Warsaw, Poland
Warsaw, Poland

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Gawlowski S.,Ministerstwo Srodowiska | Listowska-Gawlowska R.,Baltycka Wyzsza Szkola Humanistyczna | Piecuch T.,Koszalin University of Technology
Rocznik Ochrona Srodowiska | Year: 2011

Each country's energy safety is one of the main factors of its proper functioning as a cohesive form which is called a state. Energy safety is especially important for the states located in the geographic areas where it is cold during long periods. Enesrgy safety of Poland is not only a continuous supply to our factories and homes of electricity and heat, but also widely understood means of transport, which also, and perhaps mainly, absorb enormous amount of energy. Explicit defining of the concept of energy security is difficult to formulate, because a fundamental question must be first answered: in what regard the amount of partial generally understood energy delivered to keep the needs of Poland is yet sufficient, though minimal, but assuring Poland's safety - to the level of so-called appropriate balance that is complete. For today a conventional definition of energy safety in Poland may be used: three independent lines of oil and gas supplies assure energy safety. At present it is impossible to assure the energy safety of Poland as an independent safety, dependent only on own energy raw materials, so-called classic (gas, oil, coal) assisted with non-conventional sources like wind energy, water, solar energy and energy from biomass. Poland has to base its energy safety on community of European Countries clustered in the European Union as a future, single, big European Country of different nations, a kind of United States of Europe. It must be assumed that depleting of the Polish gas, oil and coal deposits, is proportional to depleting these raw materials in the world, but of course it can never be ruled out that still new deposits will be found, economically for their exploitation. Poland as a member of the European Union has to build first nuclear power plant until 2023, which will relieve the decreasing capacity of existing coal-fired and gas power plants. The second nuclear power plant Poland must build no later than 2037, and a third one to 2090. At the same time, it is crucial to start immediately research programs concerning development of as cheap as possible (although it will always be expensive) technology for hydrogen production and storage, so that gradually from about 2025 in Poland next to gas stations, hydrogen stations were established for gradually appearing greater numbers of cars on hydrogen. During next decade (2010-2020) Poland should also, as far as resources permit, build at least two hydroelectric plants on the right bank of the Vistula river, assuming that the electricity from hydroelectric plants will always be approximately in the range of about 10% of power needed by Poland. Construction of small and medium-sized hydroelectric power plants should also ber promoted from the local authorities and private funds. It is also essential to promote non-conventional energy sources such as wind energy and solar energy, but keeping in mind that in the Polish climate zone you cannot count on the full continuity and stability of supply from these sources. Such source can make up a supplement electricity supply for rural, less populated, less exploited areas, such as certain areas of Pomerania or areas of North-East where the climate is more continental. It might be predicted that, from such sources, Poland will not receive more than 3.5% (4%) of the required energy in the energy balance. It appears to be questionable, planning in any strategic aspect of energy from widely understood biomass, but in rural, low urban areas having wastelands can make use of energy crops (willow), but only as an ad hoc solution. Relatively low calorific value of such plants and huge problems with the cultivation, care, collection and re-sowing, allow to conclude that willow will not be the fuel of the future. Sewage sludge are also low in energy and give a particularly harmful emissions into the atmosphere and smell. However production of so-called biofuel from rape should be further developed, so that rape oil could at least partially complement the lack of oil, which will be in the near future, the most scarce resource of classical energy.


Przybycin A.,Ministerstwo Srodowiska | Uliasz-Misiak B.,AGH University of Science and Technology | Zawisza L.,AGH University of Science and Technology
Przeglad Geologiczny | Year: 2011

Underground space is used in a number of ways, e.g. for transport infrastructure, public utility objects, for waste disposal and storing of various substances and fuels. Underground space is used for activities or facilities which cannot be realized on surface because they would be too difficult to perform or environmentally hazardous or expensive. Offices, stores, warehouses, cultural and recreation objects as well as city or intercity subways are located very shallow under the surface. At greater depth storages, tunnels and car parkings could be located. At ca. 250-3000 m of depth underground space is employed for storing natural gas, energy, fuels, carbon dioxide and radioactive waste. Underground disposal sites and storages are made in abandoned workings and pore space. The shallow part of underground space has been utilized only to a small degree in Poland. Deeper zones are used for non-tank natural gas storages in rock mass, in that in abandoned workings, underground oil, fuel and waste storages, in rock mass and in abandoned workings. At present four underground waste disposal sites are operational in Poland; there are eight underground gas storages: five in closed mine and one in a salt dome. Storing in pore space has best perspectives in Poland.


