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Hang'ombe M.B.,University of Zambia | Mwansa J.C.L.,University of Lusaka | Mulenga P.,Ministry of Health | Kapina M.,Ministry of Health | And 7 more authors.
Tropical Doctor | Year: 2012

There has been a reduction of incidences of anthrax in the developed countries but it is still a public health problem in the developing countries where communities live in interface areas with wildlife. An outbreak of anthrax in Hippopotamus amphibious was observed in Zambia. Following the death of hippopotamuses, suspected human cases were reported.The objective of this study was to isolate and confirm Bacillus anthracis and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility for themanagement of the disease. Of the specimens collected, 29.4% (95% confidence interval [CI],11.4-56.0)were fromhumans, 42.1% (95% CI, 21.1-66.0) were from hippopotamuses and 20.0% (95%CI,6.61-44.3) fromthe soilwere found to be positive were for B. anthracis. An antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that all the isolates were found to be sensitive to the recommended antibiotics.The diseasecontrol was achieved by casemanagement and by explaining to the communities that they should avoid contact with animals that die from unknown causes. Source

Muyobela J.,University of Zambia | Nkunika P.O.Y.,Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock | Mwase E.T.,University of Zambia
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2016

The objective of the study was to determine the acaricidal properties of Bobgunnia madagascariensis (Desv.) J.H. Kirkbr. and Wiersema (Leguminosae) against adult Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) ticks, using Tephrosia vogelii Hook.f. (Leguminosae) as a positive control. Plant extracts of both were prepared using methanol, acetone and chloroform as extraction solvents. Methanol leaf extracts of T. vogelii (0.014 g) and methanol fruit extracts of B. madagascariensis (0.0062 g) gave the highest mean extraction weights among the plant parts and solvents used. In free contact bioassays, only methanol extracts of the bark and leaf material of T. vogelii and methanol fruit extracts of B. madagascariensis produced 100 % mortality of A. variegatum ticks in 24 h. The acaricidal activity of methanol leaf extracts of T. vogelii persisted for up to 8 days while that of fruit extracts of B. madagascariensis persisted for only 6 days. In topical application bioassays, the toxicity of T. vogelii and B. madagascariensis extracts was found to be significantly different at 95 % confidence level, with B. madagascariensis extracts (LD50 0.030 w/v) being more toxic than T. vogelii extracts (LD50 0.555 w/v). This study has shown that plant extracts of B. madagascariensis and T. vogelii extracts have significant in vitro acaricidal activity against A. variegatum ticks and can thus be considered as alternatives for tick control. Further research is however required on persistence, safety and the required application rates. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Source

Nyimba P.H.,Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock | Komba E.V.G.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Sugimoto C.,Hokkaido University | Namangala B.,University of Zambia
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2015

African animal trypanosomosis is one of the key livestock diseases hindering full exploitation of livestock production potential covering 37 countries across sub-Saharan Africa. Many studies have been carried out to investigate the prevalence of the disease in cattle and humans in many tropical African countries but very little attention has been directed towards generating the disease prevalence rates in goats. The current study was conducted between December 2013 and January 2014 to establish the prevalence of caprine trypanosomosis in Sinazongwe and Kalomo districts, southern Zambia. It involved 422 goats which were first examined by palpation for possible enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. Blood samples were then collected from the goats and subjected to laboratory diagnosis using the microscope and Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP). None of the examined goats displayed enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. On microscopy only one goat was found to be positive. The results of investigation using the LAMP method showed that 100 goats were infected with trypanosomes giving an overall prevalence rate of 23.7%. The prevalence of infection in Sinazongwe was 22.4% (n=183) while in Kalomo it was 24.7% (n=239); and the difference between the two districts was statistically significant at 95% CL (x2=4.4, df=1, p<0.05). Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanasoma vivax and Trypanasoma congolense were detected in 82.0%, 31.0% and 23.0% of the infected goats, respectively. Mixed infections were detected among 33.0% of the positive samples. The high prevalence rate of trypanosomes detected in the study area confirms the earlier reports that trypanosomosis is re-emerging in the areas previously aerial sprayed by Government. The detection of trypanosomes in naturally infected goats outlines the important role goats play in the epidemiology of African animal trypanosomosis. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Boukary A.R.,ONG Karkara | Boukary A.R.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Boukary A.R.,University of Niamey | Boukary A.R.,University of Liege | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread zoonosis in developing countries but has received little attention in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in Niger. Recent investigations confirmed the high incidence of the disease in cattle slaughtered in an abattoir in Niamey. The fact that most of the animals in which M. bovis has been identified were from the rural area of Torodi implied the existence of a probable source of BTB in this region. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of BTB infection in cattle and to identify risk factors for infection in human and cattle populations in Torodi. Methods and Principal Findings: A survey was carried out at the level of households keeping livestock (n = 51). The questionnaire was related to the potential risk factors and the presence of clinical signs of TB both in animals and humans. Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test was conducted to determine the TB status in cattle (n = 393). The overall apparent individual animal prevalence of tuberculin reactors was 3.6% (CI: 95%, 1.9-5.9), whereas the individual true prevalence was estimated at 0.8% (CI: 95%, 0.0-5.0). Using a multivariate logistic regression analysis and a classification tree analysis, the only household level risk factor that significantly influenced the presence of BTB in cattle was the presence of animals coughing in the herd (OR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.12-19.71, p-value = 0.034). The lack of the practice of quarantine was borderline significant (OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 0.96-18.40, p-value = 0.056). Conclusion/Significance: The study confirmed that BTB is endemic in cattle in Torodi and the risk of the transmission of the disease to humans is potentially high. For the control of the disease in livestock, slaughtering of infected animals and the compensation of the owners is needed. Collaboration between the veterinary and the medical sectors, in the diagnosis, monitoring, prevention and control of BTB is strongly encouraged. © 2011 Boukary et al. Source

Graf D.L.,University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point | Graf D.L.,Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia | Geneva A.J.,Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia | Geneva A.J.,University of Rochester | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Molluscan Studies | Year: 2014

The freshwater mussels Prisodontopsis aviculaeformis (F.R. Woodward, 1991) and Mweruella mweruensis (E.A. Smith, 1908) are endemic to Lake Mweru and confluent rivers in Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo in southcentral Africa. Each species has traditionally been regarded as monotypic at the genus-level or above. We assessed the phylogenetic relationships of these two species together with species of Coelatura, Nitia and three outgroup species (35 terminals representing 11 species in total) using two gene fragments, 28S nuclear rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I mtDNA. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference provided strong support for a sister relationship between P. aviculaeformis and M. mweruensis as well as evidence of incomplete lineage sorting or introgression between them. This Lake Mweru clade was resolved as sister to a clade composed of Coelatura choziensis (Preston, 1910) and C. Luapulaensis (Preston, 1913) from Lake Bangweulu and the adjacent Chambeshi River. These four species from the Zambian Congo were nested within a paraphyletic Coelatura Conrad, 1853. We advocate placing Mweruella Haas, 1936 as a subjective junior synonym of Prisodontopsis Tomlin, 1928, while maintaining Coelatura as paraphyletic until a more comprehensive phylogeny is available. We hypothesize that the endemic freshwater mussels of Lake Mweru in the Zambian Congo evolved within the lake during the Quaternary from an ancestor originating in the Chambeshi River following stream capture from the Zambezi Basin. © 2014 The Author 2014. Source

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