Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Biosecurity New Zealand

Napier, New Zealand

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Biosecurity New Zealand

Napier, New Zealand

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Champion P.D.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | Clayton J.S.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | Petroeschevsky A.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Newfield M.,Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Biosecurity New Zealand
Plant Protection Quarterly | Year: 2010

The aquatic weed risk assessment model (AWRAM) has been used as a decision support tool to prevent the importation of potentially invasive aquatic weeds distributed in the international ornamental plant trade. The model has also been used to rank potential weeds already in Australia and New Zealand, supporting management tools such as banning from sale and distribution, and eradication programs. Competition experiments to evaluate the weed potential of aquatic plants where little information on weediness is available are discussed as an additional tool to assist with weed risk assessment.


Owen K.,Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Biosecurity New Zealand | Stevenson M.A.,Massey University | Sanson R.L.,AsureQuality Ltd
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2011

Disease simulation models can be a valuable tool for planning a response to exotic disease incursions, as they provide a fast, low-cost mechanism for identifying the likely outcomes of a range of outbreak scenarios and disease control strategies. To use these tools effectively and with confidence, decisionmakers must understand the simplifications and framing assumptions that underlie a model's structure. Sensitivity analysis, the analytical process of identifying which input variables are the key drivers of the model's output, is a crucial process in developing this understanding. This paper describes the application of a sampling-based sensitivity analysis to the New Zealand standard model (NZSM). This model is a parameter set developed for the InterSpread Plus model platform to allow the exploration of different outbreak scenarios for an epidemic of foot and mouth disease in New Zealand. Based on 200 iterations of the NZSM, run for a simulation period of 60 days, settings related to farm-to-saleyard movements and the detection of disease during the active surveillance phase of the epidemic had the greatest influence on the predicted number of infected premises. A small number of counter-intuitive findings indicated areas of model design, implementation and/or parameterisation that should be investigated further. A potentially useful result from this work would be information to aid the grouping or elimination of non-influential model settings. This would go some way towards reducing the overall complexity of the NZSM, while still allowing it to remain fit for purpose.


Bayvel A.C.D.,Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry | Cross N.,Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Biosecurity New Zealand
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education | Year: 2010

Animal-welfare issues are usually portrayed in the media in a black-and-white fashion, with simple, single-perspective solutions proposed for what are often, in fact, complex policy issues. In this article, we argue that animal welfare is a multifaceted international and domestic public-policy issue that must take account of not only scientific, ethical, and economic issues but also religious, cultural, and international trade policy considerations. Management of animal welfare at a government policy level also requires an approach based on incremental change. Such change must be both science based and ethically principled, and the rate of change must recognize both the expectations of society and the constraints on the animal user. Ideally, such change should involve full ownership and buy-in from the affected animal user group. The range of stakeholders involved in the animal-welfare debate includes industry and producer groups, science bodies, and animal-welfare nongovernmental organizations and professional groups, including the veterinary and legal professions. The veterinary profession, in particular, is expected to play an animal-welfare leadership role, and we discuss expectation versus reality at both a national and an international level. This latter discussion includes specific reference to the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (the OIE) as an intergovernmental organization representing 175 countries and details some of the major achievements since the OIE assumed its international animal-welfare standard-setting role in 2002. We also address the role of the veterinary profession at national, regional, and international levels. © 2010 AAVMC.


Cobb S.P.,Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Biosecurity New Zealand
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2011

Increasing international trade in poultry meat presents an opportunity for the global dissemination of poultry disease. However, it would be very unfortunate if expanding world trade resulted in animal diseases being used as unjustified nontariff trade barriers. For those avian diseases currently listed by the World Organisation for Animal Health, the current evidence suggests that only highly pathogenic avian influenza, Newcastle disease, and (for chicken meat) infectious bursal disease should be considered likely to be spread though trade in this commodity.


Cobb S.P.,Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Biosecurity New Zealand
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2011

The international trade in poultry hatching eggs could potentially facilitate the global dissemination of poultry disease. Provided the guidelines of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) on breeding flock hygiene are followed, of those avian diseases currently listed by the OIE., only highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), Newcastle disease (ND), and avian mycoplasmosis (caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum or M. synoviae) should be considered likely to be spread though trade in this commodity. Furthermore, the impact of HPAI and ND on egg production and hatchability will constrain the potential for these agents to be spread by poultry hatching eggs.


