Paul M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development |
Paul M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Paul M.,Paris West University Nanterre La Défense |
Baritaux V.,VetAgro Sup |
And 6 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2013
In developing countries, smallholder poultry production contributes to food security and poverty alleviation in rural areas. However, traditional poultry marketing chains have been threatened by the epidemics caused by the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) virus.The article presents a value chain analysis conducted on the traditional poultry marketing chain in the rural province of Phitsanulok, Thailand. The analysis is based on quantitative data collected on 470 backyard chicken farms, and on qualitative data collected on 28 poultry collectors, slaughterhouses and market retailers, using semi-structured interviews. The article examines the organization of poultry marketing chains in time and space, and shows how this may contribute to the spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in the small-scale poultry sector. The article also discusses the practices and strategies developed by value chain actors facing poultry mortality, with their economic and social determinants. More broadly, this study also illustrates how value chain analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the complex mechanisms associated with the spread of epidemics in rural communities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Chinvinijkul S.,Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives |
Srikachar S.,Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives |
Kumjing P.,Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives |
Kimjong W.,Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives |
And 2 more authors.
ZooKeys | Year: 2015
Mating compatibility among recently colonized (wildish) populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) from different geographic origins in Thailand was assessed through inter-regional mating tests. Outdoor octagonal nylon screen field cages containing single potted mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) were used. Sexual compatibility was determined using the index of sexual isolation (ISI), the male relative performance index (MRPI), and the female relative performance index (FRPI). The ISI values indicated that the northern population of B. dorsalis from Chiang Mai province was sexually compatible with the southern population of B. dorsalis (previously B. papayae) from Nakhon Si Thammarat province. The MRPI values showed that the northern males had a slightly higher tendency to mate than southern males, while the FRPI data reflected that females of both origins participated equally in matings. In all combinations there were no differences between homotypic and heterotypic couples in mating latency. Southern males tended to mate first with southern females, followed by northern males mating with northern females, while the latest matings involved heterotypic couples, in particular northern males mating with southern females. Overall, more couples were collected from higher parts of the field cage and the upper tree canopy, while there were no differences between the origins of flies in terms of elevation of couples within the cage. Laboratory assessments of fecundity showed no differences in the average number of eggs resulting from inter-regional crosses. Development of immature stages was also equal in the two hybrid crosses, with no differences found in the number of pupae produced, percentage pupal recovery, and percent adult emergence. The practical implication of this study is that colony of B. dorsalis derived from any northern or southern region of Thailand can potentially be used in sterile insect technique programs against this pest. © Suksom Chinvinijkul et al.
Chamnanpa T.,Kasetsart University |
Limtong P.,Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives |
Srisuk N.,Kasetsart University |
Limtong S.,Kasetsart University
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2013
Three strains representing one novel yeast species were isolated from the phylloplanes of the vetiver grasses (DMKU-LV90 and DMKU-LV99T) and sugarcane (DMKU-SP260) collected in Thailand by leaf washing followed by a plating technique. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics and the sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), the three strains were found to represent a single novel anamorphic ustilaginomycetous yeast species in the genus Pseudozyma. The name Pseudozyma vetiver Sp. Nov. is proposed for this novel species. The type strain is DMKU-LV99T (BCC 61021 = CBS 12824). The novel species showed phylogenetic relationships to the other members of the genus Pseudozyma and to teleomorphic fungal genera, namely Ustilago, Sporisorium and Anomalomyces in Ustilaginaceae, Ustilaginales. The three strains showed identical sequences both in the D1/D2 and ITS regions. The Pseudozyma species closest to the novel species in terms of pairwise sequence similarity in the D1/D2 region was Pseudozyma pruni but with 2.3 % nucleotide substitutions (14 nucleotide substitutions and no gaps out of 606 nt). The novel species and P. pruni differed by 10.9 % nucleotide substitutions (75 nucleotide substitutions and 31 gaps out of 691 nt) in the ITS region. The phylogenetic analysis based on the combined sequences of the ITS region and the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene showed that the novel species was found to be most closely related to Pseudozyma fusiformata but with 2.9 % nucleotide substitutions in the D1/D2 region and 7.4 % nucleotide substitutions in the ITS region. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Kaewkaen P.,Khon Kaen University |
Tong-Un T.,Khon Kaen University |
Wattanathorn J.,Khon Kaen University |
Muchimapura S.,Khon Kaen University |
And 2 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2012
Nowadays, the preventive strategy of vascular dementia, one of the challenge problems of elderly, has received attention due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we aimed to determine the protective effect and possible mechanism of action of mulberry fruit extract on memory impairment and brain damage in animal model of vascular dementia. Male Wistar rats, weighing 300350 g, were orally given mulberry extract at doses of 2, 10 and 50 mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 21 days after the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO). It was found that rats subjected to mulberry fruits plus Rt.MCAO showed the enhanced memory, the increased densities of neuron, cholinergic neuron, Bcl-2-immunopositive neuron together with the decreased oxidative stress in hippocampus. Taken all data together, the cognitive enhancing effect of mulberry fruit extract observed in this study might be partly associated with the increased cholinergic function and its neuroprotective effect in turn occurs partly via the decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, mulberry fruit is the potential natural cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredient. © 2012 Pratchaya Kaewkaen et al.
