Ministerio da Ciencia

Brasília, Brazil

Ministerio da Ciencia

Brasília, Brazil
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Araujo R.V.,Ministerio da Ciencia | Albertini M.R.,Gerencia de Vigilancia de Saude Ambiental Coordenacao de Vigilancia em Saude SMS PMSP | Costa-da-Silva A.L.,University of Sao Paulo | Costa-da-Silva A.L.,Brazilian National Institute of Technology | And 10 more authors.
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Urban heat islands are characterized by high land surface temperature, low humidity, and poor vegetation, and considered to favor the transmission of the mosquito-borne dengue fever that is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. We analyzed the recorded dengue incidence in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, in 2010-2011, in terms of multiple environmental and socioeconomic variables. Geographical information systems, thermal remote sensing images, and census data were used to classify city areas according to land surface temperature, vegetation cover, population density, socioeconomic status, and housing standards. Of the 7415 dengue cases, a majority (93.1%) mapped to areas with land surface temperature >28. °C. The dengue incidence rate (cases per 100,000 inhabitants) was low (3.2 cases) in high vegetation cover areas, but high (72.3 cases) in low vegetation cover areas where the land surface temperature was 29 ± 2 °C. Interestingly, a multiple cluster analysis phenogram showed more dengue cases clustered in areas of land surface temperature >32 °C, than in areas characterized as low socioeconomic zones, high population density areas, or slum-like areas. In laboratory experiments, A. aegypti mosquito larval development, blood feeding, and oviposition associated positively with temperatures of 28-32. °C, indicating these temperatures to be favorable for dengue transmission. Thus, among all the variables studied, dengue incidence was most affected by the temperature. © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda.

Ter Steege H.,Naturalis Biodiversity Center | Ter Steege H.,University Utrecht | Pitman N.C.A.,Duke University | Sabatier D.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 123 more authors.
Science | Year: 2013

The vast extent of the Amazon Basin has historically restricted the study of its tree communities to the local and regional scales. Here, we provide empirical data on the commonness, rarity, and richness of lowland tree species across the entire Amazon Basin and Guiana Shield (Amazonia), collected in 1170 tree plots in all major forest types. Extrapolations suggest that Amazonia harbors roughly 16,000 tree species, of which just 227 (1.4%) account for half of all trees. Most of these are habitat specialists and only dominant in one or two regions of the basin. We discuss some implications of the finding that a small group of species - less diverse than the North American tree flora - accounts for half of the world's most diverse tree community.

Junk W.J.,Federal University of Mato Grosso | Piedade M.T.F.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Lourival R.,Ministerio da Ciencia | Lourival R.,University of Queensland | And 10 more authors.
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems | Year: 2014

Although 20% of Brazilian territory is covered by wetlands, wetland inventories are still incomplete. In 1993, Brazil signed the Ramsar Convention but a coherent national policy for the sustainable management and protection of wetlands has yet to be established. Major gaps in the definition of a specific wetland policy are twofold: (1) the lack of standardized criteria by which wetlands are defined and delineated that reflects the specific ecological conditions of the country and (2) the lack of a national classification of wetlands that takes into account specific hydrological conditions and respective plant communities. In recent years, efforts have been made at a regional level to improve public awareness of the ecology of Brazilian wetlands, their benefits to society, and the major threats endangering them. Studies have shown that wetlands play a crucial role in the regional hydrological cycle and provide multiple benefits for local populations. Furthermore, Brazilian wetlands contribute significantly to South American biodiversity. Therefore, wetland conservation and sustainable management should be given high legislative priority. This article provides a synthesis of the current body of knowledge on the distribution, hydrology, and vegetation cover of Brazilian wetlands. Their definition, delineation, and classification at the national level are proposed in order to establish a scientific basis for discussions on a national wetland policy that mandates the sustainable management of Brazil's extremely diverse and complex wetlands. This goal is particularly urgent in the face of the continuing and dramatic deterioration of wetlands resulting from large-scale agro-industrial expansion, and hydroelectric projects as well as the projected impact of global climate change on hydrological cycles. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

San Roman F.S.,University of Sao Paulo | De Pinho R.D.,Ministerio da Ciencia | Minghim R.,University of Sao Paulo | De Oliveira M.C.F.,University of Sao Paulo
GRAPP 2013 IVAPP 2013 - Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications and International Conference on Information Visualization Theory and Applications | Year: 2013

Text Analytics is essential for a large number of applications and good approaches to obtain visual mappings of text are paramount. Many visualization techniques, such as similarity based point placement layouts, have proved useful to support visual analysis of documents. However, they are sensitive to data quality, which, in turn, relies on a critical preprocessing step that involves text cleaning and in some cases term detecting and weighting, as well as the definition of a similarity function. Not much has been discussed on the effect of these important similarity calculations in the quality of visual representations. This paper presents a study on the role of different text similarity measurements on the generation of visual text mappings. We focus mainly on two types of distance functions, those based on the well-known text vector representation and on direct string comparison measurements, comparing their effect on visual mappings obtained with point placement techniques. We find that both have their value but, in many circumstances, the vector space model (VSM) is the best solution when discrimination is important. However, the VSM is not incremental, that is, new additions to a collection force a recalculation of the whole feature space and similarities. In this work we also propose a new incremental model based on the VSM, which is shown to present the best visualization results in many configurations tested. We show the evaluation results and offer recommendations on the application of different text similarity measurements for Visual Text Analytics tasks.