PubMed | Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Biosecurity New Zealand
Type: Journal Article | Journal: New Zealand veterinary journal | Year: 2010

To determine the status of avian influenza (AI) virus sub-types H5 and H7 of New Zealands commercial chicken and turkey farms.A cross-sectional serological survey, stratified by production sector, used a sample frame defined by those farms registered with the Poultry Industry Association of New Zealand (PIANZ) or the Egg Producers Federation of New Zealand (EPF). Sectors included were chicken broiler, caged/barn layer, free-range layer, pullet rearer and turkey broiler. The survey used a between- and within-farm design prevalence of 5% (95% confidence for chickens, 99% confidence for turkeys) and 30% (95% confidence), respectively, of AI virus subtypes H5 and H7. The epidemiological unit was the farm for the free-range layer sector, and the individual shed/barn for the other sectors. Serum samples were screened using a commercial generic influenza A indirect ELISA; positive samples were subjected to haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) testing for AI virus subtypes H5 and H7. A comprehensive investigation, that included widespread serological and antigenic screening, was carried out on all farms identified with serum reactors to either the H5 or H7 virus subtype.A total of 4,180 blood samples from 167 chicken and 10 turkey farms were collected and tested using ELISA. Positive ELISA results were returned from 26 farms, comprising 10 caged/barn layer, 14 free-range layer and two turkey (shed-raised) broiler farms. HI testing of ELISA-positive sera for the H7 subtype virus identified no positive sera in any sector. Reactors to the H5 subtype virus were limited to three free-range layer chicken farms; each farm returned a single serum reactor. Follow-up investigations on these free-range farms identified evidence of historic exposure to the H5 subtype virus on one farm, and concluded that the serum reactors identified in the initial sampling round on the other two farms were non-specific (false-positive) reactions.The survey found no evidence of active infection with notifiable AI viruses, and provided evidence of absence of exposure to AI virus subtypes H5 and H7 in the chicken broiler, caged/barn layer, turkey broiler and pullet-rearer sectors at a between- and within-farm prevalence of 5% and 30%, respectively, with 95% confidence. The results established commercial free-range layer farms as a risk sector for exposure to notifiable AI virus.


PubMed | Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Biosecurity New Zealand
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics) | Year: 2011

Increasing international trade in poultry meat presents an opportunity for the global dissemination of poultry disease. However, it would be very unfortunate if expanding world trade resulted in animal diseases being used as unjustified non-tariff trade barriers. For those avian diseases currently listed by the World Organisation for Animal Health, the current evidence suggests that only highly pathogenic avian influenza, Newcastle disease, and (for chicken meat) infectious bursal disease should be considered likely to be spread though trade in this commodity.


PubMed | Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Biosecurity New Zealand
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics) | Year: 2011

The international trade in poultry hatching eggs could potentially facilitate the global dissemination of poultry disease. Provided the guidelines of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) on breeding flock hygiene are followed, of those avian diseases currently listed by the OlE, only highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), Newcastle disease (ND), and avian mycoplasmosis (caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum or M. synoviae) should be considered likely to be spread though trade in this commodity. Furthermore, the impact of HPAI and ND on egg production and hatchability will constrain the potential for these agents to be spread by poultry hatching eggs.


PubMed | Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Biosecurity New Zealand
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics) | Year: 2011

Disease simulation models can be a valuable tool for planning a response to exotic disease incursions, as they provide a fast, low-cost mechanism for identifying the likely outcomes of a range of outbreak scenarios and disease control strategies. To use these tools effectively and with confidence, decision-makers must understand the simplifications and framing assumptions that underlie a models structure. Sensitivity analysis, the analytical process of identifying which input variables are the key drivers of the models output, is a crucial process in developing this understanding. This paper describes the application of a sampling-based sensitivity analysis to the New Zealand standard model (NZSM). This model is a parameter set developed for the InterSpread Plus model platform to allow the exploration of different outbreak scenarios for an epidemic of foot and mouth disease in New Zealand. Based on 200 iterations of the NZSM, run for a simulation period of 60 days, settings related to farm-to-saleyard movements and the detection of disease during the active surveillance phase of the epidemic had the greatest influence on the predicted number of infected premises. A small number of counter-intuitive findings indicated areas of model design, implementation and/or parameterisation that should be investigated further. A potentially useful result from this work would be information to aid the grouping or elimination of non-influential model settings. This would go some way towards reducing the overall complexity of the NZSM, while still allowing it to remain fit for purpose.

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