Time filter

Source Type

Buenos Aires, Argentina

Schoj V.,GRANTAHI Programa de Control de Tabaco y Servicio de Medicina Familiar | Alderete M.,GRANTAHI Programa de Control de Tabaco y Servicio de Medicina Familiar | Ruiz E.,Hospital Provincial de Neuquen Dr. E. Castro Rendon | Hasdeu S.,Hospital Centenario Dr. Natalio Burd | And 2 more authors.
Tobacco Control | Year: 2010

Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of 100% smoke-free environment legislation on respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms and respiratory function among bar and restaurant workers from the city of Neuquén, Argentina. Methods: Pre-ban and post-ban studies without a comparison group in an Argentinean city were conducted. A baseline survey and spirometric measurements were performed with a total of 80 bar and restaurant workers 1 month before (October 2007) and 3 months after (March 2008) the implementation of the new 100% smoke-free legislation. Results: A significant reduction in secondhand smoke exposure was observed after the enactment and enforcement of the new legislation, and an important reduction in respiratory symptoms (from a pre-ban level of 57.5% to a post-ban level of only 28.8%). The reduction of sensory irritation symptoms was even higher. From 86.3% of workers who reported at least one sensory irritation symptom in October 2007, only 37.5% reported the same symptoms in March 2008. Also, data obtained by spirometry showed a significant forced vital capacity increase. Conclusions: Consistent with other studies, 100% smoke-free legislation improved short-term health outcomes in the sample and should be implemented nationwide. Furthermore, undertaking this study has been highly important in promoting 100% smoke-free environment legislation at the workplace as a legitimate right of hospitality workers, and in reducing social acceptance of designated smoking areas in bars and restaurants. Source

Pedranti M.S.,National University of Cordoba | Barbero P.,Ministerio de Salud de la Provincia de Cordoba | Wolff C.,Ministerio de Salud de la Nacion | Ghietto L.M.,National University of Cordoba | And 2 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2012

The contribution of parvovirus B19 (B19V) as a causative agent of febrile exanthema (FE) in Cordoba, Argentina, was analysed by detection of viral DNA, and specific IgM and IgG. Serum from 141 patients with FE who were negative for measles and rubella, collected during 2005-2009, plus serum from 31 healthy individuals, were assayed. B19V was the aetiological agent in 14·9% of all FE cases, and in 39·1% in an epidemic year (2007). B19V DNA was detected in 47·6% of IgM-positive FE patients, 30·2% of IgM-negative/IgG-positive FE patients, and 9·7% of healthy controls, indicating B19V long-term infection in ∼10% of immunocompetent individuals. Persistent B19V DNA was significantly more frequent in children than adults and in males than females. All patients with acute B19V infection had rash and fever, 85·7% had adenopathy, and only 14·3% had arthropathy. This is the first follow-up study of markers of infection and immunity for B19V infection in Argentina. © 2011 Cambridge University Press. Source

Tobar F.,University of Buenos Aires | Drake I.,Ministerio de Salud de la Nacion | Martich E.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica ENSP
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Latin America is adopting regulations that bear on medicinal costs and spending. The regulations have four main goals: i) to guarantee a competitive market, ii) to ensure affordability for individual consumers (commercial channel), iii) to contain public spending on medicines (institutional channel), and iv) to guarantee efficient spending on medicines. The experience of Latin America differs from that of countries in developed regions. In the latter, the countries tend to have similar policies, both in promoting generic medicines and in price control strategies, and in optimizing and containing pharmaceutical expense. In contrast, in Latin America, certain institutional weaknesses impede the consolidation and application of an effective regulatory policy. This paper reviews the experience gained through the adoption of economic regulations aimed at reducing spending and improving access to medicines, suggests lessons learned at the international level, and offers recommendations for the countries of Latin America. Its purpose is to offer key elements to decision-makers and the authorities of the countries concerned in pursuing economic regulation of medicines. Source

De Maio F.G.,DePaul University | Konfino J.,Ministerio de Salud de la Nacion | Ondarsuhu D.,Instituto Nacional Of Estadistica Y Censos | Goldberg L.,Ministerio de Salud de la Nacion | And 2 more authors.
Tobacco Control | Year: 2015

Objective To examine social gradients in tobacco use in Argentina and Uruguay, using newly available directly comparable data sets. Methods Secondary analysis of Global Adult Tobacco Survey data from Argentina (N=6645) and Uruguay (N=5581). Social gradients in current tobacco use, exposure to secondhand smoke, and cessation attempt were examined with sex-stratified and age-adjusted logistic regression. Results Among men, there is evidence of higher odds of being a current smoker among respondents with lower levels of education, but the association is only statistically significant for respondents with less than primary education in Uruguay (OR=2.15, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.77). Similarly, women with lower levels of education have higher odds of being a current smoker in Uruguay. The association between education and exposure to secondhand smoke is broadly similar for both sexes in both countries, with generally higher odds among groups with low education, though the relationship is only statistically significant among men in Uruguay (OR=1.77, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.92). In both countries, respondents with lower levels of education in general have higher odds of having attempted to quit smoking in the past year, although these associations did not attain statistical significance. Conclusions Social gradients in tobacco use, exposure to secondhand smoke and cessation attempts are broadly similar in both countries. Efforts to evaluate the long-term effects of tobacco control efforts in these countries should monitor how policies affect national averages, and the social gradients that are embedded in aggregate data. © 2015, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Source

Linetzky B.,Ministerio de Salud de la Nacion | Mejia R.,University of Buenos Aires | Ferrante D.,Ministerio de Salud de la Nacion | De Maio F.G.,DePaul University | Diez Roux A.V.,University of Michigan
Nicotine and Tobacco Research | Year: 2012

Introduction: The relationship between poverty and tobacco consumption among adolescents has not been extensively studied, and what evidence exists has come almost entirely from developed countries. Moreover, the impact of contextual factors-such as school-level poverty-remains unclear. Methods: We obtained information about smoking behavior from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in Argentina in 2007. School-level characteristics were derived by matching schools to census areas from the 2001 Census. Additional school-level information was obtained from the Ministry of Education. Random intercept models were used to evaluate the associations of school-level variables (poverty in the census area of the school, school receipt of social assistance, and public or private status) with current smoking, intention to quit, secondhand smoke exposure outside the home, support for smoke-free laws, purchase of single cigarettes among smokers, and susceptibility to smoking in 5 years among nonsmokers. Results: After controlling for age and sex, students attending schools receiving social assistance were more likely to smoke (odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.80) and to purchase loose cigarettes (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.08-2.54), whereas school poverty was signifi cantly associated with secondhand smoke exposure (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.04-1.58). Conclusion: This study shows that an association exists between unfavorable contextual school characteristics and tobacco consumption and related measures among youth in Argentina. Efforts to prevent smoking may need to address the school-level factors that place youth at higher risk. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. Source

Discover hidden collaborations