Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock

Kasama, Zambia

Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock

Kasama, Zambia

Time filter

Source Type

Boukary A.R.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Boukary A.R.,University of Niamey | Boukary A.R.,University of Liège | Thys E.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread zoonosis in developing countries but has received little attention in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in Niger. Recent investigations confirmed the high incidence of the disease in cattle slaughtered in an abattoir in Niamey. The fact that most of the animals in which M. bovis has been identified were from the rural area of Torodi implied the existence of a probable source of BTB in this region. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of BTB infection in cattle and to identify risk factors for infection in human and cattle populations in Torodi. Methods and Principal Findings: A survey was carried out at the level of households keeping livestock (n = 51). The questionnaire was related to the potential risk factors and the presence of clinical signs of TB both in animals and humans. Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test was conducted to determine the TB status in cattle (n = 393). The overall apparent individual animal prevalence of tuberculin reactors was 3.6% (CI: 95%, 1.9-5.9), whereas the individual true prevalence was estimated at 0.8% (CI: 95%, 0.0-5.0). Using a multivariate logistic regression analysis and a classification tree analysis, the only household level risk factor that significantly influenced the presence of BTB in cattle was the presence of animals coughing in the herd (OR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.12-19.71, p-value = 0.034). The lack of the practice of quarantine was borderline significant (OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 0.96-18.40, p-value = 0.056). Conclusion/Significance: The study confirmed that BTB is endemic in cattle in Torodi and the risk of the transmission of the disease to humans is potentially high. For the control of the disease in livestock, slaughtering of infected animals and the compensation of the owners is needed. Collaboration between the veterinary and the medical sectors, in the diagnosis, monitoring, prevention and control of BTB is strongly encouraged. © 2011 Boukary et al.


Muuka G.M.,Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock | Muuka G.M.,University of Bari | Chikampa W.,Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock | Mundia C.,Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock | And 3 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2014

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a highly infectious and fatal disease of cattle present in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, is usually controlled by mass vaccinations. However, vaccination against CBPP is known to cause site reactions in a percentage of cattle especially in primary vaccinations. In Zambia, a record of site reactions was kept for seven consecutive years from 2005 to 2011 to establish the level of the problem. In some areas, after 3 years of consecutive vaccination campaigns, immunization could not be implemented for a period of 2 years because of logistical difficulties or owner resistance. Whereas in the three preceding years when animals were vaccinated annually, site reactions were in the range of 6.2 %; on resumption of vaccination in the herds that had not been immunized for 2 years, site reactions averaged 21.3 %. This data shows that the T1/44 vaccine may cause severe local reactions in cattle if there is any break in annual vaccinations. It is therefore important for authorities to ensure that the cattle at risk of contracting CBPP are regularly vaccinated to avoid discouraging farmers from presenting their animals. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Hang'ombe M.B.,University of Zambia | Mwansa J.C.L.,University of Lusaka | Mulenga P.,Ministry of Health | Kapina M.,Ministry of Health | And 7 more authors.
Tropical Doctor | Year: 2012

There has been a reduction of incidences of anthrax in the developed countries but it is still a public health problem in the developing countries where communities live in interface areas with wildlife. An outbreak of anthrax in Hippopotamus amphibious was observed in Zambia. Following the death of hippopotamuses, suspected human cases were reported.The objective of this study was to isolate and confirm Bacillus anthracis and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility for themanagement of the disease. Of the specimens collected, 29.4% (95% confidence interval [CI],11.4-56.0)were fromhumans, 42.1% (95% CI, 21.1-66.0) were from hippopotamuses and 20.0% (95%CI,6.61-44.3) fromthe soilwere found to be positive were for B. anthracis. An antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that all the isolates were found to be sensitive to the recommended antibiotics.The diseasecontrol was achieved by casemanagement and by explaining to the communities that they should avoid contact with animals that die from unknown causes.


