Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning

Skopje, Macedonia

Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning

Skopje, Macedonia

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Dedinec A.,Macedonian Academy of science and Arts | Taseska-Gjorgievska V.,Macedonian Academy of science and Arts | Markovska N.,Macedonian Academy of science and Arts | Obradovic Grncarovska T.,Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning | And 2 more authors.
Energy | Year: 2016

The goal of this paper is to showcase a modelling exercise, conducted for the Republic of Macedonia, a non-Annex I country under UNFCCC and a candidate for EU membership, by making use of MARKAL energy system model. Baseline Scenario and three groups of mitigation scenarios have been developed until 2050, reflecting different types of targets with different levels of ambition regarding CO2 emissions reduction: (1) EU scenarios - end-year targets compared to 1990 level; (2) QELRC (Quantified Emission Limitation and Reduction Commitment) scenarios - a range of targets over the period 2021-28 and for each subsequent 8-year period, and (3) Baseline deviation scenarios - deviation compared to baseline emission level. The comparative assessment of mitigation scenarios, based on the cumulative emissions, cumulative total system costs and incremental specific reduction cost, has generated a basis for setting the national mitigation contributions and formulating the most appropriate national mitigation action plan. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Grncarovska T.O.,Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning | Poposka E.,Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning | Zdraveva P.,UNDP Country Office | Markovska N.,Energy Informatics
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2013

The greenhouse gases (GHG) inventory is among the main issues to be reported and analysed in the National Communications submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). A complete and transparent national GHG inventory is an essential tool for understanding emissions and trends, projecting future emissions and identifying sectors for cost-effective emission reduction opportunities, as well as for designing appropriate climate change policies - reflective to the country specifics and, at the same time, responsive to the international requirements. Industrial processes are among the sectors covered by the national GHG inventories, accounting for emissions produced as by-products of various non-energy-related industrial activities and are not directly a result of energy consumed during the process. Although with relatively lower contribution to the total GHG emissions compared to energy sector, the industrial processes sector is of particular interest since, in most countries, the emission calculation is challenged by high level of uncertainty and limited availability of activity data, need for new ways of data collection and management, as well as for country specific emission factors. The main goal of this paper is to highlight the good practices and lessons learned regarding the GHG inventory for industrial processes in the case of the Republic of Macedonia. The way many of the challenges have been addressed shows solutions and initiatives, including application of more complex methodology for uncertainty estimation, establishing a network of industrial stakeholders, designing a software tool for data collection and developing country specific emission factors for the key source categories. Mapping the way towards these achievements, the paper could serve well for countries with similar national circumstances and priorities. Copyright © 2013, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.


Anttila P.,Finnish Meteorological Institute | Stefanovska A.,Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning | Nestorovska-Krsteska A.,Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning | Grozdanovski L.,Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning | And 6 more authors.
Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health | Year: 2015

Continuous measurements of SO2, NO, NO2, O3, CO, PM10, PM2.5 and benzene were conducted over a 1-year period at two urban sites in Skopje in the Republic of Macedonia. Extremely high pollutant concentrations were recorded. Most of the limit, target and threshold values set by the European Union for the protection of human health were exceeded. PM10 and PM2.5 concentration levels in particular were very high; the annual means were 85 and 56 μg/m3, respectively. The PM levels were among the highest in Europe. The most serious pollution episodes occurred during winter months. During pollution episodes, high atmospheric stability prevailed over large areas, and during the daytime, the mixing layer typically was only 700–900 m high. In these circumstances, the mountains surrounding the city of Skopje trapped the pollution inside the valley extremely effectively. As a result, an extremely homogenous pollution field (both spatially and by components) formed in the Skopje Valley. The highest hourly PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations during the episodes were 800 and 500 μg/m3, respectively, whereas the NO2 concentration was 440 μg/m3. The pollutant concentrations were much lower in summertime (except for ozone). Local emissions and atmospheric chemistry as well as the diurnal cycle of the mixing height controlled the concentrations levels of the photochemically active gases NOx, CO, benzene and O3. PM concentrations were further elevated by regional wildfire emissions. The extremely high pollutant concentrations mostly originated from local emissions and were enhanced by the local topography together with poor atmospheric mixing conditions. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Zdraveva P.,United Environment & Energy, Llc | Grncarovska T.O.,Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning | Markovska N.,Macedonian Academy of science and Arts | Gavrilova E.,Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning | And 2 more authors.
Management of Environmental Quality | Year: 2014

