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Chakungal J.,Dalhousie University | Dostal J.,Saint Marys University, Halifax | Grujic D.,Dalhousie University | Duchene S.,British Petroleum | Ghalley K.S.,Ministry of Economic Affairs
Tectonophysics | Year: 2010

Mafic granulites and amphibolites in the Masang Kang area of NW Bhutan Himalaya have been investigated for their geochemical and isotopic characteristics in order to determine their protolith history. Bulk-rock major and trace element geochemistry indicate that the rocks were originally tholeiitic and alkali basalts with minor ultramafics. U-Pb zircon SIMS data suggest an age of 1742 ± 39 Ma for mafic magmatism. The age-corrected εNd(1742) values of the rocks are highly variable, ranging from high positive (+ 8.4) to negative (- 3.3). The positive value suggests a primitive magma source, similar to that of rift-related tholeiites. We suggest that the rocks of the Masang Kang suite were produced during a major late Paleoproterozoic thermal event that caused the mobilization and enrichment of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle beneath the north Indian margin. The geochemical signature of these rift-related metabasic rocks may have been produced during an earlier episode of oceanic underplating or subduction from which the fluid required to mobilize and enrich the overlying sub-lithospheric mantle may have been derived. Though their occurrence is rare, Paleoproterozoic igneous rocks within the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS), in addition to sources identified throughout the LHS, may have contributed to the detrital zircon population that form the 1.7-1.9 Ga peak in the age spectra of the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS). In addition, the coeval Paleoproterozoic magmatism in both LHS and GHS suggests that the two lithotectonic units may have belonged to the same continental plate at that time period. Crown Copyright © 2009. Source

Van Zoest J.,TU Eindhoven | Hopman M.,Ministry of Economic Affairs
Urban Climate | Year: 2014

As municipal management budgets for green space management are under pressure, there is an urgent need for new funding models for urban green space. Inspired by the TEEB study (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity, 2010), it was hypothesized that the value of ecosystem services that urban green spaces provide, when monetized, will often be larger than the cost of management. This article describes an initiative to develop a tool that makes the financial benefits of green spaces visible in the municipal balance sheet. While the project was successful in producing the desired deliverables (a tool for inclusive finance for urban green spaces, eight in depth cases showing green spaces paying their way, a Community of Practice), it is recognized that the adoption of inclusive finance in municipalities depends critically on urban strategies that have efficiency and resilience at their core. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Xue X.,University of Oklahoma | Xue X.,Advanced Radar Research Center | Hong Y.,University of Oklahoma | Hong Y.,Advanced Radar Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2013

The objective of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the successive Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) products and further to explore the improvements and error propagation of the latest 3B42V7 algorithm relative to its predecessor 3B42V6 using the Coupled Routing and Excess Storage (CREST) hydrologic model in the mountainous Wangchu Basin of Bhutan. First, the comparison to a decade-long (2001-2010) daily rain gauge dataset reveals that: (1) 3B42V7 generally improves upon 3B42V6's underestimation both for the whole basin (bias from -41.15% to -8.38%) and for a 0.25°. ×. 0.25° grid cell with high-density gauges (bias from -40.25% to 0.04%), though with modest enhancement of correlation coefficients (CC) (from 0.36 to 0.40 for basin-wide and from 0.37 to 0.41 for grid); and (2) 3B42V7 also improves its occurrence frequency across the rain intensity spectrum. Using the CREST model that has been calibrated with rain gauge inputs, the 3B42V6-based simulation shows limited hydrologic prediction NSCE skill (0.23 in daily scale and 0.25 in monthly scale) while 3B42V7 performs fairly well (0.66 in daily scale and 0.77 in monthly scale), a comparable skill score with the gauge rainfall simulations. After recalibrating the model with the respective TMPA data, significant improvements are observed for 3B42V6 across all categories, but not as much enhancement for the already-well-performing 3B42V7 except for a reduction in bias (from -26.98% to -4.81%). In summary, the latest 3B42V7 algorithm reveals a significant upgrade from 3B42V6 both in precipitation accuracy (i.e., correcting the underestimation) thus improving its potential hydrological utility. Forcing the model with 3B42V7 rainfall yields comparable skill scores with in situ gauges even without recalibration of the hydrological model by the satellite precipitation, a compensating approach often used but not favored by the hydrology community, particularly in ungauged basins. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Rupper S.,Brigham Young University | Schaefer J.M.,Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory | Burgener L.K.,Brigham Young University | Koenig L.S.,NASA | And 2 more authors.
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2012

Glacierized change in the Himalayas affects river-discharge, hydro-energy and agricultural production, and Glacial Lake Outburst Flood potential, but its quantification and extent of impacts remains highly uncertain. Here we present conservative, comprehensive and quantitative predictions for glacier area and meltwater flux changes in Bhutan, monsoonal Himalayas. In particular, we quantify the uncertainties associated with the glacier area and meltwater flux changes due to uncertainty in climate data, a critical problem for much of High Asia. Based on a suite of gridded climate data and a robust glacier melt model, our results show that glacier area and meltwater change projections can vary by an order of magnitude for different climate datasets. However, the most conservative results indicate that, even if climate were to remain at the present-day mean values, almost 10% of Bhutan's glacierized area would vanish and the meltwater flux would drop by as much as 30%. Under the conservative scenario of an additional 1C regional warming, glacier retreat is going to continue until about 25% of Bhutan's glacierized area will have disappeared and the annual meltwater flux, after an initial spike, would drop by as much as 65%. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Social Sciences | Award Amount: | Year: 2006

A user group has been formed within this project with stakeholders from governmental agencies (North Sea Directorate, RIKZ, Netherlands Hydrographic Service) and Engineering practice (WL|Delft Hydraulics, Witteveen+Bos, Advanced Consultancy Romke Bijker).

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