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Cruz-Ortiz N.,University of the Valley of Guatemala | Gonzalez R.J.,University of the Valley of Guatemala | Lindblade K.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Richards F.O.,Carter Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Parasitology Research

In Latin America, onchocerciasis is targeted for elimination by 2012 through twice-yearly mass treatment of the eligible population with ivermectin. In Guatemala, two of the four historical endemic foci have demonstrated elimination of transmission, following World Health Organization guidelines. Using established guidelines ophthalmological, serological, and entomological evaluations were conducted in 2007-8 to determine the transmission status of onchocerciasis in the Huehuetenango focus. The prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in the anterior segment of the eye in 365 residents was 0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 00.8%), the prevalence of infection of O. volvulus in Simulium ochraceum among 8252 flies collected between November 2007 and April 2008 was 0 (95% CI 00.02%), and the prevalence of antibodies to a recombinant O. volvulus antigen in 3118 school age children was 0 (95% CI 00.1%). These results showed transmission interruption; thus, in 2009 mass treatment was halted and posttreatment surveillance began. To verify for potential recrudescence an entomological evaluation (from December 2010 to April 2011) was conducted during the 2nd and 3rd year of posttreatment surveillance. A total of 4587 S. ochraceum were collected, and the prevalence of infection of O. volvulus was 0% (95% CI 00.04%). Transmission of onchocerciasis in the Huehuetenango focus has been eliminated. © 2012 Nancy Cruz-Ortiz et al. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH.2011.2.3.3-2 | Award Amount: 7.70M | Year: 2011

The overall concept of this research project is to assemble a consortium of international experts working together to develop new and innovative tools to be applied to the control of dengue in a global context. The core of the application focuses on parallel strategies aimed at: improving diagnosis and clinical management of dengue through two linked work packages designed a) to identify readily available clinical and laboratory parameters and/or viral and immunological markers, that differentiate between dengue and other common febrile illness within 3 days of fever onset, and b) to identify any of the available markers that are predictive of the likelihood of evolving to a more severe disease course assessing the risk of dengue spread though linked work packages focused on a) mapping and modelling techniques to define the current extent of dengue disease globally and to evaluate possible scenarios of spread or risk to previously uninfected regions in the future, and b) developing effective and affordable early warning and outbreak response systems. These four work packages are supported by a fifth work package dedicated to networking and translational activities to ensure that outputs from the various research activities are used to maximal advantage.

Wortham J.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Gray J.,University of the Valley of Guatemala | Verani J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Contreras C.L.,University of the Valley of Guatemala | And 8 more authors.

Background: Bacterial pneumonia is a leading cause of illness and death worldwide, but quantifying its burden is difficult due to insensitive diagnostics. Although World Health Organization (WHO) protocol standardizes pediatric chest radiograph (CXR) interpretation for epidemiologic studies of bacterial pneumonia, its validity in adults is unknown. Methods: Patients (age ≥15 years) admitted with respiratory infections to two Guatemalan hospitals between November 2007 and March 2012 had urine and nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs collected; blood cultures and CXR were also performed at physician clinical discretion. 'Any bacterial infection' was defined as a positive urine pneumococcal antigen test, isolation of a bacterial pneumonia pathogen from blood culture, or detection of an atypical bacterial pathogen by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) specimens. 'Viral infection' was defined as detection of viral pathogens by PCR of NP/OP specimens. CXRs were interpreted according to the WHO protocol as having 'endpoint consolidation', 'other infiltrate', or 'normal' findings. We examined associations between bacterial and viral infections and endpoint consolidation. Findings: Urine antigen and/or blood culture results were available for 721 patients with CXR interpretations; of these, 385 (53%) had endpoint consolidation and 253 (35%) had other infiltrate. Any bacterial infection was detected in 119 (17%) patients, including 106 (89%) pneumococcal infections. Any bacterial infection (Diagnostic Odds Ratio [DOR] = 2.9; 95%confidence Interval (CI): 1.3-7.9) and pneumococcal infection (DOR = 3.4; 95%CI: 1.5-10.0) were associated with 'endpoint consolidation', but not 'other infiltrate' (DOR = 1.7; 95%CI: 0.7-4.9, and 1.7; 95%CI: 0.7-4.9 respectively). Viral infection was not significantly associated with 'endpoint consolidation', 'other infiltrate,' or 'normal' findings. Interpretation: 'Endpoint consolidation' was associated with 'any bacterial infection,' specifically pneumococcal infection. Therefore, endpoint consolidation may be a useful surrogate for studies measuring the impact of interventions, such as conjugate vaccines, against bacterial pneumonia. © 2015 This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. Source