PubMed | University of Pretoria, Charles Sturt University, James Cook University and Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock
Type: | Journal: Preventive veterinary medicine | Year: 2016

Newcastle Disease (ND) is a highly infectious disease of poultry that seriously impacts on food security and livelihoods of livestock farmers and communities in tropical regions of the world. ND is a constant problem in the eastern province of Zambia which has more than 740000 rural poultry. Very few studies give a situational analysis of the disease that can be used for disease control planning in the region. With this background in mind, a retrospective epidemiological study was conducted using Newcastle Disease data submitted to the eastern province headquarters for the period from 1989 to 2014. The study found that Newcastle Disease cases in eastern Zambia followed a seasonal and cyclic pattern with peaks in the hot dry season (Overall Seasonal Index 1.1) as well as cycles every three years with an estimated provincial incidence range of 0.16 to 1.7% per year. Annual trends were compared with major intervention policies implemented by the Zambian government, which often received donor support from the international community during the study period. Aid delivered through government programmes appeared to have no major impact on ND trends between 1989 and 2014 and reasons for this are discussed. There were apparent spatial shifts in districts with outbreaks over time which could be as a result of veterinary interventions chasing outbreaks rather than implementing uniform control. Data was also fitted to a predictive time series model for ND which could be used to plan for future ND control. Time series modelling showed an increasing trend in ND annual incidence over 25 years if existing interventions continue. A different approach to controlling the disease is needed if this trend is to be halted. Conversely, the positive trend may be a function of improved reporting by farmers as a result of more awareness of the disease.


News Article | October 26, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Washington D.C., Oct. 24, 2016--A new study has found that vitamin A-biofortified orange maize significantly improves visual functions in children. The study was conducted among school-aged children (4 to 8 years old) in rural Zambia. Children who ate orange maize showed improved night vision within six months. Their eyes adapted better in the dark, improving their ability to engage in optimal day-to-day activities under dim light, such as during dusk and dawn. The study was published in The Journal of Nutrition. "It shows that in populations that are vitamin A deficient, the eyes can respond well to a good source of vitamin A such as orange maize in a fairly short span of time," says lead author Amanda Palmer of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. "It also validates the importance of orange maize for tackling vitamin A deficiency as part of a food-based approach." Vitamin A deficiency occurs on a continuum. Severe vitamin A deficiency with blinding eye disease and a high risk of death from otherwise curable infections is at one end of the spectrum. But, less severe, incipient vitamin A deficiency -- also an important underlying cause of child deaths--is more frequent and difficult to detect. According to the World Health Organization, lack of sufficient vitamin A blinds up to 500,000 children worldwide every year. Impairment of the eyes' ability to adapt to low-light conditions is one of the few measurable signs of vitamin A deficiency at its initial stages. In this study scientists used specialized portable equipment to confirm the benefit of eating vitamin A-rich orange maize in a population with marginal deficiency. "It is an impressive advancement that with portable, more user-friendly equipment scientists are now able to accurately record the changing size of the pupils of the children's eyes," says Erick Boy, Head of Nutrition at HarvestPlus and a pediatrician by training. "In this study, the researchers documented how children's eyes responded to different light conditions before and after a six-month feeding period. This used to be a much more cumbersome task until now." Testing for vitamin A deficiency is problematic because blood collection can prove difficult in rural settings. Levels of vitamin A in the blood may also be affected by other factors, such as infections. Rapid, reliable and non-invasive tools to measure the positive impact of nutritional interventions on the vision of those suffering from marginal deficiency were practically unavailable before this study. Scientists in this study used a new device called a Portable Field Dark Adaptometer (PFDA). The PFDA is a set of goggles manufactured with a digital camera and flash inside. The goggles are connected to a desktop or laptop computer, which can accurately record the response of the pupil in each eye to changing light conditions. The Johns Hopkins team is the first to use this device on a large scale. "Until now, most of the tools and techniques used to measure night vision have relied on dark rooms, which are impractical in rural field settings. And, results were subjective," says Palmer. "With PFDA we don't need a tent or a dark room and it gives accurate results for people aged 3-4 years or older." This randomized efficacy study was conducted in Zambia's Mkushi District among children who were marginally vitamin A deficient. They were served two meals per day, six days a week for six months. Half of the children got meals made from biofortified orange maize, while the other half consumed white maize meals. The children wore PFDA goggles to record pupil response. "We measured the responsiveness of the pupil to light and calculated the change in pupil size over a period of time. These goggles enabled us to monitor something that was not possible before," says Palmer. The biofortified orange maize used in this study was conventionally bred to have higher levels of beta-carotene, a naturally occurring plant pigment that the body converts into vitamin A with higher efficiency as the body stores of the vitamin decrease. More about orange maize in Zambia The Zambian Government is actively promoting vitamin A-rich orange maize developed by HarvestPlus and its partners through conventional plant breeding methods. Maize is a staple food in Zambia and its enrichment can help combat the rampant problem of vitamin A deficiency, whose ill effects can include stunted growth and blindness. Zambia has banned the export of orange maize so that nutritious maize stays in the country to nourish its own people. The country's Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock has included orange maize seeds as one of the material supplies that can be procured under the Farmer Input Support Programme (FISP). The ministry is urging farmers, millers, and seed companies to become ambassadors and advocates of biofortified nutritious maize. This message is reaching Zambians. The adoption rate for orange maize is fairly high in Zambia, and HarvestPlus expects that at least 600,000 households will have adopted the crop by 2020. More about orange maize in Zimbabwe Zimbabwe has become the latest African country to move toward making biofortified nutritious crops widely available to farmers and consumers. On August 18, 2016, the Zimbabwean Government officially launched widespread distribution and marketing of biofortified crop seeds under a project implemented by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). HarvestPlus is a strategic partner and technical advisor to the project. Two biofortified crops -- vitamin A orange maize, and iron and zinc beans -- have already been released, with seeds expected to be available across the country in readiness for the 2016/2017 planting season. Farmers in the country can now access one variety of the orange maize and two of the iron and zinc beans, but will soon have more to choose from when varieties already in the pipeline are released. HarvestPlus improves nutrition and public health by developing and promoting biofortified food crops that are rich in vitamins and minerals, and providing global leadership on biofortification evidence and technology. HarvestPlus is part of the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH). CGIAR is a global agriculture research partnership for a food secure future. Its science is carried out by its 15 research centers in collaboration with hundreds of partner organizations. The HarvestPlus program is coordinated by two of these centers, the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).


