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Brasília, Brazil

Junk W.J.,Federal University of Mato Grosso | Piedade M.T.F.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Lourival R.,Ministerio da Ciencia | Lourival R.,University of Queensland | And 10 more authors.
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems | Year: 2014

Although 20% of Brazilian territory is covered by wetlands, wetland inventories are still incomplete. In 1993, Brazil signed the Ramsar Convention but a coherent national policy for the sustainable management and protection of wetlands has yet to be established. Major gaps in the definition of a specific wetland policy are twofold: (1) the lack of standardized criteria by which wetlands are defined and delineated that reflects the specific ecological conditions of the country and (2) the lack of a national classification of wetlands that takes into account specific hydrological conditions and respective plant communities. In recent years, efforts have been made at a regional level to improve public awareness of the ecology of Brazilian wetlands, their benefits to society, and the major threats endangering them. Studies have shown that wetlands play a crucial role in the regional hydrological cycle and provide multiple benefits for local populations. Furthermore, Brazilian wetlands contribute significantly to South American biodiversity. Therefore, wetland conservation and sustainable management should be given high legislative priority. This article provides a synthesis of the current body of knowledge on the distribution, hydrology, and vegetation cover of Brazilian wetlands. Their definition, delineation, and classification at the national level are proposed in order to establish a scientific basis for discussions on a national wetland policy that mandates the sustainable management of Brazil's extremely diverse and complex wetlands. This goal is particularly urgent in the face of the continuing and dramatic deterioration of wetlands resulting from large-scale agro-industrial expansion, and hydroelectric projects as well as the projected impact of global climate change on hydrological cycles. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The valorisation of local products using geographical indications is a relatively recent development in Brazil. The 'cassava flour' of Cruzeiro do Sul (Upper Juruá, Acre) is likely to receive this sign of quality. It remains to be seen whether a GI (Geographical Indication) can assure the continuity of this Amazonian product that involves elements both of ecological and cultural origin. It is a hybrid product, resulting from Northeast Brazilian know-how and Western Amazonian cassava varieties. Because of its particular organoleptic qualities, it has gained a national reputation. However, its commercial development is based on the extension of cultivated areas taking over forest areas. Public policies do not integrate environmental and cultural dimensions of this production but rather focus their action on sanitary standards, homogeneity of the product and visibility of its packaging. Finally, this case highlights the difficulties in applying the geographical indications system to a heterogeneous social and ecological context.

Oliveira-Salmazo L.,University of Valladolid | Oliveira-Salmazo L.,Sao Paulo State Technological College | Lopez-Gil A.,University of Valladolid | Silva-Bellucci F.,Ministerio da Ciencia | And 2 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2016

Natural rubber foams are biobased and lightweight products which have found their main field of application in comfort products such as mattresses and pillows. They are generally produced from chemical foaming processes in which the expansion of the polymer is isotropic and hence, their properties are not directionally dependent. However, this dependency could be interesting for certain structural and thermal insulating applications. In this work, elastomeric foams based on natural rubber with a medium relative density (around 0.3) and with varied cellular structures in terms of the shape anisotropy ratio of the cells were produced by a chemical foaming process in which expansion was restricted to only one direction inside a mold. The use of solid precursors of different dimensions, the elastomeric properties of natural rubber and the crosslinking by sulfur of the polymer matrix during foaming allowed foams to be obtained with anisotropy ratios between 0.90 and 2.48 at the same density and with the same properties as the polymeric matrix. In this particular case the study was focused on analysing their compressive modulus and its relationship with the anisotropy of the cellular structure by employing analytical models generally used to describe the mechanical behavior of anisotropic foams. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Da Silva L.J.,Ministerio da Ciencia | Oliveira F.J.S.,Petrobras | De Franca F.P.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
International Journal of Environment and Waste Management | Year: 2013

The operational activities of the oil industry generate solid waste containing several classes of hydrocarbons. Landfarming enables the treatment of large amounts of oil waste through the disposal of waste in the reactive soil layer and hydrocarbon biodegradation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oil waste management in a 1,000 m2 of landfarming area. The operational method used in the current investigation was biostimulation, including soil damping, fertilisation and aeration. In addition, a control cell was evaluated. To evaluate the performance of the proposed bioprocess, the moisture, total oil organic carbon, phosphorous, nitrogen, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (HAB), total fungi and heterotrophic anaerobic bacteria (HNB) contents were monitored, and the pH of the landfarming area was determined. The results indicated that the THP content of the treated soil decreased by 89.6%. The HAB, total fungi and HNB content presented average values of 1.4x107, 2.6x105 CFU.g-1 and 2.2x106 Cells.g-1, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Costa B.M.G.,Administration Office | da Silva Pedro E.,Ministerio da Ciencia | de Macedo G.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte
Scientometrics | Year: 2013

The objective of this study is to investigate scientific collaboration in biotechnology in the northeast region of Brazil. The data presented refer to the 1980-2010 period and were collected from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development platform database known as Lattes (a compilation of curricula vitae of researchers in Brazil, including a record of their scientific production) and from the Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science database. Our analysis involved the use of bibliometric indicators, specifically co-authorship between or among institutions, as well as the evaluation of social networks and multivariate statistics. Overall, we verified that collaboration takes place mostly at the intra-institutional level. At intra-regional scale, we could observe the development of four clusters in relation to the collaboration dynamics, in which geographic proximity stands out as grouping factor. At the interregional level, the partnerships revolve around institutions that count with laboratory infrastructure and research tradition in the field of biotechnology. Regarding international collaboration, it remains connected to national scientific cooperation programs. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

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