ould Ahmed, FAO Assistant Director General and Regional Representative for the Near East and North Africa, said: "The United Nations declared 2013 the International Year of Quinoa and this gave a renewed impetus to efforts to study nutritional, economic, environmental and cultural value of this food. We hope that this conference will be a turning point in raising awareness on the potential of quinoa for food and nutrition security in marginal environments." Held under the title of 'Quinoa for Future Food and Nutrition Security in Marginal Environments' and running through December 8, the conference seeks to find ways to implement research and development programs and initiatives to introduce and scale up quinoa in marginal environments. The conference is also aimed at building partnerships between public and private institutions, research and development organizations, and serving as a platform for the transfer of the latest innovation and knowledge on quinoa. Held under the patronage of Her Excellency Sheikha Lubna bint Khalid Al Qasimi, Minister of State for Tolerance of the UAE and President of Zayed University, the conference is organized by the International Center for Biosaline Agriculture (ICBA) in collaboration with the Ministry of Climate Change and Environment of the United Arab Emirates, Zayed University, the Islamic Development Bank (IsDB), the Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (BADEA), and with the technical contribution of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The International Center for Biosaline Agriculture (ICBA) is an international, non-profit research-for-development organization that aims to strengthen agricultural productivity in marginal and saline environments through identifying, testing and facilitating access to sustainable solutions for food, nutrition and income security. Zayed University is a national and regional leader in educational innovation and change. It has created and implemented a skills-rich, outcome-based general education program that systemically develops student skills, knowledge, and values associated with liberal learning and provides a solid foundation for pursuit of disciplinary majors and future careers. Zayed University welcomes national and international students, and provides them with a high quality education, offered by seasoned teaching scholars to prepare them to shape the future of the United Arab Emirates. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Headquartered in Rome, Italy and operating in over 130 countries, it provides development assistance aimed at strengthening agriculture, forestry and fisheries, improving nutrition, and reducing poverty. FAO focuses special attention on developing rural areas, home to 70 percent of the world's poor and hungry. About the UAE Ministry of Climate Change and Environment The Ministry of Climate Change and Environment was established in February 2006 as the Ministry of Environment and Water. The ministry acquired its new name following the UAE Cabinet reshuffle in February 2016 and the subsequent integration of the climate change function. Under its redefined scope, the ministry has taken on a dual mandate. On the national level, the ministry aims to strengthen the UAE's efforts in preserving the environment and promoting food diversity in accordance with the nation's aspiration to emerge as a key benchmark for sustainable development. On the global level, the Ministry of Climate Change and Environment will join international stakeholders in combating climate change and profile the UAE's path-breaking achievements in the sector at thought leadership platforms worldwide.


Milchev B.,University of Forestry | Georgiev V.,Ministry of Environment and Water
Hystrix | Year: 2012

The Roach's mouse-tailed dormouse (Myomimus roachi) is an endangered mammal in Europe with poorly known distribution and biology in Bulgaria. Cranial remains of 15 specimens were determined among 30532 mammals in Barn Owl (Tyto alba) pellets in 35 localities from 2000 to 2008 and 32941 mammals in Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) pellets in 59 localities from 1988 to 2011 in SE Bulgaria. This dormouse was present with single specimens in 11 localities and whit 4 specimens in one locality. It is one of the rarest mammals in the region that forms only up to 1% by number of mammalian prey in the more numerous pellet samples. The existing protected areas ecological network covers six out of 15 (40%) localities where the species has been detected in the last two decades. We discuss the necessity of designation of new Natura 2000 zones for the protection of the Roach's mouse-tailed dormouse in Bulgaria. © 2013 Associazione Teriologica Italiana.