Muyobela J.,University of Zambia | Nkunika P.O.Y.,Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock | Mwase E.T.,University of Zambia
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2016

The objective of the study was to determine the acaricidal properties of Bobgunnia madagascariensis (Desv.) J.H. Kirkbr. and Wiersema (Leguminosae) against adult Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) ticks, using Tephrosia vogelii Hook.f. (Leguminosae) as a positive control. Plant extracts of both were prepared using methanol, acetone and chloroform as extraction solvents. Methanol leaf extracts of T. vogelii (0.014 g) and methanol fruit extracts of B. madagascariensis (0.0062 g) gave the highest mean extraction weights among the plant parts and solvents used. In free contact bioassays, only methanol extracts of the bark and leaf material of T. vogelii and methanol fruit extracts of B. madagascariensis produced 100 % mortality of A. variegatum ticks in 24 h. The acaricidal activity of methanol leaf extracts of T. vogelii persisted for up to 8 days while that of fruit extracts of B. madagascariensis persisted for only 6 days. In topical application bioassays, the toxicity of T. vogelii and B. madagascariensis extracts was found to be significantly different at 95 % confidence level, with B. madagascariensis extracts (LD50 0.030 w/v) being more toxic than T. vogelii extracts (LD50 0.555 w/v). This study has shown that plant extracts of B. madagascariensis and T. vogelii extracts have significant in vitro acaricidal activity against A. variegatum ticks and can thus be considered as alternatives for tick control. Further research is however required on persistence, safety and the required application rates. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Nyimba P.H.,Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock | Komba E.V.G.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Sugimoto C.,Hokkaido University | Namangala B.,University of Zambia
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2015

African animal trypanosomosis is one of the key livestock diseases hindering full exploitation of livestock production potential covering 37 countries across sub-Saharan Africa. Many studies have been carried out to investigate the prevalence of the disease in cattle and humans in many tropical African countries but very little attention has been directed towards generating the disease prevalence rates in goats. The current study was conducted between December 2013 and January 2014 to establish the prevalence of caprine trypanosomosis in Sinazongwe and Kalomo districts, southern Zambia. It involved 422 goats which were first examined by palpation for possible enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. Blood samples were then collected from the goats and subjected to laboratory diagnosis using the microscope and Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP). None of the examined goats displayed enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. On microscopy only one goat was found to be positive. The results of investigation using the LAMP method showed that 100 goats were infected with trypanosomes giving an overall prevalence rate of 23.7%. The prevalence of infection in Sinazongwe was 22.4% (n=183) while in Kalomo it was 24.7% (n=239); and the difference between the two districts was statistically significant at 95% CL (x2=4.4, df=1, p<0.05). Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanasoma vivax and Trypanasoma congolense were detected in 82.0%, 31.0% and 23.0% of the infected goats, respectively. Mixed infections were detected among 33.0% of the positive samples. The high prevalence rate of trypanosomes detected in the study area confirms the earlier reports that trypanosomosis is re-emerging in the areas previously aerial sprayed by Government. The detection of trypanosomes in naturally infected goats outlines the important role goats play in the epidemiology of African animal trypanosomosis. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | University of Zambia and Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2016