Coexpression of the silent cry2Ab27 together with cry1 genes in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai SP41 leads to formation of amorphous crystal toxin and enhanced toxicity against Helicoverpa armigera
Somwatcharajit R.,Mahidol University |
Tiantad I.,Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives |
Panbangred W.,Mahidol University
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2014
The unexpressed cry2Ab27 gene of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai SP41 (SP41) consists of a single open reading frame (ORF) of 1902. bp encoding for 634 amino acid residues. The cry2Ab27 gene appears to be silent due to the lack of promoter and terminator sequences. In this study we fused the cry2Ab27 ORF with the cry1Ab promoter (500. bp) and the terminator (300. bp) in vector pHT304-18Z in order to drive the expression of cry2Ab27 in both SP41 and an acrystaliferous, B. thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis 407 (407). A protein with a molecular mass of 65. kDa, consistent with the Cry2Ab protein, was detected in both transformants using SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Bipyramidal crystals were observed in SP41 and its transformant containing the pHT304-18Z vector (SPHT) in contrast, cells expressing cry2Ab27 (SPC2) exhibited crystal proteins with irregular shapes. No inclusion protein was detected in the 407 transformant expressing the cry2Ab27 gene. Cry2Ab27 was found in the purified crystal toxin from strain SPC2. The solubilized crystal toxin proteins from SPC2 were 6.9-fold more toxic toward the larvae of Helicoverpa armigera compared to toxin proteins from SPHT. However SPC2 crystal toxin displayed only slightly higher toxicity against the larvae of Spodoptera litura and S. exigua compared to SPHT produced toxin. Our data support the use of Cry2Ab in combination with the Cry1 toxin for enhanced control of heliothine insect pests. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Pant K.P.,Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives
Ambio | Year: 2012
Biomass fuels are used by the majority of resource poor households in low-income countries. Though biomass fuels, such as dung-briquette and firewood are apparently cheaper than the modern fuels indoor pollution from burning biomass fuels incurs high health costs. But, the health costs of these conventional fuels, mostly being indirect, are poorly understood. To address this gap, this study develops probit regression models using survey data generated through interviews from households using either dung-briquette or biogas as the primary source of fuel for cooking. The study investigates factors affecting the use of dung-briquette, assesses its impact on human health, and estimates the associated household health costs. Analysis suggests significant effects of dung-briquette on asthma and eye diseases. Despite of the perception of it being a cheap fuel, the annual health cost per household due to burning dung-briquette (US$ 16.94) is 61.3% higher than the annual cost of biogas (US$ 10.38), an alternative cleaner fuel for rural households. For reducing the use of dung-briquette and its indirect health costs, the study recommends three interventions: (1) educate women and aboriginal people, in particular, and make them aware of the benefits of switching to biogas; (2) facilitate tree planting in communal as well as private lands; and (3) create rural employment and income generation opportunities. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2011.
Kanawapee N.,Khon Kaen University |
Sanitchon J.,Khon Kaen University |
Srihaban P.,Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives |
Theerakulpisut P.,Khon Kaen University
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011
Thirty rice cultivars were evaluated for salinity tolerance during the seedling stage and were divided into five tolerance groups including tolerant (T), moderately tolerant (MT), moderately susceptible (MS), susceptible (S) and highly susceptible (HS) which comprised 5, 10, 9, 4 and 2 cultivars respectively. Genetic diversity of all rice cultivars was evaluated using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. The cultivars were evaluated for polymorphisms after amplification with 20 random decamer primers and 20 SSR primer pairs. A total of 161 RAPD markers and 190 SSR alleles were produced which revealed 68.94% and 89.47% polymorphism respectively. Mean genetic similarity coefficient was 0.82 for RAPD and 0.70 for SSR. Cluster analysis based on RAPD markers was effective in grouping cultivars based on their salt tolerance ability. Group IA1, IB and IV contained three T, three S and two HS rice cultivars respectively. The MT and MS cultivars which showed similar physiological responses to salinity were resolved into two groups: Group IA2 and Group II comprising ten and eight MT/MS cultivars respectively. Cluster analysis based on SSR markers separated rice cultivars into groups based on genetic relatedness which did not correspond to salinity tolerance level. The results from this study provided some useful implications for salt tolerance breeding programs. The evaluation of genetic similarity and cluster analysis together with salt tolerance ability provides some useful guides for assisting plant breeders in selecting suitable genetically diverse parents for the crossing program. © 2011 by Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile.
