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Ebenebe C.I.,Nnamdi Azikiwe University | Itefue O.,Nnamdi Azikiwe University | Ebere-Ohameje T.C.,Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources | Okonkwo J.C.,Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

The effect of fortifying the nutritive value of mushroom with paw-paw leaf meal in the diet of broilers was studied using one hundred and eight day old chicks. Three diets were formulated, the first which served as control had no mushroom (Diet A) and the second diet had 2% mushrooms (Diet B) while the third had 2% mushroom and 2% paw-paw leaves (Diet C). Thirty-six broiler chicks were randomly assigned to each of the three dietary at the rate of twelve chicks per replicate and three replicates per experimental unit in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Beside feed trail period, the experiment lasted for five weeks. During this period, the birds were subjected to similar husbandry and sanitation practices; daily records of food intake and weekly record of weight gain were taken. Data obtained were subjected to ANOVA appropriate for Completely Randomized Design and the differences between means were separated using Least Significant Differences (LSD). The result showed that birds fed with control diet had the highest feed intake of compared to those fed Diet B and Diet C. Broiler chicks on Diet C however had the highest records in all the productive indices (weight gain, specific growth rate and food conversion ratio) investigated. The study therefore recommends inclusion of at least 2% paw-paw leaf meal in broiler chicks' diet that contains mushroom. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2011.


Abimbola O.P.,Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources | Ewemoje T.A.,University of Ibadan
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

This study compares the response of Amaranthus candatus vegetable to root-to-shoot signals of soil drying and assesses applicability of the use of partial root zone drying (PRD) technique in increasing water-use efficiency. From a completely block randomized design, seeds were grown on three plots with each having three replicates. Three treatments were compared: half of the root system watered and half droughted by delivering 50% less crop water requirement (CWR) per irrigation depicted as 50%PRD; both halves of the root system received water application of 50% less crop water requirement per irrigation (50%CWR); while in the control treatment, both halves received 100% crop water requirement (100%CWR). The wetted and dried sides of the root system of 50%PRD were alternated on a 7-day cycle throughout experimental period. Effects of the differences in water-use on growth parameters, such as plant height, stem girth; number of leaves and leaf area were examined. Weights at harvest and root-to-shoot ratios were also compared. Drying half of the root system caused marked declines in all growth parameters in 50%CWR but only slight declines in 50%PRD. Since the main effect of water stress on Amaranthus is yield reduction, achieving better yields requires an optimum water supply from planting until ripening. Average edible wet weights (yields) of the 50%PRD and 50%CWR water applications when compared with the control were 81% and 25% respectively. The higher yield in 50%PRD may be attributed to high stomata sensitivity to drought signaling, as indicated by relatively low root to shoot ratio of 0.33. This lower ratio for 50%PRD treatment, compared to 50%CWR and 100%CWR with 0.40 and 0.66 values, was an indication of healthier and more profitable plants in 50%PRD because the decrease came from a greater shoot size. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Eilola S.,University of Turku | Kayhko N.,University of Turku | Fagerholm N.,University of Turku | Kombo Y.H.,Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems | Year: 2014

In order to identify sustainable management solutions for small-scale farmer agroecosystems, a better understanding of these dynamic forest–farmland systems, existing farming and forestry strategies, and farmer perspectives is important. We examined the relationship between agricultural land use patterns and farmers’ practices and identified existing and potential characteristics of healthy agroecosystems at local scale in the context of village communities in Zanzibar, Tanzania. With in-depth household survey and participatory mapping, five distinct cropping patterns were identified and their relation to land cover elucidated. Consequences of the diverse local farming strategies to field level cultivation patterns are dynamic. However, long-term adaptation of the local farmers to prevailing edaphic site conditions and resource-poor circumstances create fragmented but fairly stable land use patterns at landscape level. By integrating local expert knowledge and realities with scientific knowledge, we identified sustainable agroecosystem characteristics and farming practices, which are knowledge-intensive, alternative and adaptable to local conditions. Some of these practices are already a part of the local farming strategies and some require training and higher level support to reach healthier agroecosystem and better food security. They also offer potential opportunities for forest conservation since their tree-based nature provide forest products to the communities. © , Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Eilola S.,University of Turku | Fagerholm N.,University of Turku | Maki S.,University of Turku | Khamis M.,Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources | Kayhko N.,University of Turku
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management | Year: 2015

The efforts in sustainable natural resource management have given rise to decentralization of forest governance in the developing world with hopes for better solutions and effective implementation. In this paper, we examine how spatially sensitive participation is realized from policy to practice in the process of establishing participatory forest management in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Our policy–practice analysis shows that the policies in Zanzibar strongly support decentralization and local level participation has in practice been realized. However, the policy does not emphasize participatory process design nor address the possibilities of using spatial information and technologies to ensure wider participation. Thus, the practices fall short in innovativeness of using site-sensitive information with available technologies. Reflecting the Zanzibari Community Forest Management Agreements (CoFMA) context with examples of participatory use of spatial information and technologies in other parts of the world, we discuss ways to improve the Zanzibari CoFMA process towards increased participation, communication, local sense of ownership and more sustainable land management decisions, and argue for the future implementation of CoFMA as a spatially sensitive participatory process. © 2014, © 2014 University of Newcastle upon Tyne.


Adesokan H.K.,University of Ibadan | Agada C.A.,University of Ibadan | Adetunji V.O.,University of Ibadan | Akanbi I.M.,Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association | Year: 2013

After the discovery of indiscriminate antibiotic use in ready-for-slaughter cattle in southwestern Nigeria, 90 tissue samples from randomly selected slaughtered cattle were evaluated for oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues using high performance liquid chromatography and the data analysed by one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings revealed residues of oxytetracycline (kidney: 9.47 μ/kg ± 3.24 μ/kg; liver: 12.73 μ/kg ± 4.39 μ/kg; muscle: 16.17 μ/kg ± 5.52 μ/kg) and penicillin-G (kidney: 6.27 μ/kg ± 2.46 μ/kg; liver: 8.5 μ/kg ± 2.80 μ/kg; muscle: 11.67 μ/kg ± 2.94 μ/kg) in all tissues screened. Significantly high levels (oxytetracycline: F = 16.77; penicillin-G: F = 29.38) were, however, found in muscles, followed by liver and then kidney - findings confirming recent antibiotic administration to the animals before slaughter. The dietary intakes through the tissues screened were 0.024% (oxytetracycline) and 0.017% (penicillin-G) of the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Although the concentrations in the tissues screened were below the maximum residue limits despite recent administration of these antibiotics before slaughter, the lower concentrations are suggestive of the probable low dosages often administered by those involved in indiscriminate use of antibiotics. This therefore raises serious concerns for the livestock industry as well as human health, given the resultant emergence and spread of resistant strains of bacterial pathogens that could ensue from prolonged use of low dosages of antibiotics. Additionally, the lower concentrations of the daily intakes notwithstanding, the plausible exposure to these antibiotics from other food sources is a cause for concern. Since antimicrobial misuse and its consequent effects are not just a problem limited to Nigeria but also a concern in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for national and international stakeholder intervention is emphasised. © 2013. The Authors.

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