Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries

Entebbe, Uganda

Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries

Entebbe, Uganda
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Akoll P.,Makerere University | Akoll P.,University of Vienna | Konecny R.,University of Vienna | Konecny R.,Environment Agency Austria | And 2 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2012

Disease outbreaks constrain aquaculture development. Knowledge on the potential risks of pathogens to farmed fish can help in designing management strategies for increased aquaculture productivity and sustainability. This study compares the helminth infections in reservoirs and therein operated cages as well as earthen fish ponds and the feeding stream in order to assess the significance of life cycle style and water sources in parasite transmission. In addition field experiments were setup to determine loading time and transmission rate. From 650 fish examined, 8 helminth species were recorded (3 from caged- and all 8 from pond-raised fish). The parasite community was dominated by trophically-transmitted species in both culture systems indicating the importance of trophic pathway in helminth transmission. The occurrence of trophically-transmitted helminths in caged-fish was positively related to their prevalence in reservoir-dwelling hosts indicating the importance of water supply in spread of helminths. The prevalence in pond-raised fish was higher than in stream-dwelling ones suggesting the presence of local sources of infective stages within ponds. Risk assessment revealed that monogeneans are high-risk parasites while heteroxenous helminths pose low to negligible threats to farmed fish. Although, cages appeared safer to heteroxenous parasites than ponds, their location in the water body, especially the distance from shores and depth is critical. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Akoll P.,Makerere University | Akoll P.,University of Vienna | Konecny R.,University of Vienna | Konecny R.,Environment Agency Austria | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2012

The larval stages of Bolbophorus sp. (digenean) and Amirthalingamia macracantha (cestode) are frequently reported in Oreochromis niloticus in Uganda. Little, however, is known about their infection patterns. This study examined the influence of habitat type, host size, and sex and weather patterns on the parasite populations in Uganda. A total of 650 fish were collected between January and November 2008 from a reservoir, cages, fishponds and a stream. The prevalence and intensity of A. macracantha and the prevalence of Bolbophorus sp. differed across the water bodies reflecting the effect of habitat characteristics on parasite transmission. Host sex did not significantly influence the infection patterns, although female fish were slightly more parasitized than male and sexually undifferentiated individuals. The fish size was positively correlated with helminth infections demonstrating accumulation and prolonged exposure of larger (older) fish to the parasites. The metacercariae population did not vary significantly across months, while monthly A. macracantha infection fluctuated markedly. With regard to rain seasons, higher prevalence and intensity of A. macracantha were recorded in wet season. For Bolbophorus sp., only the prevalence varied with seasons, with higher prevalence recorded in the dry season than in wet season. Generally, Bolbophorus sp. responded weakly to changes in water body, host sex and size and weather patterns. Rainfall appears to be an essential cue for coracidia hatching. © Springer-Verlag 2012.


Blomstrom A.-L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Stahl K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Okurut A.R.,Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries | Masembe C.,Makerere University | Berg M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Virus Genes | Year: 2013

Porcine bocaviruses (PoBoVs) are small linear ssDNA viruses belonging to the genus bocavirus in the family Parvoviridae. The genome encodes four proteins - the non-structural protein 1 (NS1), the NP1 protein (unknown function) and the two structural proteins VP1 and VP2. In recent years, a number of different highly divergent PoBoV species have been discovered. PoBoVs have been shown to be present in pig populations in Europe, Asia and in the United States of America. In this study, we present the first data of the presence of PoBoV in Africa, specifically in Uganda. A PCR targeting a PoBoV species that have previously been detected in both Sweden and China was used to screen 95 serum samples from domestic pigs in Uganda. Two pigs were found to be positive for this specific PoBoV and the complete coding region was amplified from one of these samples. The amino acid sequence comparison of all these proteins showed a high identity (98-99 %) to the published Chinese sequences (strains: H18 and SX) belonging to the same PoBoV species. The same was true for the Swedish sequences from the same species. To the other PoBoV species the divergence was higher and only a 28-43 % protein sequence identity was seen comparing the different proteins. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Akoll P.,Makerere University | Akoll P.,University of Vienna | Konecny R.,University of Vienna | Konecny R.,Environment Agency Austria | And 4 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2012