Yamprayoon J.,Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives |
Sukhumparnich K.,Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society | Year: 2010
Thailand designated the year 2004 as "National Food Safety Year." Responsible government sectors of food and agricultural commodities cooperatively initiated and strengthened their respective food safety control programs. Although the "Food Safety Year" is over, the concept is adopted as the national policy and the activities continue. Good Aquaculture Practice (GAP) and Code of Conduct (CoC) for sustainable shrimp culture have been developed by the Department of Fisheries (DOF) in 1999, based on the guideline of Codex Alimentarius Commission. The standard schemes compliment the policy of the fishery sector in achieving the Farm-to-Table concept. Currently, there are approximately 18,000 shrimp/fish hatcheries and farms certified for GAP/CoC by the department. The National Residue Control Program (NRCP) has been established to overcome the problems on prohibited chemicals and veterinary drug residues used in aquaculture such as chloramphenicol and nitrofurans. The use of Movement Document (MD) is enforced from hatcheries and farms through processing plants to ensure the effective tracing back from finished products to the farm of origin. Fish processing plants registered and approved by DOF shall effectively implement Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) concept. DOF has successfully implemented a trial computerized traceability system called "TraceShrimp." The complete traceability involved sharing information from feed mills through farming, suppliers, processing plants, and finished products. This paper will address the policies and attempts of the Thai government made to control quality and safety of aquaculture products from "Pond-to-Plate," through effective management system and sustainability. © Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010.
Na-Nakorn U.,Kasetsart University |
Yashiro R.,Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives |
Wachirachaikarn A.,Kasetsart University |
Prakoon W.,Kasetsart University |
Pansaen N.,Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives
Aquaculture | Year: 2010
The Humpback grouper, Cromileptes altivelis (Valenciennes, 1828), is one of the most valuable reef fishes, especially in Southeast Asia. It was recently listed by the IUCN as vulnerable due to its rapid decline in abundance. In an attempt to reduce exploitation of wild fingerlings, captive breeding has been performed either with or without hormone injection, and the brooders allowed to communally spawn. These actions have raised concerns regarding the reduction of effective population size by various factors related to communal spawning. In the present study, the first sets of microsatellite primers for two panels of multiplex PCRs (triplex and pentaplex) were developed from the DNA of C. altivelis. These primers were employed for parentage analysis and evaluation of genetic variation of three stocks: a parental stock (P, n=20); the first generation offspring (G1, n=120, age=4months); and an unrelated potential broodstock (PP, n=118). The parentage analysis showed that among 20 brooders (P), two females and five males contributed to the genetic composition of G1. We observed multiple paternity, demonstrating that each female mated with two or three males. Moreover, the family contribution was skewed, and G1 was dominated by a single full-sib (87.50%). These factors likely resulted in low effective population size and may enhance inbreeding in successive generations. Genetic variation was studied based on seven loci (a locus was removed from the analysis due to physical linkage) and showed that the potential broodstock had slightly lower genetic variation relative to the parental stock. However, genetic distance and genetic relatedness estimator (rxy) indicated that the stock was sufficiently diverse from the parental stock; therefore, this stock may be used as female parents for P, which will be dominated by males as the stock grows older. Due to high rxy between some pairs of P and PP, the breeding pairs should be carefully selected based on low genetic relatedness to avoid inbreeding. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Sedda L.,University of Oxford |
Sedda L.,University of Southampton |
Mweempwa C.,Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives |
De Pus C.,Institute of Tropical Medicine |
Rogers D.J.,University of Oxford
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
For the first time a Bayesian geostatistical version of the Moran Curve, a logarithmic form of the Ricker stock recruitment curve, is proposed that is able to give an estimate of net change in population demographic rates considering components such as fertility and density dependent and density independent mortalities. The method is applied to spatio-temporally referenced count data of tsetse flies obtained from fly-rounds. The model is a linear regression with three components: population rate of change estimated from the Moran curve, an explicit spatio-temporal covariance, and the observation error optimised within a Bayesian framework. The model was applied to the three main climate seasons of Zambia (rainy - January to April, cold-dry - May to August, and hot-dry - September to December) taking into account land surface temperature and (seasonally changing) cattle distribution. The model shows a maximum positive net change during the hot-dry season and a minimum between the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Density independent losses are correlated positively with day-time land surface temperature and negatively with night-time land surface temperature and cattle distribution. The inclusion of density dependent mortality increases considerably the goodness of fit of the model. Cross validation with an independent dataset taken from the same area resulted in a very accurate estimate of tsetse catches. In general, the overall framework provides an important tool for vector control and eradication by identifying vector population concentrations and local vector demographic rates. It can also be applied to the case of sustainable harvesting of natural populations. © 2014 Sedda et al.