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Buenos Aires, Argentina

Leal C.C.C.,Ministerio de Defensa | Denegri G.A.,National University of Costa Rica | Delgado M.I.,National University of Costa Rica
Investigaciones Geograficas | Year: 2013

The aim of this work was to estimate the monetary cost of increasing water supply due to a change in current land use, in order to establish the minimum compensation costs for a future System of Payments for Environmental Services in the Upper Watershed of the Sauce Grande River. The work involved three steps: simulation of the infiltration for different rainfalls applying the hydrologic model HECHMS, calculation of the cost of changing the productive systems and estimation of the cost of increasing water supply. Results consisted of the thematic maps needed for simulations and the tables that showed variation between rainfalls with different recurrence intervals and different land use. For the recurrence of 1:1 the cost of opportunity was US $1.21.m -3, for the recurrence of 1:3 was U$S 0.73.m-3 and the lowest cost found was of U$S 0.62.m-3. We concluded that these costs will support future planning on the use of water resource within a system of Payments for Environmental Services, but it is also important to considerate that a contingent valuation is needed in order to establish the people's will to pay for the use of this resource in the watershed. Source

Mel-Fraga J.,Ministerio de Defensa | Del Cano-Gochi A.,University of La Coruna | De La Cruz-Lopez M.P.,University of La Coruna
Dyna (Spain) | Year: 2013

The Spanish Structural Concrete Code (EHE) establishes a pioneering method for assessing sustainability of this type of structures. The EHE model includes different evaluation data based on expert judgment. This paper presents an analysis of energy consumption and CO2 emissions associated to the construction of concrete structures in Spain. It should be the fi rst steps in suggesting potential improvements to the EHE model, related to the aspects covered here. The results obtained make it possible to identify the relative impact of the different materials and processes. They provide clear data that will be useful for contrasting the specifi c assessment criteria established in the EHE. Source

Mel J.,Ministerio de Defensa | Gomez D.,Intacta Gestion Ambiental S.L. A Coruna | de la Cruz P.,University of La Coruna | del Cano A.,University of La Coruna
Informes de la Construccion | Year: 2015

This paper presents the results of the sensitivity analysis performed for the sustainability assessment model of the Spanish Code on Structural Concrete, EHE-08. It also portrays the results of a life-cycle analysis (LCA) related to energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Comparisons are made between those findings, for suggesting improvements to the model. The main conclusion is that some weights and value functions employed in the EHE-08 are not consistent with the LCA. The new versions of the Spanish Code should include other weights and value functions to get closer to the LCA results. Source

Martinez I.,Technical University of Madrid | Casas P.A.,Ministerio de Defensa
Journal of Marine Science and Technology (Japan) | Year: 2012

We develop a simplified model of choked flow in pipes for CO 2-water solutions as an important step in the modelling of a whole hydraulic system with the intention of eliminating the carbon dioxide generated in air-independent submarine propulsion. The model is based on an approximate fitting of the homogeneous isentropic solution upstream of a valve (or any other area restriction), for given fluid conditions at the entrance. The relative maximum choking back-pressure is computed as a function of area restriction ratio. Although the procedure is generic for gas solutions, numeric values for the non-dimensional parameters in the analysis are developed only for choking in the case of carbon dioxide solutions up to the pure-water limit. © 2012 JASNAOE. Source

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