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Thow A.M.,University of Sydney | Quested C.,Nutrition Section | Juventin L.,British Petroleum | Kun R.,Ministry of Commerce | And 2 more authors.
Health Promotion International | Year: 2011

A tax on soft drinks is often proposed as a health promotion strategy for reducing their consumption and improving health outcomes. However, little is known about the processes and politics of implementing such taxes. We analysed four different soft drink taxes in Pacific countries and documented the lessons learnt regarding the process of policy agenda-setting and implementation. While local social and political context is critically important in determining policy uptake, these case studies suggest strategies for health promotion practitioners that can help to improve policy uptake and implementation. The case studies reveal interaction between the Ministries of Health, Finance and Revenue at every stage of the policy making process. In regard to agenda-setting, relevance to government fiscal priorities was important in gaining support for soft drink taxes. The active involvement of health policy makers was also important in initiating the policies, and the use of existing taxation mechanisms enabled successful policy implementation. While the earmarking of taxes for health has been widely recommended, the revenue may be redirected as government priorities change. Health promotion practitioners must strategically plan for agenda-setting, development and implementation of intersectoral health-promoting policies by engaging with stakeholders in finance at an early stage to identify priorities and synergies, developing cross-sectoral advocacy coalitions, and basing proposals on existing legislative mechanisms where possible. © The Author (2010).


Al Anazi A.D.,Ministry of Commerce | Alyousif M.S.,King Saud University
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

This study aimed to provide recent data on the occurrence of non-strongyle intestinal parasite infestation in horses in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia as a basis for developing parasite control strategies. We conducted necropsy for 45 horses from September 2006 to November 2007 in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. 39 out of 45 horses were infected with intestinal parasites with an infestation rate of 86.6%. Infestations with seven nematode species and two species of Gasterophilus larva were found. The most prevalent parasites were Strongyloides westeri (64.4%) and Parascaris equorum (28.8%) followed by Habronema muscae (22.2%). Trichostrongylus axei and Oxyuris equi were less common at (11.1%) and (8.8%), respectively. Habronema megastoma and Setaria equine were found in two horses only (4.4%). Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae were recovered from 39 horses (86.6%) and Gasterophilus nasalis larvae were found in 17 horses (37.7%). Season had a significant effect on the prevalence of P. equorum and G. nasalis, while age of horses had a significant effect only on the prevalence of P. equorum. The husbandry in Saudi Arabia appears to be conductive to parasites transmitted in stables or by insects rather than in pasture. © 2011.


Al-Anazi A.D.,Ministry of Commerce
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology | Year: 2011

From April to December 2010, blood samples were collected from 412 healthy camels in Riyadh province, Saudi Arabia and used to evaluate serological screening for Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infection by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Of the 412 camels, antibodies to N. caninum were found in sixteen in titers of 1:20 and in seven in titers of 1:40 using whole N. caninum tachyzoites as IFAT slide (VMRD Inc., Pullman, WA 99163, USA). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in nineteen camels in titers 1:20 and in eight camels in titers 1:40 using whole T. gondii tachyzoites as IFAT slide.


Streletskaya N.A.,Cornell University | Amatyakul W.,Ministry of Commerce | Rusmevichientong P.,California State University, Fullerton | Kaiser H.M.,Cornell University | Liaukonyte J.,Cornell University
Agribusiness | Year: 2016

The impact of three menu-labeling formats on changes in dietary quality of an away-from-home meal is measured. The analysis is based on a lunchtime experiment using 232 student participants, with a control group and three treatments: (1) a calorie-content posting, (2) a complete nutrition-facts panel, and (3) health-related claims. We find that the calorie content posting lead to the highest calorie reduction, but it was also the only treatment associated with a significant reduction in the fiber content of the meal. The complete nutrition-facts panel treatment resulted in most sizable decreases in problematic nutrient content such as empty calories and calories from fat and added sugar. The health-related claims treatment led to a reduction in carbohydrates and calories from fat. The nutrient density of selected meals remained mostly unchanged across all treatments, but the empty calories proportion of total calories was reduced in the nutrition-facts and health-related claims treatments, with the latter also leading to some reduction in added sugar density. [EconLit citations: I12, I18, Q18]. © 2016 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


News Article
Site: news.yahoo.com

The logo of Shell is pictured at the 26th World Gas Conference in Paris, France, June 2, 2015. REUTERS/Benoit Tessier More LONDON (Reuters) - Royal Dutch Shell expects to slash thousands more jobs to save costs if its takeover of BG Group goes through as planned early next year following a final green light from China. The acquisition, which was announced on April 8 and is biggest in the sector in a decade, has been cleared by China's Ministry of Commerce, Shell said on Monday, after earlier approvals from Australia, Brazil and the European Union. Shell and BG will now send a merger prospectus to their shareholders and hold special general meetings for votes on the deal. If approved, it will face a court hearing 10 days later and could be completed by early February. Some shareholders, however, have voiced concern over the merits of the acquisition following the sharp slide in oil prices. The fall in Shell's share price since April means the value of the deal has fallen to $53 billion from $70 billion. Shortly after announcing the green light from China, Shell issued a statement saying it expected to cut about 2,800 roles globally from the combined group. That would be nearly 3 percent of the group's combined workforce of about 100,000, or equivalent to more than half BG's roughly 5,000 employees. The Anglo-Dutch oil and gas company had already outlined steps to protect dividend payouts and cashflow following the merger, which include cost savings of $3.5 billion and $30 billion in asset disposals. The new job cuts are also in addition to previously announced plans to reduce Shell's headcount and contractor positions by 7,500 worldwide. Shell B shares were down 1.6 percent by 1217 GMT, while BG shares traded 0.3 percent lower. A BG spokesman said the company would remain focused on its business plan until the deal is completed. The combination will transform Shell into the world's top liquefied natural gas (LNG) trader and a major offshore oil producer focused on Brazil's rapidly-developing sub-salt oil basin that would rival Exxon Mobil's position as the world's biggest international oil company. Shell has nevertheless had to battle a sharp slide in oil prices, which have fallen from $55 a barrel in April to below $40 a barrel, which some investors said undermined the deal. "The deal doesn't make financial sense at the current oil price. You have got to be pretty bullish on the current oil price to make this deal work." David Cumming, Head of Equities at Standard Life Investments, told BBC Radio on Monday. Analysts at Credit Suisse, however, said the deal still made strategic sense. "Yes, it is tough when one looks at spot oil prices ... We are in the camp of 'Yes', not just because of the strategic rationale longer term, but also because of Shell's CEO and Chairman, who we think are the right people at the helm in this environment," the bank said. Last month, sources told Reuters that the Chinese Ministry of Commerce had pressed Shell to sweeten long-term LNG supply contracts as the world's top energy consumer faces a large surfeit over the next five years. The integration of the two companies has been planned by a joint committee in recent months but could encounter some difficulties as BG's small and relatively nimble operations are merged with Shell's much larger structure.

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