The objective of the study was to determine the acaricidal properties of Bobgunnia madagascariensis (Desv.) J.H. Kirkbr. and Wiersema (Leguminosae) against adult Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) ticks, using Tephrosia vogelii Hook.f. (Leguminosae) as a positive control. Plant extracts of both were prepared using methanol, acetone and chloroform as extraction solvents. Methanol leaf extracts of T. vogelii (0.014 g) and methanol fruit extracts of B. madagascariensis (0.0062 g) gave the highest mean extraction weights among the plant parts and solvents used. In free contact bioassays, only methanol extracts of the bark and leaf material of T. vogelii and methanol fruit extracts of B. madagascariensis produced 100 % mortality of A. variegatum ticks in 24 h. The acaricidal activity of methanol leaf extracts of T. vogelii persisted for up to 8 days while that of fruit extracts of B. madagascariensis persisted for only 6 days. In topical application bioassays, the toxicity of T. vogelii and B. madagascariensis extracts was found to be significantly different at 95 % confidence level, with B. madagascariensis extracts (LD50 0.030 w/v) being more toxic than T. vogelii extracts (LD50 0.555 w/v). This study has shown that plant extracts of B. madagascariensis and T. vogelii extracts have significant in vitro acaricidal activity against A. variegatum ticks and can thus be considered as alternatives for tick control. Further research is however required on persistence, safety and the required application rates.


PubMed | Sokoine University of Agriculture, University of Zambia, Hokkaido University and Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary parasitology | Year: 2015

African animal trypanosomosis is one of the key livestock diseases hindering full exploitation of livestock production potential covering 37 countries across sub-Saharan Africa. Many studies have been carried out to investigate the prevalence of the disease in cattle and humans in many tropical African countries but very little attention has been directed towards generating the disease prevalence rates in goats. The current study was conducted between December 2013 and January 2014 to establish the prevalence of caprine trypanosomosis in Sinazongwe and Kalomo districts, southern Zambia. It involved 422 goats which were first examined by palpation for possible enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. Blood samples were then collected from the goats and subjected to laboratory diagnosis using the microscope and Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP). None of the examined goats displayed enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. On microscopy only one goat was found to be positive. The results of investigation using the LAMP method showed that 100 goats were infected with trypanosomes giving an overall prevalence rate of 23.7%. The prevalence of infection in Sinazongwe was 22.4% (n=183) while in Kalomo it was 24.7% (n=239); and the difference between the two districts was statistically significant at 95% CL (x(2)=4.4, df=1, p<0.05). Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanasoma vivax and Trypanasoma congolense were detected in 82.0%, 31.0% and 23.0% of the infected goats, respectively. Mixed infections were detected among 33.0% of the positive samples. The high prevalence rate of trypanosomes detected in the study area confirms the earlier reports that trypanosomosis is re-emerging in the areas previously aerial sprayed by Government. The detection of trypanosomes in naturally infected goats outlines the important role goats play in the epidemiology of African animal trypanosomosis.


PubMed | Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2014

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a highly infectious and fatal disease of cattle present in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, is usually controlled by mass vaccinations. However, vaccination against CBPP is known to cause site reactions in a percentage of cattle especially in primary vaccinations. In Zambia, a record of site reactions was kept for seven consecutive years from 2005 to 2011 to establish the level of the problem. In some areas, after 3 years of consecutive vaccination campaigns, immunization could not be implemented for a period of 2 years because of logistical difficulties or owner resistance. Whereas in the three preceding years when animals were vaccinated annually, site reactions were in the range of 6.2%; on resumption of vaccination in the herds that had not been immunized for 2 years, site reactions averaged 21.3%. This data shows that the T1/44 vaccine may cause severe local reactions in cattle if there is any break in annual vaccinations. It is therefore important for authorities to ensure that the cattle at risk of contracting CBPP are regularly vaccinated to avoid discouraging farmers from presenting their animals.

Loading Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock collaborators
Loading Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock collaborators