Interaction between artificial coastal defenses on sandy beaches and large-scale natural disturbances: The 27F 2010 earthquake off the coast of south-central Chile [Interacción entre defensas costeras artifi ciales en playas arenosas y perturbaciones naturales de gran escala: El terremoto del 27F de 2010 en la costa del centro-sur de Chile]
Jaramillo E.,Austral University of Chile |
Manzano M.,Ministerio de Obras Publicas |
Morales G.,Biologo Marino |
Velasquez C.,Austral University of Chile
Revista de Geografia Norte Grande | Year: 2012
During 2010 and 2011, we studied the effects of the continental uplift that resulted from the earthquake of 27F on the physical landscape and the macrofauna of sandy beaches located in front of coastal armoring along Península de Arauco and nearby areas. The mean width of uplifted beaches during the period following 27F was up to 12,5 times higher than beach widths observed before the earthquake and the beach face slope of uplifted beaches decreased. At those beaches that had coastal armoring located closer to high tides before the earthquake, the restored upper and mid shore beach levels (previously occupied by seawalls and rocky revetments) were rapidly colonized by crustacean species, which typically inhabit at similar intertidal levels of unarmored beaches of Chile. Field samplings carried out promptly after large scale disturbances have occurred, are relevant to increase knowledge on the interaction between that natural phenomenon's and coastal artificial infrastructure. Key words: Sandy beaches, macrofauna, continental uplift, south central Chile.
Vertical distribution of the macroinfauna associated to bivalves in a sedimentary intertidal flat of southern Chile [Distribución vertical de la macroinfauna asociada a bivalvos en una planicie intermareal sedimentaria del sur de Chile]
Acuna K.,Austral University of Chile |
Duarte C.,Andrés Bello University |
Jaramillo E.,Austral University of Chile |
Contreras H.,Institute Fomento Pesquero |
And 2 more authors.
Revista de Biologia Marina y Oceanografia | Year: 2012
The community structure of the macroinfauna inhabiting intertidal flats, as well as its distribution inside the sediment column, can be influenced by a combination of physical and biological factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vertical distribution and the community structure of the macroinfauna associated to sediments containing razor clams (Tagelus dombeii), during February and September, 2004 on the intertidal flat of Pelluco, Southern Chile. Sediment and macroinfauna samples were collected from sites with and without bivalves, using plastic cylinders divided into 5 equal parts. During both sampling months, the total number of species and the total abundance and biomass of the macroinfauna reached, in almost all sedimentary layers, higher values in the site with T. dombeii. In both sampling months, the faunistic composition was significantly different between sites with and without T. dombeii. In addition, the similarity in the faunistic composition between sedimentary layers was higher in the site with T. dombeii. The results of this study suggest that the bioturbation process of T. dombeii affects the vertical distribution of the associated macroinfauna and that this effect would not be dependent on the time year.
Assessment of the impact of event scale revised for post traumatic stress disorder in chilean subjects [Adaptación y validación de la versión chilena de la escala de impacto de evento-revisada (EIE-R)]
Caamano L.W.,Consultora Varas y Asociados |
Fuentes D.M.,Astilleros y Maestranzas de la |
Gonzalez L.B.,San Sebastián University |
Melipillan R.A.,University for Development |
Valenzuela E.G.,Ministerio de Obras Publicas
Revista Medica de Chile | Year: 2011
Background: Impact of Event Scale Revised (IES-R), that evaluates the subjective perception of stress, is used to assess post traumatic stress disorder simptoms. Aim: To adapt and validate IES-R to the Chilean population. Material and Methods: Two hundred seventy eight subjects exposed to stressful life events of varying magnitude were assessed using the IES-R, the Beck Depression Inventory, the anxiety and somatoform subscales of the Depressive, Anxiety and Somatoform Disorders Scale and the AUDIT Questionnaire. Results: IES-R had adequate psychometric properties in terms of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent and discriminating validity. It identified a principal factor, explaining 67% of the variance. Conclusions: The IES-R can be used in the Chilean population to assess the degree of suffering produced by a traumatic event.
Schexnayder C.,Arizona State University |
Alarcon L.F.,University of Santiago de Chile |
Antillo E.D.,Ministerio de Obras Publicas |
Morales B.C.,Ministerio de Obras Publicas |
Lopez M.,University of Santiago de Chile
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management | Year: 2014
The joint U.S. State Department-Chilean Fulbright Program sent senior specialists to Chile after the 2010 "Maule" earthquake to perform collaborative studies with faculty from Chile's main universities. The study described here found that concrete-girder bridges built since 1995 without diaphragms and shear keys suffered extensive damage while older bridges designed and built with these features did not suffer as greatly from twisting or rotation about the vertical axis. Because of the steepness of embankment slopes, many bridge abutments exhibited slumping. Concrete retaining walls and mechanically stabilized embankment walls were not damaged. Liquefaction induced pier settlements and lateral spreading impacted bridge performance in coastal regions. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Modeling the hydrological response to climate change: Experiences from two south-central Chilean watersheds [Modelación de la respuesta hidrológica al cambio climático: Experiencias de dos cuencas de la zona centro-sur de Chile]
Stehr A.,University of Concepción |
Debels P.,University of Concepción |
Arumi J.L.,University of Concepción |
Alcayaga H.,Ministerio de Obras Publicas |
Romero F.,Ministerio de Obras Publicas
Tecnologia y Ciencias del Agua | Year: 2010
During the past few years, a progressive worldwide change of the climatic conditions has been observed that has consequently brought increases in the frequency and severity of phenomena like floods and droughts. Thus, it is necessary to have tools for making informed decisions. One way to assess the effects of the climate change on the hydrology of a river basin is to use a distributed hydrologic model, which once calibrated and validated is perturbed with changes (% of change in precipitation and Δ variation in temperature) obtained from different future climate scenarios. The objective of this work is to quantify by means of simulations done with a mathematical model perturbed with plausible scenarios of climatic change, the sensitivity of the hydrology of two sub-basins of the Biobío River. In addition, the amplitude in the response obtained from the hydrologic model perturbed with changes obtained from different Global Circulation Models is analyzed, and the impact to using signals of change derived from the application of more advanced regionalization methods is evaluated. The results indicate that for most of the modeled scenarios of climate change, a reduction in the mean monthly and annual flows will take place, being this variation greater in the spring and in the summer. These results allow to perform one of the first quantitative interpretations of the potential impacts of the climate change in the availability of water resources in the Biobío river basin.
Estimation of water losses in sections of rivers in the Laja-Diguillín system, central region of Chile [Estimación de pérdidas de agua en tramos de ríos del sistema Laja-Diguillín en la zona central de Chile]
Arumi-Ribera J.L.,University of Concepción |
Rivera-Salazar D.A.,University of Concepción |
Rougier-Herrera A.,Ministerio de Obras Publicas |
Diaz-Borquez R.,Prisma Ingenieria
Tecnologia y Ciencias del Agua | Year: 2012
During the Chilean summer of 2008 in the Laja-Diguillín irrigation system, a study was conducted to estimate irrigation water loss due to infiltration and evaporation in two sections of the Polcura and Laja rivers, which are used for channeling these waters. To evaluate losses due to infiltration, a monthly water balance model with specific equations was used which included infiltration and evaporation processes in the sections of the river. This model was parameterized using data for infiltration velocity in the riverbed, measured during a field campaign and calibrated using historical flow data. Losses in channeling the irrigation water ranged from 4.5 to 2.8% of the flow discharged into the system.