The valorisation of local products using geographical indications is a relatively recent development in Brazil. The 'cassava flour' of Cruzeiro do Sul (Upper Juruá, Acre) is likely to receive this sign of quality. It remains to be seen whether a GI (Geographical Indication) can assure the continuity of this Amazonian product that involves elements both of ecological and cultural origin. It is a hybrid product, resulting from Northeast Brazilian know-how and Western Amazonian cassava varieties. Because of its particular organoleptic qualities, it has gained a national reputation. However, its commercial development is based on the extension of cultivated areas taking over forest areas. Public policies do not integrate environmental and cultural dimensions of this production but rather focus their action on sanitary standards, homogeneity of the product and visibility of its packaging. Finally, this case highlights the difficulties in applying the geographical indications system to a heterogeneous social and ecological context.

Da Silva L.J.,Ministerio da Ciencia | Oliveira F.J.S.,Petrobras | De Franca F.P.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
International Journal of Environment and Waste Management | Year: 2013

The operational activities of the oil industry generate solid waste containing several classes of hydrocarbons. Landfarming enables the treatment of large amounts of oil waste through the disposal of waste in the reactive soil layer and hydrocarbon biodegradation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oil waste management in a 1,000 m2 of landfarming area. The operational method used in the current investigation was biostimulation, including soil damping, fertilisation and aeration. In addition, a control cell was evaluated. To evaluate the performance of the proposed bioprocess, the moisture, total oil organic carbon, phosphorous, nitrogen, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (HAB), total fungi and heterotrophic anaerobic bacteria (HNB) contents were monitored, and the pH of the landfarming area was determined. The results indicated that the THP content of the treated soil decreased by 89.6%. The HAB, total fungi and HNB content presented average values of 1.4x107, 2.6x105 CFU.g-1 and 2.2x106 Cells.g-1, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Oliveira-Salmazo L.,University of Valladolid | Oliveira-Salmazo L.,São Paulo State Technological College | Lopez-Gil A.,University of Valladolid | Silva-Bellucci F.,Ministerio da Ciencia | And 2 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2016

Natural rubber foams are biobased and lightweight products which have found their main field of application in comfort products such as mattresses and pillows. They are generally produced from chemical foaming processes in which the expansion of the polymer is isotropic and hence, their properties are not directionally dependent. However, this dependency could be interesting for certain structural and thermal insulating applications. In this work, elastomeric foams based on natural rubber with a medium relative density (around 0.3) and with varied cellular structures in terms of the shape anisotropy ratio of the cells were produced by a chemical foaming process in which expansion was restricted to only one direction inside a mold. The use of solid precursors of different dimensions, the elastomeric properties of natural rubber and the crosslinking by sulfur of the polymer matrix during foaming allowed foams to be obtained with anisotropy ratios between 0.90 and 2.48 at the same density and with the same properties as the polymeric matrix. In this particular case the study was focused on analysing their compressive modulus and its relationship with the anisotropy of the cellular structure by employing analytical models generally used to describe the mechanical behavior of anisotropic foams. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Costa B.M.G.,Administration Office | da Silva Pedro E.,Ministerio da Ciencia | de Macedo G.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte
Scientometrics | Year: 2013

The objective of this study is to investigate scientific collaboration in biotechnology in the northeast region of Brazil. The data presented refer to the 1980-2010 period and were collected from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development platform database known as Lattes (a compilation of curricula vitae of researchers in Brazil, including a record of their scientific production) and from the Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science database. Our analysis involved the use of bibliometric indicators, specifically co-authorship between or among institutions, as well as the evaluation of social networks and multivariate statistics. Overall, we verified that collaboration takes place mostly at the intra-institutional level. At intra-regional scale, we could observe the development of four clusters in relation to the collaboration dynamics, in which geographic proximity stands out as grouping factor. At the interregional level, the partnerships revolve around institutions that count with laboratory infrastructure and research tradition in the field of biotechnology. Regarding international collaboration, it remains connected to national scientific cooperation programs. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Quaresma A.C.,University of Amazon | Jardim M.A.G.,Ministerio da Ciencia
Revista Arvore | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to know the floristic composition of vines in forest formations at the coast of Amazon. The study took place in the Algodoal-Maiandeua Area Environmental Protection, Maracanã city, Pará State, where two 50×50m parcels were demarcated in a dry forest and two in a flooding forest. For the analysis of composition, richness and diversity all the species were identified and quantified and to verify the differences between the two vines communities in 80 support trees were randomly selected in each forest formation and then a MDS analysis was done. The diversity was measured using the Shannon- Weaver (H’) and the inverse Simpson Index (1/D). In the two forest formations, 177 individuals were registered, in 15 families, 21 genera and 27 species. Dilleniaceae was the family with the greater number of species and Smilax syphilitica Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. e Odontadenia nitida (Vahl) Müll. Arg. the greater number of individuals in the dry forest and flooding forest, respectively. The MDS analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition. The diversity at the flooding forest was H’ = 1.08 and 1/D = 8.3, for the dry forest it was H’ = 0.98 and 1/D = 7.2. The type of coastal forest formation does not influence the creepers/ vines community composition, richness and diversity. © 2015, Sociedade de Investigacoes Florestais. All rights reserved.

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