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Blomstrom A.-L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Stahl K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Okurut A.R.,Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries | Masembe C.,Makerere University | Berg M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Virus Genes | Year: 2013

Porcine bocaviruses (PoBoVs) are small linear ssDNA viruses belonging to the genus bocavirus in the family Parvoviridae. The genome encodes four proteins - the non-structural protein 1 (NS1), the NP1 protein (unknown function) and the two structural proteins VP1 and VP2. In recent years, a number of different highly divergent PoBoV species have been discovered. PoBoVs have been shown to be present in pig populations in Europe, Asia and in the United States of America. In this study, we present the first data of the presence of PoBoV in Africa, specifically in Uganda. A PCR targeting a PoBoV species that have previously been detected in both Sweden and China was used to screen 95 serum samples from domestic pigs in Uganda. Two pigs were found to be positive for this specific PoBoV and the complete coding region was amplified from one of these samples. The amino acid sequence comparison of all these proteins showed a high identity (98-99 %) to the published Chinese sequences (strains: H18 and SX) belonging to the same PoBoV species. The same was true for the Swedish sequences from the same species. To the other PoBoV species the divergence was higher and only a 28-43 % protein sequence identity was seen comparing the different proteins. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Akoll P.,Makerere University | Mwanja W.W.,Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries
African Journal of Aquatic Science | Year: 2012

This paper reviews the state of research on fish pathogens in Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda from the early 1900s, the period when fisheries management started in the region, to date, and evaluates the current policy, regulatory frameworks, management practices and frameworks for addressing fish health issues in East African Community countries. Host pathogens and their distributions are listed. To date, fish health research has focused on the occurrence and taxonomy of parasites mainly in wild hosts. Very limited research output and knowledge exist on bacterial, viral and fungal disease agents and on fish culture systems, as well as on parasites' life cycles and/or vectors, epidemiology, pathogenicity, prevention and control. The current fish disease control and preventive strategies and diagnostic facilities are basic and non-specific. Although the five countries have legislation for the management of fisheries that clearly mention the restriction of movement of fish and fish products, they lack comprehensive policy and regulatory provisions to ensure an appreciable level of disease prevention and control. With the intensifying fish farming in the region, the research gaps in fish pathology, the potential impacts of the pathogens and the lack of appropriate management framework for fish diseases highlight the need to strengthen aquatic biosecurity. © 2012 Copyright NISC (Pty) Ltd.


Akoll P.,Makerere University | Akoll P.,University of Vienna | Konecny R.,University of Vienna | Konecny R.,Environment Agency Austria | And 2 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2012

Disease outbreaks constrain aquaculture development. Knowledge on the potential risks of pathogens to farmed fish can help in designing management strategies for increased aquaculture productivity and sustainability. This study compares the helminth infections in reservoirs and therein operated cages as well as earthen fish ponds and the feeding stream in order to assess the significance of life cycle style and water sources in parasite transmission. In addition field experiments were setup to determine loading time and transmission rate. From 650 fish examined, 8 helminth species were recorded (3 from caged- and all 8 from pond-raised fish). The parasite community was dominated by trophically-transmitted species in both culture systems indicating the importance of trophic pathway in helminth transmission. The occurrence of trophically-transmitted helminths in caged-fish was positively related to their prevalence in reservoir-dwelling hosts indicating the importance of water supply in spread of helminths. The prevalence in pond-raised fish was higher than in stream-dwelling ones suggesting the presence of local sources of infective stages within ponds. Risk assessment revealed that monogeneans are high-risk parasites while heteroxenous helminths pose low to negligible threats to farmed fish. Although, cages appeared safer to heteroxenous parasites than ponds, their location in the water body, especially the distance from shores and depth is critical. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Akoll P.,Makerere University | Akoll P.,University of Vienna | Konecny R.,University of Vienna | Konecny R.,Environment Agency Austria | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2012

The larval stages of Bolbophorus sp. (digenean) and Amirthalingamia macracantha (cestode) are frequently reported in Oreochromis niloticus in Uganda. Little, however, is known about their infection patterns. This study examined the influence of habitat type, host size, and sex and weather patterns on the parasite populations in Uganda. A total of 650 fish were collected between January and November 2008 from a reservoir, cages, fishponds and a stream. The prevalence and intensity of A. macracantha and the prevalence of Bolbophorus sp. differed across the water bodies reflecting the effect of habitat characteristics on parasite transmission. Host sex did not significantly influence the infection patterns, although female fish were slightly more parasitized than male and sexually undifferentiated individuals. The fish size was positively correlated with helminth infections demonstrating accumulation and prolonged exposure of larger (older) fish to the parasites. The metacercariae population did not vary significantly across months, while monthly A. macracantha infection fluctuated markedly. With regard to rain seasons, higher prevalence and intensity of A. macracantha were recorded in wet season. For Bolbophorus sp., only the prevalence varied with seasons, with higher prevalence recorded in the dry season than in wet season. Generally, Bolbophorus sp. responded weakly to changes in water body, host sex and size and weather patterns. Rainfall appears to be an essential cue for coracidia hatching. © Springer-Verlag 2012.


Nantima N.,Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries | Davies J.,The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization | Dione M.,International Livestock Research Institute | Ocaido M.,Makerere University | And 3 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2016

A study was undertaken along the Kenya–Uganda border in four districts of Tororo and Busia (Uganda) and Busia and Teso (Kenya) to understand smallholder farmers’ knowledge, practices and awareness of biosecurity measures. Information was collected by administering questionnaires to 645 randomly selected pig households in the study area. In addition, focus group discussions were carried out in 12 villages involving 248 people using a standardized list of questions. The outcome suggested that there was a very low level of awareness of biosecurity practices amongst smallholder farmers. We conclude that adoption of specific biosecurity practices by smallholder farmers is feasible but requires institutional support. There is a clear requirement for government authorities to sensitize farmers using approaches that allow active participation of farmers in the design, planning and implementation of biosecurity practices to enable enhanced adoption. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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