Anda A.,University of Pannonia | Diossy L.,Ministry of Environment and Water
Ecohydrology | Year: 2010

Local consequences of the global climate change in the Carpathian Basin were followed on the basis of simulated stomatal resistances. The Crop Microclimate Simulation Model of Goudriaan was applied in our study. The expected weather, plant and soil modifications were based on long-term observations during the time period 1961-1990 in the Keszthely area (Hungary, N 46°44', E 17°14'; altitude 112 m). Besides application of the A2 and B2 SRES scenarios, the impact of extreme hot days was also included in the study. This was necessary as these events have recently occurred more and more frequently. Demonstration of weather scenarios with relatively high warming rates was made possible by the high resolution of the model, simulating even daily changes. The stomatal resistance significantly increased in all scenarios, as was indeed experienced in the last decade (1997-2006). A twofold increase in CO2 concentration approximately halves stomatal openings even under unchanged weather conditions. This can be considered as an advantageous side effect of the global climate change on the plant's water balance, important in continental climate because of scarce precipitation. In Scenarios A2 and B2, increases in resistance were close to the effect of doubled CO2 concentration. Surprisingly, the effect of an increase in the number of extreme hot days on stomatal resistance was moderate, below than what might have been expected. The common impact of the environmental and biological factors on stomatal resistance was realized using normalized leaf area indices, where the highest increases were predicted by using the hottest and driest scenario. Moderate changes in water loss and photosynthesis indicated a certain amount of available soil moisture reserve even in the extreme weather situations in July, at Keszthely. Decrease in carbon assimilation can occur in days with extreme temperatures. Our scenarios do not include significant precipitation decline because of forecast uncertainties. A significant precipitation decrease would fundamentally reshape our results, so we do not propose to extend our conclusions in the case of significant modification in rainfall amount or distribution. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Sherif M.,United Arab Emirates University | Almulla M.,Ministry of Environment and Water | Shetty A.,United Arab Emirates University | Chowdhury R.K.,United Arab Emirates University
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2014

Spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were investigated. The region is divided into four climate zones (East Coast, Mountains, Gravel Plains and Desert Foreland) of distinguished rainfall distribution. The rainfall patterns, rainfall probability of occurrences, rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) relationship, probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and drought scenarios were investigated. Daily rainfall data from a network of stations across the UAE were used. Standard statistical techniques were applied for data analyses. The Gumbel, log Pearson, generalized extreme value, log normal, Wakeby and Weibull probability distributions were tested to fit extreme rainfalls. Both Gumbel and Weibull distributions were found adequate. Measures of dispersion and symmetry of rainfall patterns were found relatively high. The estimated PMP values were found highest in the East Coast region and lowest in the Gravel Plains region. Estimated drought severity index showed that the regions have similar trends of drought patterns over the years. The study is useful for sustainable water resources planning and management in the region. © 2013 Royal Meteorological Society.


Sherif M.,United Arab Emirates University | Mohamed M.,United Arab Emirates University | Mohamed M.,Cairo University | Kacimov A.,Sultan Qaboos University | Shetty A.,Ministry of Environment and Water
Desalination | Year: 2011

Extraction of brackish groundwater in coastal aquifers is believed not only to mitigate the effects of seawater intrusion but also to reduce the desalination cost of the extracted water. However, evaluation of the groundwater quality in coastal aquifers is an essential initial step before determining the locations of brackish water extraction wells and extraction rates. Therefore, this paper presents spatial and temporal assessments of the groundwater quality in the coastal aquifer of Wadi Ham located in northeastern part of UAE. This assessment is considered as precursor for evaluation of the aquifer potentiality as source for water desalination. A total of 245 water samples from 26 different observation wells were collected over the period from 1989 to 2006 to assess the origin and quality of the groundwater in this coastal aquifer. It was found that saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Oman was not the main source of brackish water in several parts of the aquifer prior to year 2000. However, results also show that more recently seawater intrusion has become the leading factor of water salinity in the aquifer especially near the coast. It was found that seawater intrusion extended about 8. km inland from the coast of the Gulf of Oman. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


