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Mendez V.E.,University of Vermont | Bacon C.M.,University of California at Berkeley | Olson M.,University of Vermont | Petchers S.,1 South Ivy Street | And 6 more authors.
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems | Year: 2010

We provide a review of sustainable coffee certifications and results from a quantitative analysis of the effects of Fair Trade, organic and combined Fair Trade/organic certifications on the livelihood strategies of 469 households and 18 cooperatives of Central America and Mexico. Certified households were also compared with a non-certified group in each country. To analyze the differences in coffee price, volume, gross revenue and education between certifications, we used the Kruskal-Wallis (K-W) non-parametric test and the Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test as a post-hoc procedure. Household savings, credit, food security and incidence of migration were analyzed through Pearson's chi-square test. Our study corroborated the conditions of economic poverty among small-scale coffee farmer households in Central America and Mexico. All certifications provided a higher price per pound and higher gross coffee revenue than non-certified coffee. However, the average volumes of coffee sold by individual households were low, and many certified farmers did not sell their entire production at certified prices. Certifications did not have a discernable effect on other livelihood-related variables, such as education, and incidence of migration at the household level, although they had a positive influence on savings and credit. Sales to certified markets offer farmers and cooperatives better prices, but the contribution derived from these premiums has limited effects on household livelihoods. This demonstrates that certifications will not single-handedly bring significant poverty alleviation to most coffee-farming families. Although certified coffee markets alone will not resolve the livelihood challenges faced by smallholder households, they could still contribute to broad-based sustainable livelihoods, rural development and conservation processes in coffee regions. This can be done by developing more active partnerships between farmers, cooperatives, certifications and environmental and rural development organizations and researchers in coffee regions. Certifications, especially Fair Trade/organic, have proven effective in supporting capacity building and in serving as networks that leverage global development funding for small-scale coffee-producing households. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010. Source


McMahan C.D.,Louisiana State University | Matamoros W.A.,University of Southern Mississippi | Barraza E.,Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales | Kutz J.,Louisiana State University | Chakrabarty P.,Louisiana State University
Copeia | Year: 2014

As part of a revision of the cichlid genus Archocentrus, a new genus, Amatitlania, was erected comprising four species: A. nigrofasciata (the type species), A. siquia, A. kanna, and A. coatepeque. Amatitlania coatepeque is an endemic and an eponym of Lago Coatepeque in the interior highlands of western El Salvador. This species was diagnosed by a Y-shaped pattern formed by the ventral fusion of bars four and five on the body; a triple-spined, squarish, or blunt appearance of the dentigerous arm of the dentary; the presence of a posterior projection at the dorsal corner of the lower lip; the presence of a double medial-loop in the gut; sparsely uniform pigmentation of the peritoneum, and 5-5.5 scale rows from the lateral line to the origin of the dorsal fin. Here we examined the taxonomic status of A. coatepeque using molecular and morphological characters. We found that A. coatepeque is phylogenetically nested within the clade of A. nigrofasciata. Additionally, our re-examination of the reported diagnostic morphological characters failed (even in combination) to diagnose A. coatepeque. We instead found that some of those characters were highly variable within A. coatepeque and are sometimes present in members of A. nigrofasciata. Based on our results, we conclude that A. coatepeque is a junior synonym of A. nigrofasciata. © 2014 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. Source


Barraza J.E.,Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales
Marine Biodiversity Records | Year: 2011

I present the first documented record of a dead gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) discovered at Playas Negras, La Union on the Pacific coast of El Salvador, Central America, on 21 July 2010. The stranded specimen also represents the southernmost record of this species anywhere. No necropsy was performed thus the cause of death is unknown. © 2011 Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Source


Anderson E.,University of Alabama in Huntsville | Irwin D.,NASA | Delgado F.,Regional Visualization and Monitoring System | Diaz M.,Observatorio Ambiental | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2012

In November of 2009, Tropical Storm Ida and Low Pressure System 96E converged over Central America, bringing heavy rains that caused extensive flooding and landslides throughout El Salvador. While damages mainly affected the country's central region, economic ramifications were widespread. Numerous Salvadoran government agencies relied heavily on space-based products to meet monitoring, warning, response, and recovery needs. This type of support was only possible through substantial efforts directed toward building institutional capacity and creating international partnerships. In light of the approaching tropical weather systems, the National Territorial Studies Service (SNET) augmented their in situ measurements by taking advantage of a number of near real-time satellite products and regional numerical weather forecasts. SNET, an office within the Ministry of the Environment (MARN) was responsible for monitoring environmental conditions to provide the Civil Protection agency with accurate information so that proper warnings could be issued. While the heavy rains that triggered the majority of the floods and landslides lasted only six hours, the impacts and recovery endured much longer. At the request of MARN/SNET, significant space system support for this event was provided by the Regional Visualization and Monitoring System (SERVIR), which employed a number of different mechanisms to acquire and provide satellite images and value added products. Some secondary users included the Civil Protection agency and Ministry of Public Works, who were heavily involved in response, damage assessments and recovery. During the immediate response phase, SERVIR provided assistance to decision makers by acquiring and rapidly analyzing high resolution satellite images to locate and estimate floods and landslides as well as their impact on infrastructure, especially roads and bridges. Salvadoran field teams were responsible for assessing damages, but the widespread impacts placed them under significant stress. Images acquired by remote sensing instruments from numerous countries contributed to providing vital input to damage assessments. Longer term impacts of these space system support products are evident in the ongoing recovery and mitigation phases. As a result of these images, value added products and follow-up field work, it is evident that previous hazard zones need to be redrawn. Communities in high risk areas are being relocated, and monitoring systems are being strengthened. This paper presents the chronology of the disaster and human response, focusing on evaluating how space-based resources and derived products were acquired, generated, disseminated and used, for this particular event. The utility of such products and areas for improvement arc also discussed. Copyright © (2012) by the International Astronautical Federation. Source


McMahan C.D.,Louisiana State University | Matamoros W.A.,Louisiana State University | Matamoros W.A.,University of Southern Mississippi | Alvarez Calderon F.S.,University of El Salvador | And 5 more authors.
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

The inland fish fauna of El Salvador and its distribution was originally described in 1925 by Samuel Hildebrand. That work has been the main source of information for freshwater fishes of El Salvador up to today. Based on the combination of an intensive literature review, electronic database searches, re-identification of museum specimens, and fieldwork, we hereby provide an updated checklist of the inland fishes of El Salvador. This checklist provides distributional data at the Salvadoran hydrographical and political (by department) levels. The checklist is systematically arranged at the ordinal and familial level and then alphabetically therein. The freshwater fish fauna of El Salvador includes 101 species divided into 64 genera, 29 families, and 14 orders. According to their supposed tolerance to salinity, 73% of these species are peripheral, 23% secondary, and only 4% are primary freshwater fishes. One species is endemic to the country, Amatitlania coatepeque. The low number of primary freshwater fishes and endemics is comparable to the Central American Pacific slope in particular, as well as northern Central America in general. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press. Source

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