An intensive parasite survey was conducted in 2008 to better understand the parasite fauna occurrence, distribution and diversity in the commercial aquaculture fish species in Uganda. A total of 265 fish collected from hatcheries and grow-out systems were examined for parasites using routine parasitological techniques. The survey yielded 17 parasite species: 11 from Oreochromis niloticus and ten from Clarias gariepinus. Four parasites - Amirthalingamia macracantha, Monobothrioides sp., Zoogonoides sp. and a member of the family Amphilinidae - were recorded for the first time in the country. The parasite diversity was similar between hosts; however, O. niloticus was dominated by free-living stage-transmitted parasites in lower numbers, whereas both trophically and free-living stage-transmitted parasites were equally represented in C. gariepinus in relatively high intensities. The patterns in parasite numbers and composition in the two hosts reflect differences in fish habitat use and diet. A shift in parasite composition from monoxenous species-dominated communities in small-sized fish to heteroxenous in large fishes was recorded in both hosts. This was linked to ontogenetic feeding changes and prolonged exposure to parasites. Polyculture systems showed no effect on parasite intensity and composition. The gills were highly parasitized, mainly by protozoans and monogeneans. Generally, the occurrence and diversity of parasites in these fish species highlight the likelihood of disease outbreak in the proposed intensive aquaculture systems. This calls for raising awareness in fish health management among potential farmers, service providers and researchers. © Springer-Verlag 2011.


Chrisostom A.,Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries | Okurut A.A.R.,Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries | Tjornehoj K.,Technical University of Denmark
CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources | Year: 2013

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most economically important livestock disease worldwide. It is endemic in Uganda and most other African countries because of multiple risk factors including high livestock density, animal movements, proximity to wild animals, cross-border transactions, wind, water, animal products, utensils and livestock-human contacts. Like other developing countries, animal production and marketing are heavily constrained by limited access to lucrative international markets because of failure to meet the required standards by the World Trade Organization. One of the major strategies to promote disease control and livestock trade in endemic countries was to introduce the concept of disease-free zones within which specific sanitary and market standards have to be met. In Africa, it is only Namibia, Botswana and South Africa that have ever had FMD free OIE-declared zones. In pursuit of possibilities of beef export to EU and other markets within Africa by the year 2020, Uganda delineated two disease control zones (DCZs) in areas with large livestock populations and as a consequence high risk for FMD, thus requiring high capital investment. This paper highlights the multiple risk factors for spread of FMD and the feasibility of creating effective DCZs in pursuit of the international markets. The overall payback and the constraints of setting up such initiatives are discussed, including necessary parallel interventions way beyond setting up the prescribed areas. © CAB International 2013.


Nantima N.,Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries | Ocaido M.,Makerere University | Ouma E.,International Livestock Research Institute | Davies J.,The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization | And 4 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2015

A cross-sectional survey was carried out to assess risk factors associated with occurrence of African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks in smallholder pig farms in four districts along Kenya-Uganda border. Information was collected by administering questionnaires to 642 randomly selected pig households in the study area. The study showed that the major risk factors that influenced ASF occurrence were purchase of pigs in the previous year (p < 0.000) and feeding of pigs with swill (p < 0.024). By employing cluster analysis, three clusters of pig production types were identified based on production characteristics that were found to differ significantly between districts. The most vulnerable cluster to ASF was households with the highest reported number of ASF outbreaks and composed of those that practiced free range at least some of the time. The majority of the households in this cluster were from Busia district in Uganda. On the other hand, the least vulnerable cluster to ASF composed of households that had the least number of pig purchases, minimal swill feeding, and less treatment for internal and external parasites. The largest proportion of households in this cluster was from Busia district Kenya. The study recommended the need to sensitize farmers to adopt proper biosecurity practices such as total confinement of pigs, treatment of swill, isolation of newly purchased pigs for at least 2 weeks, and provision of incentives for farmers to report suspected outbreaks to authorities and rapid confirmation of outbreaks. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Balinda S.N.,Makerere University | Siegismund H.R.,Ole Maaloes Vej 5 | Muwanika V.B.,Makerere University | Sangula A.K.,Makerere University | And 5 more authors.
Virology Journal | Year: 2010

