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Kim O.-K.,Tokyo University of Agriculture | Mizutani T.,Tokyo University of Agriculture | Natsuaki K.T.,Tokyo University of Agriculture | Lee K.-W.,Kyungpook National University | Soe K.,Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation
Journal of Phytopathology

Bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.] plants showing leaf mosaic and mottle were observed in Myanmar in 2007 and shown by RT-PCR and ELISA to be infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV). This is the first report of the virus occurring in Myanmar. Despite considerable differences in geographical origins, natural host species and year of sampling of 22 CGMMV isolates, we found low genetic variation of the CP gene except for isolates GR3 and GR5, which showed similarity higher than 97%; based on the MP gene, and 16 CGMMV isolates showed similarity higher than 94% in nucleotide identities by pairwise comparison. Using MluI restriction endonuclease for CP genes, the CGMMV isolates fell into three types: Type I and Type II were included in the SH group and Type III in the W group. The two CGMMV isolates from Myanmar were found to belong to Type I and Type III, respectively. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Javadi F.,Osaka Prefecture University | Tun Y.T.,Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation | Kawase M.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Guan K.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Yamaguchi H.,Tokyo University of Agriculture
Annals of Botany

Background and Aims: The subgenus Ceratotropis in the genus Vigna is widely distributed from the Himalayan highlands to South, Southeast and East Asia. However, the interspecific and geographical relationships of its members are poorly understood. This study investigates the phylogeny and biogeography of the subgenus Ceratotropis using chloroplast DNA sequence data. Methods: Sequence data from four intergenic spacer regions (petA-psbJ, psbD-trnT, trnT-trnE and trnT-trnL) of chloroplast DNA, alone and in combination, were analysed using Bayesian and parsimony methods. Divergence times for major clades were estimated with penalized likelihood. Character evolution was examined by means of parsimony optimization and MacClade. Key Results: Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses on the combined data demonstrated well-resolved species relationships in which 18 Vigna species were divided into two major geographical clades: the East AsiaSoutheast Asian clade and the Indian subcontinent clade. Within these two clades, three well-supported eco-geographical groups, temperate and subtropical (the East AsiaSoutheast Asian clade) and tropical (the Indian subcontinent clade), are recognized. The temperate group consists of V. minima, V. nepalensis and V. angularis. The subtropical group comprises the V. nakashimaeV. riukiuensisV. minima subgroup and the V. hirtellaV. exilisV. umbellata subgroup. The tropical group contains two subgroups: the V. trinerviaV. reflexo-pilosaV. trilobata subgroup and the V. mungoV. grandiflora subgroup. An evolutionary rate analysis estimated the divergence time between the East AsiaSoutheast Asia clade and the Indian subcontinent clade as 3·62 ± 0·3 million years, and that between the temperate and subtropical groups as 2·0 ± 0·2 million years. Conclusions: The findings provide an improved understanding of the interspecific relationships, and ecological and geographical phylogenetic structure of the subgenus Ceratotropis. The quaternary diversification of the subgenus Ceratotropis implicates its geographical dispersal in the south-eastern part of Asia involving adaptation to climatic condition after the collision of the Indian subcontinent with the Asian plate. The phylogenetic results indicate that the epigeal germination is plesiomorphic, and the germination type evolved independently multiple times in this subgenus, implying its limited taxonomic utility. © 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. Source

Duwal R.K.,Seoul National University | Yasunaga T.,Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation | Yasunaga T.,Research Associate | Nakatani Y.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Lee S.,Seoul National University
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology

Two little-known species of deraeocorine plant bugs, Cimidaeorus nigrorufus Hsiao et Ren, 1983 and Cimidaeorus hasegawai Nakatani, Yasunaga et Takai, 2000 are reported from the Korean Peninsula for the first time. The finding also represents the first distributional record for the genus Cimidaeorus from the Peninsula. A key to species, diagnosis of each taxon, images of dry preserved specimens and illustration of the female genitalia are provided to aid their identification. © 2015 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Source

Shibayama T.,Waseda University | Takagi H.,Penta Ocean Co. | Hnu N.,Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation
Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts, APAC 2009

The cyclone 'Nargis' hit the southern part of Myanmar on May 2nd and 3rd 2008. This devastating cyclone caused enormous number of casualties as well as fatal damages to houses and paddy fields, particularly both the downstream areas of the Irrawaddy and Yangon Rivers. In the present field survey, thought the activities were limited to the area near Yangon city due to certain governmental restrictions, it was found out that the tide due to the storm surge was probably up to 3 - 4m and came up to around 50 kilometers upstream of the river mouth of Yangon River. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. Source

Abdo-Salem S.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Abdo-Salem S.,University of Dhamar | Waret-Szkuta A.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Roger F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 3 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis of increasing global importance. Occurring since 1930 across Africa, it was detected for the first time in Saudi Arabia and Yemen in September 2000, leading to human deaths and major losses in livestock populations. Assuming the virus has not survived in Yemen or has been circulating at a low level, authors qualitatively assessed the likelihood of "re-introduction" of RVF into Yemen through the legal importation of small ruminants from the Horn of Africa. The overall probability of introduction was assessed very low to medium, increasing during festival periods and higher when considering a direct transmission exposure as compared to a vectorial transmission exposure. The uncertainty was considered to be medium underlining important gaps in information that need to be fulfilled in the region. Options to reduce the risk are proposed and discussed, including possible improvements of the current Yemeni quarantine system. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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