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the lessons learned and good practices regarding the greenhouse inventory system in the Republic of Macedonia. Design/methodology/approach: A comparative analysis for the preparation of the three national communications (NCs) to UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Republic of Macedonia. Findings: The findings reveal the shift from a project approach, based on external consultants, towards a more process-oriented approach, where a multi-disciplinary national team has been established to prepare the inventory. Also, notable results include improvements in the technical capacity of the inventory team, communications with data sources and other stakeholders, quality assurance/quality control procedures, documenting and archiving, regional cooperation, as well as, the reliability of data series for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Practical implications: The study may serve well for countries with similar national circumstances and priorities for preparation of greenhouse inventory systems. Originality/value: Developing national database (inventory) of GHGs is an essential first step towards managing better climate change policy planning. A complete and transparent national greenhouse inventory is an essential tool for understanding emissions and trends, projecting future emissions and identifying sectors for cost-effective emission reduction opportunities. It is also a core element of national climate change reports to the UNFCCC (NCs). This case study shows the development of a sustainable system for preparation of GHG inventories and it describes the data collection and analysis procedures within that system. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Grncarovska T.O.,Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning | Dukovski V.,University of Macedonia | Sharma M.,Independent Researcher
Management of Environmental Quality | Year: 2014

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to formulate an integrated product policy (IPP) framework for the Republic of Macedonia, taking into account unique circumstances faced by the country, particularly the mandatory transposition of European Union (EU) environmental legislation, limited country-specific data availability and the low level of environmental awareness. Design/methodology/approach: The proposed IPP indicators at EU level and the available indicators in Macedonian conditions were used in order to create a composite IPP index as a method of measurement of the level of IPP implementation in the country. Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) are used as a policy decision approach for IPP. The purpose is to evaluate what decisions (taken now and in the future) would lead to the best possible level of IPP implementation. The approach applicability for long-term policy planning is demonstrated using a simple numerical example. Findings: A stylized numerical example utilizing the composite IPP index and the MDP approach indicate that policy makers should focus not only on transposing the mandatory EU legislation related to IPP, but simultaneously work to raise public awareness of IPP and environmental issues, since this opens the door for more beneficial policy alternatives in the future. Considering the long-term consequences of actions taken in the present time should be an essential part of policy design, given the pervasive and long-term nature of the effects of IPP policy. It is also very important to revisit the assumptions at regular intervals and incorporate into this framework the new learning and data obtained with time. Originality/value: This IPP framework and quantitative policy decision approach, in spite of its limitations, is a valuable and informative guide for IPP policy makers in the Republic of Macedonia. By incorporating a long-term view, explicit measurement of progress towards IPP implementation and the consideration of possible future consequences of policy decisions made in the present, it should be possible to significantly increase the likelihood of successful IPP implementation and improve environmental outcomes than those obtained using more conventional approaches. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Dimitrov T.A.,Rugher Boskovic 16 | Ademi A.,Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning | Grozdanov A.,Rugher Boskovic 16 | Paunovic P.,Rugher Boskovic 16
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

This article presents production and characterizations of MWCNTs produced by nonstationary current regimes into lithium molten chloride. In order to improve the process of MWCNTs production, instead of applying a constant cathode potential, the method of reversing the potential was applied. It should be mentioned that during the process of electrolysis reduced lithium intercalate at graphite surface and generates a high mechanical stress that causes exfoliation of the graphite cathode. This phenomenon enables electrochemical synthesis of MWCNTs to be possible. The measurements were performed in temperature interval from 700 to 800 °C. Several techniques were employed for characterization, i.e. electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), Raman spectroscopy thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA and DTA). SEM and TEM images show that nanotubes are mostly of curved shape with length of 1÷20 μm and diameter of 20÷40 nm. Raman peaks indicate that the crystal lenity of produced nanotubes is rather low. The obtained results suggest that formed product contains of up to 80% MWCNTs, the rest being non-reacted graphite and fullerenes. DTA curves show that combustion process of the nanotubes takes place in two stages, i.e. at 450 °C and 720 °C. At the lower temperature combustion of MWCNTs occurs, while at higher one fullerenes and non-reacted graphite particles burn. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

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