Background: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in East Africa with the majority of the reported outbreaks attributed to serotype O virus. In this study, phylogenetic analyses of the polyprotein coding region of serotype O FMD viruses from Kenya and Uganda has been undertaken to infer evolutionary relationships and processes responsible for the generation and maintenance of diversity within this serotype. FMD virus RNA was obtained from six samples following virus isolation in cell culture and in one case by direct extraction from an oropharyngeal sample. Following RT-PCR, the single long open reading frame, encoding the polyprotein, was sequenced. Results: Phylogenetic comparisons of the VP1 coding region showed that the recent East African viruses belong to one lineage within the EA-2 topotype while an older Kenyan strain, K/52/1992 is a representative of the topotype EA-1. Evolutionary relationships between the coding regions for the leader protease (L), the capsid region and almost the entire coding region are monophyletic except for the K/52/1992 which is distinct. Furthermore, phylogenetic relationships for the P2 and P3 regions suggest that the K/52/1992 is a probable recombinant between serotypes A and O. A bootscan analysis of K/52/1992 with East African FMD serotype A viruses (A21/KEN/1964 and A23/KEN/1965) and serotype O viral isolate (K/117/1999) revealed that the P2 region is probably derived from a serotype A strain while the P3 region appears to be a mosaic derived from both serotypes A and O. Conclusions: Sequences of the VP1 coding region from recent serotype O FMDVs from Kenya and Uganda are all representatives of a specific East African lineage (topotype EA-2), a probable indication that hardly any FMD introductions of this serotype have occurred from outside the region in the recent past. Furthermore, evidence for interserotypic recombination, within the non-structural protein coding regions, between FMDVs of serotypes A and O has been obtained. In addition to characterization using the VP1 coding region, analyses involving the non-structural protein coding regions should be performed in order to identify evolutionary processes shaping FMD viral populations. © 2010 Balinda et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Dhikusooka M.T.,Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries | Tjornehoj K.,Technical University of Denmark | Ayebazibwe C.,Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries | Namatovu A.,Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries | And 6 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda. © 2015, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.


Akoll P.,Makerere University | Mwanja W.W.,Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries
African Journal of Aquatic Science | Year: 2012

This paper reviews the state of research on fish pathogens in Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda from the early 1900s, the period when fisheries management started in the region, to date, and evaluates the current policy, regulatory frameworks, management practices and frameworks for addressing fish health issues in East African Community countries. Host pathogens and their distributions are listed. To date, fish health research has focused on the occurrence and taxonomy of parasites mainly in wild hosts. Very limited research output and knowledge exist on bacterial, viral and fungal disease agents and on fish culture systems, as well as on parasites' life cycles and/or vectors, epidemiology, pathogenicity, prevention and control. The current fish disease control and preventive strategies and diagnostic facilities are basic and non-specific. Although the five countries have legislation for the management of fisheries that clearly mention the restriction of movement of fish and fish products, they lack comprehensive policy and regulatory provisions to ensure an appreciable level of disease prevention and control. With the intensifying fish farming in the region, the research gaps in fish pathology, the potential impacts of the pathogens and the lack of appropriate management framework for fish diseases highlight the need to strengthen aquatic biosecurity. © 2012 Copyright NISC (Pty) Ltd.


PubMed | International Livestock Research Institute, The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries, Kenya International Livestock Research Institute and Makerere University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2016

A study was undertaken along the Kenya-Uganda border in four districts of Tororo and Busia (Uganda) and Busia and Teso (Kenya) to understand smallholder farmers knowledge, practices and awareness of biosecurity measures. Information was collected by administering questionnaires to 645 randomly selected pig households in the study area. In addition, focus group discussions were carried out in 12 villages involving 248 people using a standardized list of questions. The outcome suggested that there was a very low level of awareness of biosecurity practices amongst smallholder farmers. We conclude that adoption of specific biosecurity practices by smallholder farmers is feasible but requires institutional support. There is a clear requirement for government authorities to sensitize farmers using approaches that allow active participation of farmers in the design, planning and implementation of biosecurity practices to enable enhanced adoption.

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