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Paul M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Paul M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Paul M.,Paris West University Nanterre La Defense | Baritaux V.,VetAgro Sup | And 6 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2013

In developing countries, smallholder poultry production contributes to food security and poverty alleviation in rural areas. However, traditional poultry marketing chains have been threatened by the epidemics caused by the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) virus.The article presents a value chain analysis conducted on the traditional poultry marketing chain in the rural province of Phitsanulok, Thailand. The analysis is based on quantitative data collected on 470 backyard chicken farms, and on qualitative data collected on 28 poultry collectors, slaughterhouses and market retailers, using semi-structured interviews. The article examines the organization of poultry marketing chains in time and space, and shows how this may contribute to the spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in the small-scale poultry sector. The article also discusses the practices and strategies developed by value chain actors facing poultry mortality, with their economic and social determinants. More broadly, this study also illustrates how value chain analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the complex mechanisms associated with the spread of epidemics in rural communities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Chamnanpa T.,Kasetsart University | Limtong P.,Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives | Srisuk N.,Kasetsart University | Limtong S.,Kasetsart University
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2013

Three strains representing one novel yeast species were isolated from the phylloplanes of the vetiver grasses (DMKU-LV90 and DMKU-LV99T) and sugarcane (DMKU-SP260) collected in Thailand by leaf washing followed by a plating technique. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics and the sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), the three strains were found to represent a single novel anamorphic ustilaginomycetous yeast species in the genus Pseudozyma. The name Pseudozyma vetiver Sp. Nov. is proposed for this novel species. The type strain is DMKU-LV99T (BCC 61021 = CBS 12824). The novel species showed phylogenetic relationships to the other members of the genus Pseudozyma and to teleomorphic fungal genera, namely Ustilago, Sporisorium and Anomalomyces in Ustilaginaceae, Ustilaginales. The three strains showed identical sequences both in the D1/D2 and ITS regions. The Pseudozyma species closest to the novel species in terms of pairwise sequence similarity in the D1/D2 region was Pseudozyma pruni but with 2.3 % nucleotide substitutions (14 nucleotide substitutions and no gaps out of 606 nt). The novel species and P. pruni differed by 10.9 % nucleotide substitutions (75 nucleotide substitutions and 31 gaps out of 691 nt) in the ITS region. The phylogenetic analysis based on the combined sequences of the ITS region and the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene showed that the novel species was found to be most closely related to Pseudozyma fusiformata but with 2.9 % nucleotide substitutions in the D1/D2 region and 7.4 % nucleotide substitutions in the ITS region. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Somwatcharajit R.,Mahidol University | Tiantad I.,Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives | Panbangred W.,Mahidol University
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2014

The unexpressed cry2Ab27 gene of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai SP41 (SP41) consists of a single open reading frame (ORF) of 1902. bp encoding for 634 amino acid residues. The cry2Ab27 gene appears to be silent due to the lack of promoter and terminator sequences. In this study we fused the cry2Ab27 ORF with the cry1Ab promoter (500. bp) and the terminator (300. bp) in vector pHT304-18Z in order to drive the expression of cry2Ab27 in both SP41 and an acrystaliferous, B. thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis 407 (407). A protein with a molecular mass of 65. kDa, consistent with the Cry2Ab protein, was detected in both transformants using SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Bipyramidal crystals were observed in SP41 and its transformant containing the pHT304-18Z vector (SPHT) in contrast, cells expressing cry2Ab27 (SPC2) exhibited crystal proteins with irregular shapes. No inclusion protein was detected in the 407 transformant expressing the cry2Ab27 gene. Cry2Ab27 was found in the purified crystal toxin from strain SPC2. The solubilized crystal toxin proteins from SPC2 were 6.9-fold more toxic toward the larvae of Helicoverpa armigera compared to toxin proteins from SPHT. However SPC2 crystal toxin displayed only slightly higher toxicity against the larvae of Spodoptera litura and S. exigua compared to SPHT produced toxin. Our data support the use of Cry2Ab in combination with the Cry1 toxin for enhanced control of heliothine insect pests. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Pant K.P.,Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives
Ambio | Year: 2012

Biomass fuels are used by the majority of resource poor households in low-income countries. Though biomass fuels, such as dung-briquette and firewood are apparently cheaper than the modern fuels indoor pollution from burning biomass fuels incurs high health costs. But, the health costs of these conventional fuels, mostly being indirect, are poorly understood. To address this gap, this study develops probit regression models using survey data generated through interviews from households using either dung-briquette or biogas as the primary source of fuel for cooking. The study investigates factors affecting the use of dung-briquette, assesses its impact on human health, and estimates the associated household health costs. Analysis suggests significant effects of dung-briquette on asthma and eye diseases. Despite of the perception of it being a cheap fuel, the annual health cost per household due to burning dung-briquette (US$ 16.94) is 61.3% higher than the annual cost of biogas (US$ 10.38), an alternative cleaner fuel for rural households. For reducing the use of dung-briquette and its indirect health costs, the study recommends three interventions: (1) educate women and aboriginal people, in particular, and make them aware of the benefits of switching to biogas; (2) facilitate tree planting in communal as well as private lands; and (3) create rural employment and income generation opportunities. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2011. Source

Kanawapee N.,Khon Kaen University | Sanitchon J.,Khon Kaen University | Srihaban P.,Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives | Theerakulpisut P.,Khon Kaen University
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Thirty rice cultivars were evaluated for salinity tolerance during the seedling stage and were divided into five tolerance groups including tolerant (T), moderately tolerant (MT), moderately susceptible (MS), susceptible (S) and highly susceptible (HS) which comprised 5, 10, 9, 4 and 2 cultivars respectively. Genetic diversity of all rice cultivars was evaluated using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. The cultivars were evaluated for polymorphisms after amplification with 20 random decamer primers and 20 SSR primer pairs. A total of 161 RAPD markers and 190 SSR alleles were produced which revealed 68.94% and 89.47% polymorphism respectively. Mean genetic similarity coefficient was 0.82 for RAPD and 0.70 for SSR. Cluster analysis based on RAPD markers was effective in grouping cultivars based on their salt tolerance ability. Group IA1, IB and IV contained three T, three S and two HS rice cultivars respectively. The MT and MS cultivars which showed similar physiological responses to salinity were resolved into two groups: Group IA2 and Group II comprising ten and eight MT/MS cultivars respectively. Cluster analysis based on SSR markers separated rice cultivars into groups based on genetic relatedness which did not correspond to salinity tolerance level. The results from this study provided some useful implications for salt tolerance breeding programs. The evaluation of genetic similarity and cluster analysis together with salt tolerance ability provides some useful guides for assisting plant breeders in selecting suitable genetically diverse parents for the crossing program. © 2011 by Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile. Source

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