Reyes L.,Ministerio de Salud Publica y Asistencia Social | Arvelo W.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Estevez A.,University of the Valley of Guatemala | Gray J.,University of the Valley of Guatemala | And 9 more authors.
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses

In April 2009, 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 (2009 H1N1) was first identified in Mexico but did not cause widespread transmission in neighboring Guatemala until several weeks later. Methodology and principle findings: Using a population-based surveillance system for hospitalized pneumonia and influenza-like illness ongoing before the 2009 H1N1 pandemic began, we tracked the onset of 2009 H1N1 infection in Guatemala. We identified 239 individuals infected with influenza A (2009 H1N1) between May and December 2009, of whom 76 were hospitalized with pneumonia and 11 died (case fatality proportion: 4·6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2·3-8·1%). The median age of patients infected with 2009 H1N1 was 8·8 years, the median age of those hospitalized with pneumonia was 4·2 years, and five (45·5%) deaths occurred in children <5 years old. Crude rates of hospitalization between May and December 2009 were highest for children <5 years old. Twenty-one (27·6%) of the patients hospitalized with 2009 H1N1 were admitted to the intensive care unit and eight (10·5%) required mechanical ventilation. Underlying chronic conditions were noted in 14 (18·4%) of patients with pneumonia hospitalized with 2009 H1N1 infection. Conclusions and significance: Chronic illnesses may be underdiagnosed in Guatemala, making it difficult to identify this risk group for vaccination. Children 6 months to 5 years old should be among priority groups for vaccination to prevent serious consequences because of 2009 H1N1 infection. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Yen C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Armero Guardado J.A.,Ministerio de Salud Publica y Asistencia Social | Alberto P.,Ministerio de Salud Publica y Asistencia Social | Rodriguez Araujo D.S.,Ministerio de Salud Publica y Asistencia Social | And 8 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal

Background: A recent postlicensure study from El Salvador showed that the monovalent rotavirus vaccine conferred 76% protection against rotavirus hospitalizations. We further examined the impact of rotavirus vaccination on the national burden of childhood diarrhea to help assess the total public health benefits of vaccination. Methods: We compared all-cause diarrhea and rotavirus-specific hospitalization rates during prevaccine year 2006, with postvaccine years 2008 and 2009 in children <5 years of age from 7 sentinel surveillance hospitals. We also compared annual rates of diarrhea-related healthcare events during prevaccine years 2005 and 2006 with postvaccine years 2008 and 2009 to examine the national burden of healthcare utilization for all-cause diarrhea. Results: Among sentinel surveillance hospitals, rotavirus hospitalization rates among children <5 years of age declined by 81% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 78%-84%) in 2008 when 2-dose rotavirus vaccine coverage was 50% among infants <1 year; the decline was 69% (95% CI: 65%-73%) in 2009 when 2-dose vaccine coverage was 61% among infants <1 year, compared with 2006. The greatest declines were observed in children ≤1 year of age, although sizeable reductions were also observed among children 2 years in 2008. National diarrhea-related healthcare visits during rotavirus season decreased by 48% (95% CI: 47%-48%) in 2008 and by 35% (95% CI: 34%-35%) in 2009 compared with the mean rate from the 2005 and 2006 rotavirus seasons. Conclusions: Rotavirus vaccination had a substantial public health impact on rotavirus disease and overall diarrhea events in El Salvador. Important age-related changes in diarrheal incidence emphasize the need for ongoing rotavirus surveillance after vaccine introduction. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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