Kondej P.,Ministerstwo Srodowiska
Przeglad Geologiczny | Year: 2011

Geoparks include objects of inanimate nature, which deserve conservation due to their unique scientific, educational, historical and tourist values. The network supports an idea of the sustainable development and there should be created and promoted by local societies and authorities. The creation of geoparks is a chance on the geoturistic development. In Poland, the initiative to create Nationals Geoparks was developed in 2009 by Henryk Jacek Jezierski The Chief State Geologist, Under Secretary of State in the Ministry of the Environment. A necessary condition of the success of the project is to popularize theknowledge about geology of the region. It seems that a key factor is the ability to the cooperation of authorities, the local community and the private business. Since 2009 the Ministry of the Environment has issued 3 certificates. The prestige position is possessed by the Muskau Arch Geopark established in 2009. In 2010 resultant two following St. Anne's Mountain Geopark and Karkonosze National Geopark were created.


Regarding the obtainment of unprecedented financial means for envi-ronment protection many ambitious projects have been planned. Their success-ful completion is the condition of consuming the assigned UE means, fulfill-ment of accession commitments and, moreover, the increase of society life level and improvement of nature state. The largest investment of the kind are situated on the lists of individual projects. These are large projects concerning fresh water supply, sludge and trash collection, flood protection, nature protection and many others. The pre-sent experience on operating the UE funds shows that the access to financial means is not the only factor that guarantees success of a project. The fulfillment of all the administrative procedures (influence on environment assessment, con-structing permissions the public orders procedures, competent managing per-sonnel etc.), are equally important. In 2011, so called - operational programs review - will be operated. It will make possible to allocate money among specific priorities. Thus, if there is a danger that a project will not consume all the financial means assigned to it, it will open the possibility to reconstruct the formerly assumed schedules. Provid-ed that all the previously accepted projects on Infrastructure and Environment are completed, about 10 000 km of sludge system and 20 multiregional trash processing plants will be built, and next 13 will be modernized. Moreover, about 25 projects of natural danger protection and about 80 projects aiming at protecting different bird, animal and plant habitation.


The article describes the development of exploration work in the field of unconventional hydrocarbon deposits (primarily shale gas) in Poland and presents the current progress of operations - number of licenses and license holders, completed drillings and special treatments (hydraulic fracturing). It also informs about the legislative changes planned by the governmental authorities whose aim is to boost the development of the oil and gas industry, as well as to ensure fair division of revenue from extraction of hydrocarbons between license holders, the State Treasury and local self-governments. The article also lists the most important initiatives of the Ministry of the Environment concerning the environmental and social conditions of shale gas exploration (environmental monitoring of operations and information and education activities).


The development of geothermal plants in Poland is accelerating and it is high on the priority list of the Ministry of the Environment. Thermal water is one of the cleanest renewable energy sources but its economic exploitation requires support at the administrative level and a favorable regulatory environment. Therefore, the Ministry ofthe Environment is implementing its policy of development ofgeothermy in Poland through a legislative initiative and information activities and support. That legislative initiative has taken the form ofa government proposal of a new Geological and Mining Law. The new law, which was already submitted to the parliament, markedly simplifies procedures necessary for prospecting, exploration and exploitation of the thermal water. In addition, there was prepared an information packet for enterpreneuers planning investments in geothermy. The packet (www.mos.gov.pl/geotermia) contains guidelines for proper preparation of an application for concession and lists documents and permits required in the process ofawarding concession, in accordance with regulations introduced by the Geological and Mining Law and the Energy Law, and information regarding the state aid and support of EU funds which entrepreneurs may obtain for financing the prospecting and exploration of the thermal waters deposits and construction of geothermal plants. Bearing in mind the need of further development of the geothermal plants and the new geological research and implementation of the new technologies, the Ministry of the Environment has awarded contracts for new research projects which are financed by the National Fundfor Environmental Protection and Water Management (NFOŚiGW).


On January 23', 2008 the European Commission proposed binding legislative package, known as the energy and climate change package and aimed at implementation of assumptions adopted in 2007 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One of these documents is Directive 2009/31/EC on the geological storage of carbon dioxide, whose guidelines allow to demonstrate on an industrial scale with a full chain of clean coal technology, that is the CCS technology (CSS - Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage). In conjunction with Directive 2009/31/EC, two demonstration projects of CCS are planned for the implementation in Poland. Arrangements for implementation of these demonstration projects are connected with the obligation of the Member States to begin evaluations of possibilities of safe underground storage of carbon dioxide in their territories. To demonstrate CCS technology in our country is also necessary to amend the existing law as the current regulations of the Geological and Mining Law (J.L. 2005, No. 228, pos. 1947) do not allow injection of carbon dioxide into deep geological horizons in the scale required by the CCS Directive. The deadline for transposing provisions of Directive 2009/31/EC into national law is June 25th, 2011. The article presents the current legal status of the underground storage of carbon dioxide and summarizes key changes in legislation as proposed by the Ministry of Environment to meet EU guidelines in this field. Attention is also paid to the geological surveys for geological carbon sequestration, currently conducted in agreement with the Directive.

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