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Tynsong H.,Ministry of Environment and Forest | Tiwari B.K.,North - Eastern Hill University | Dkhar M.,Union Christian College
Forestry Studies in China | Year: 2012

Ever since their emergence on this planet, human beings have depended on forest resources for their requirements, ranging from food, fuel to shelter. Sustainable extraction of forest resources has been promoted by conservationists and development agencies as a feasible strategy for forest dwellers, which does not diminish the resource base. Yet surveys of actual resource use suggest that for poorer resource-dependent communities without access to markets, non-timber forest products (NTFPs) can only act as a safety-net and a supplementary income source. In southern Meghalaya of India, NTFPs and medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) have become an important source of cash and subsistence income for poor people living in or near forests. People in this region have traditionally been collecting different forest products from private forests as well as community conserved forests. The study reveals that NTFPs contribute significantly towards the annual cash income of the local population. The contribution of NTFPs to their income was highest in the case of poor families (9.89%), followed by middle income families (3.34%) and the least for the higher income families (1.34%). Our household survey revealed that 100% of the population is directly or indirectly dependent on NTFPs. Household response indicates diversity in both the types and uses of products collected. © 2012 Beijing Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Candea C.,Western University Timisoara | Popa C.,Ministry of Environment and Forest
Metalurgia International | Year: 2010

State aid for environmental protection encompasses a wide range of objectives, including support measures for renewable energy, energy-saving, waste management, etc. For these types of measures, aid aimed at providing a direct benefit to the environment. Following accession to the European Union, the European regulations regarding State aid has become applicable in Romania. The article synthesized the main types of environmental aid and investment aid at the level of EU. Particularly is analyzed situation in Romania, are presented support measures in force, as well as main attributes of Competition Council the main contact point among European Commission and public authorities and institutions that are state aid grantors, and beneficiaries involved in the state aid procedures. Source

Candea C.,Western University Timisoara | Popa C.,Ministry of Environment and Forest
Metalurgia International | Year: 2010

Water is essential for ours life, the way we use water in ours activity has a direct impact on the environment. In Romania, satisfying the water requirements of the population, industry, agriculture in essential, for years, anthropogenic activities have affected water quality. The paper analyses the main factors that affect the quality of water and the impact to water demands of popupation, also are presented the cost to compliance with communitarian acquis in the field of water. Source

Rahman M.S.,Chittagong University | Akter S.,Ministry of Environment and Forest | Al-Amin M.,Chittagong University
Forest Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The aim of the study was to assess spatial and temporal variation in productivity with respect to climate factors in Bangladesh in different forest ecosystems and agro-ecological zones. A climate vegetation, and productivity index (CVPI) for different vegetation types of Bangladesh were measured for years ranging between 1990 and 2010. Data were gathered from 11 meteorological stations sporadically distributed throughout the country. The range of CVPI at different vegetation zones of the country shows values between 1223 and 2800 (this index has no unit). Spatial distribution of values indicates that CVPI is lower in northwestern and southwestern agro-ecological zones of the country, whereas it is higher in eastern zones. This may be due to less rainfall and higher atmospheric temperature in the western part than the eastern part. CVPI in the central part of Bangladesh also decreases while the temporal scenario also varies significantly. There was a peak in the index during the year 1998 when the country faced extreme precipitation followed by devastating floods. Both spatial and temporal variation depicts that vegetation productivity would increase or decrease with respect to climatic parameters such as mean monthly temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation received at the site. For major types of forested woodland, tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen types cover the range of 2150–2800, moist Sal forest covers 1223–1896, dry Sal forest covers 1277–1280, Sundarbans covers 1307, and coastal plantations cover 1946–2531 CVPI. This value greatly depends on the spatial coordinates of the meteorological stations. From Paterson's regression, forest timber productivity was calculated which was found to be higher for evergreen, semi-evergreen, and coastal plantation (about 10–11 m3 ha−1 yr−1), where deciduous Sal and Sundarbans has lower productivity (about 8–9 m3 ha−1 yr−1) than hill forests. Thus, climatic factors, as well as altitudinal and latitudinal differences, may pose divergence in forest productivity. Hence, climate is the key factor in forest productivity and distribution. © 2015 Korean Forest Society. Source

Dubey C.S.,University of Delhi | Mishra B.K.,University of Delhi | Shukla D.P.,University of Delhi | Singh R.P.,University of Delhi | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2012

Arsenic, one of the most poisonous chemical elements, was analyzed in the waters of the host of the 2010 Commonwealth Games, i.e., New Delhi. The study revealed shocking outcomes with arsenic concentrations well beyond the safe limits set by WHO, and a maximum concentration up to 180 ppb was found in the groundwater. Analysis of around 120 water samples collected extensively along the Yamuna Flood Plain showed that more than 55% had arsenic contamination beyond the WHO limit of 10 ppb. The maximum value of arsenic in coal and fly ash from Rajghat coal-based thermal power plant contained 200 and 3,200 ppb, respectively. Moreover, the ore petrography of coal samples shows the presence of arsenopyrite mineral. Maximum concentration of arsenic contamination is found within a 5-km radius from power plants. In the perspective of Delhi, arsenic contamination is purely anthropogenic due to coal-based thermal power plants, which had already shown toxic arsenic, fluorine and China-type coal effects. The presence of such power plants in coal field locations, e. g., West Bengal and Bangladesh, could release the arsenic due to combustion in superthermal power plants, thus accentuating the arsenic concentration besides the natural arsenic coming from the foreland basins of the Himalaya in Indian sub-continent. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

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