News Article | November 24, 2015
Site: phys.org

To quench that demand, cities across the seven emirates that make up the UAE rely on desalinated seawater to supply 98 percent of their drinking water, but that comes with a tremendous environmental and fiscal cost. Now, officials are looking at new technologies to cover that demand, while acknowledging the risks ahead. "In our region, water is more important than oil," said Ahmad Belhoul, the CEO of Masdar, the Abu Dhabi government's clean-energy company. "We're trying to find solutions to address that." While the Emirates rose on its oil wealth, the riches spurred the development that strains the water supply in this desert nation. An academic paper published earlier this year by scientists at the United Arab Emirates University in Al Ain, one of the emirates, suggested the country's entire supply of groundwater could be gone by 2030. Currently, groundwater accounts for 44 percent of all water consumption in the UAE, though much of it goes toward irrigation for farming, according to a report by the Ministry of Environment and Water. In the cities, the country's 33 desalination plants supply nearly every drop of water. Desalination plants are nothing new across the Middle East, with Bahrain, Israel, Kuwait, Libya, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia having some of the world's biggest facilities. However, the cost of building and operating the plants can run in the billions, and they also require massive amounts of energy to separate the salt from the water and purify it for consumption. The leftover heated saltwater gets discharged back into the sea, where it can affect marine life. But even with the crisis facing the Emirates, water remains cheap and often wasted. Errant sprinklers water sidewalks in city-state Dubai, as leaking pipes pool puddles on roadways. A study this year by the United Nations found that residents of the UAE and most of its Gulf neighbors use around 500 liters (132 gallons) of water per day—among some of the highest usage around the world. That waste is something Belhoul himself acknowledged as a problem. "There has been some overuse of water driven by the lower tariffs," Belhoul told The Associated Press. "If you don't pass on the price to the end user, the natural behavior is to consume more water." Beyond raising prices, officials hope new desalination techniques being tested on the outskirts of Abu Dhabi will allow solar energy to replace natural gas as an energy source, as well as make the plants smaller and cheaper to operate. On a tour Monday, they offered visiting dignitaries water produced there in crystal glasses. After taking a sip, Sultan Ahmed al-Jaber, the UAE's minister of state, gave it his approval: "It tastes just like Evian." Ahmad Belhoul, the CEO of the Masdar, the Abu Dhabi government's clean-energy company, on the left, speaks to colleagues at an event at a desalination test facility on the outskirts of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, on Monday, Nov. 23, 2015. Authorities took journalists on a tour of the facility to show ways the United Arab Emirates, which relies heavily on desalinated seawater for its drinking water, is trying to make the process more environmentally friendly. (AP Photo/Jon Gambrell) A laborer and two waitresses prepare glasses of desalinated water for visiting dignitaries at a desalination test facility on the outskirts of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, on Monday, Nov. 23, 2015. Authorities took journalists on a tour of the facility to show ways the United Arab Emirates, which relies heavily on desalinated seawater for its drinking water, is trying to make the process more environmentally friendly. (AP Photo/Jon Gambrell) Explore further: UAE says falling oil prices will not impact clean energy


Al-Karaki G.N.,Ministry of Environment and Water | Al-Karaki G.N.,Jordan University of Science and Technology
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2013

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a significant and developing crop especially in the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle East and North Africa regions. The area under cultivation of this tree is increasing annually. Date palms usually grown under harsh and unfavorable growing conditions with low rainfall and high rates of evaporation as well as in soils with low organic matter and nutrient deficiencies. Hence, date palm cultivation becomes dependent on application of high levels of fertilizers as well as on irrigation. This may lead to salinization of soil and leaching of nutrients to deep soils that might affect ground water. Therefore, it is important that date palm plantations are managed in a sustainable way to reduce the impact of date palm cultivation on ecosystems while maximizing dates yield through using such practices as mycorrhizal fungi technology. The application of mycorrhizal fungi technology is an option that can benefit both agronomic plant health and ecosystems. Mycorrhizae confer numerous benefits to host plants including improved plant growth and mineral nutrition, water uptake, tolerance to diseases and stresses such as drought, temperature fluctuation, metal toxicity and salinity. Mycorrhizae may also play a role in the formation of stable soil aggregates, building up a macro porous structure of soil that allows penetration of water and air and prevents erosion. All of these beneficial effects on plant health and soil fitness mean that mycorrhizae have the potential to increase agricultural productivity and are crucial for the sustainable functioning of agricultural ecosystems. This study provides an insight into the application of mycorrhizae in date palm cultivation.

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