São José do Egito, Brazil
São José do Egito, Brazil

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Somavilla L.,Federal University of Pelotas | Gomes C.B.,Laboratorio Of Fitopatologia | Carbonari J.J.,Ministerio da Agricultura | Carneiro R.M.D.G.,Embrapa Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia
Tropical Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

Forty-four populations of Meloidogyne spp. obtained from a root-knot nematode survey on kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) orchards and nurseries in Rio Grande do Sul State were characterized biochemically using esterase isoenzyme (Est). Meloiodgyne arenaria Est A2 (Rm: 1.20, 1.28) was the most frequent species detected in this survey, occurring in 66.65% of the samples. Meloiodgyne ethiopica, with the phenotype E3 (Rm: 0.92, 1.10, 1.30) was detected in 16.66% of the samples in association with other Meloidogyne species. Other species found were M. javanica Est J3 (Rm: 1.00, 1.21, 1.35), M. hapla Est H1 (Rm: 1.17), M. incognita I1 (Rm: 1.03) and I2 (Rm: 1.03, 1.10) identified in 29.9%, 16.66%, 3.33% and 9.79% of the samples, respectively. Only one atypical population presenting the phenotype L3 (Rm: 1.00, 1.10, 1.30) occurred in one orchard (3.33%) but its identification was not possible even through the examination of the perineal patterns of females.© by the Brazilian Phytopathological Society.

Botton M.,Embrapa Uva e Vinho | Teixeira I.,Comercial Agricola Gervasoni | Bavaresco A.,Ministerio da Agricultura | Pastori P.L.,Federal University of Viçosa
Revista Colombiana de Entomologia | Year: 2010

The Brazilian ground pearl (BGP), Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), is one of the most important grape pests in Brazil. Granular and water dispersible granule formulations, doses of application, times of treatment, and application technology of the soil insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxam were evaluated to control BGP in infested vineyards. Thiamethoxam and imidacloprid effectively reduced BGP by 90% in established vineyards. No difference in insect control was observed between the formulations of thiamethoxam. Multiple applications of thiamethoxam in November and January were more effective than a single treatment delivered in November. Doses higher than 0.2 g a.i./plant of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam reduced BGP infestations in 3-year-old vineyards. The granular formulation of thiamethoxam was more effective when applied around the root system than when delivered in six points around the trunk using a hand-operated granular spreader. Drench application of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam using a hand-operated hydraulic sprayer was effective for insecticide treatment, allowing regulation of the amounts of water and active ingredients applied per plant.

Cavani R.,São Paulo State University | Schocken-Iturrino R.P.,São Paulo State University | Garcia T.C.F.L.,Ministerio da Agricultura | de Oliveira A.C.,Ministerio da Agricultura
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2010

Poultry processing facilities are known for using a great amount of water, which is mainly used on carcasses chilling stage. In Brazil, meat regulations state that each chiller tank must be emptied, cleaned and sanitized every 8 working hours. The aim of the current study was to assess the microbial load of chiller water used in poultry immersion chilling system after 8, 16 and 24 working hours in order to evaluate the reduction of water changes and chiller sanitization. Conventional physicochemical and microbiological assays were done in water supply samples (n=69) to suppress interferences caused by freshwater addition; pre chilled (n=345) post chilled carcasses (n=345) and chiller water samples of the last stage (n=69). The results showed no significant differences on microbial load samples between the three shifts suggesting that the proposed reduction may be secure and reduces the volume of wastewater that would impact the environment, besides improving the rational use of processing time.

Brackmann A.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Ceretta M.,Ministerio da Agricultura | Pinto J.A.V.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Venturini T.L.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Dal Col Lucio A.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2010

This research was carried out to evaluate the tolerance of 'Gala' apples to low temperatures in different periods during storage. The treatments were the temperature of 0°C (standard); -0.8°C and -1.6°C, during 4 months in cold storage and during 8 months in CA storage at 1,0kPa of O2 + 2,0kPa of CO2, and combinations of these temperatures with different times in the beginning or in the end of the storage period. Observing the results, the temperatures of 0°C e -0.8°C showed better quality than in -1.6°C after 4 months of cold storage. AC fruit quality was higher in 0°C when compared with -0.8°C and -1.6°C. The temperatures of -1.6°C for cold storage and of -0.8°C and -1.6°C for controlled atmosphere storage, when used in the beginning of storage period were more damaging to quality than in the end of storage, causing mainly internal breakdown, injury of peel and decay.

Maia Toaldo I.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Zandonadi Gamba G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Almeida Picinin L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Rubensam G.,Ministerio da Agricultura | And 2 more authors.
Talanta | Year: 2012

A simplified procedure for simultaneous quantification of ceftiofur (CEF), fluoroquinolone (FQ) and sulfonamide (SA) antibacterials in bovine milk was developed. The reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) multiclass method for analysis of eleven distinct compounds, from three antibacterial classes, was validated in line with Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Confirmation of the analytes identities was performed by electrospray mass spectrometry detection. The analytes were extracted from milk matrix by liquid-liquid extraction with acidified ultrapure water and directly analyzed in the chromatograph. The SA compounds were pre-column derivatized with fluorescamine for fluorescence detection. The method provided good results regarding the analytical parameters of linearity, selectivity, sensitivity, precision, recovery, decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), stability and robustness. Analytes were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction in the fortified matrix and the compounds identity was confirmed by their precursor ion and fragments through tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Additionally, milk samples from two state capitals in the South Region of Brazil were analyzed by both the quantitative and confirmatory methods. The validation process showed correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.98 for all the analytes, with recovery rates up to 98% for all the studied drugs. LOD and LOQ limits ranged from 8.0 to 20.0 ng mL-1 and 10.0 to 32.0 ng mL-1, demonstrating good specificity of the method. The intra-day and inter-day precisions for all the analytes were below or equal to 7.40 and 10.13, respectively. The studied antibacterials were not detected in milk samples. The developed method represents an efficient alternative for multi-residue analysis in milk, being suitable and especially viable for monitoring in developing countries. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Fernandes A.L.T.,University of Uberaba | Santinato F.,São Paulo State University | Ticle Ferreira R.,EDUCAMPO CAPAL | Santinato R.,Ministerio da Agricultura
Coffee Science | Year: 2013

This study, conducted in Araxá, MG, aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility of reducing the levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulfur recommended for the mineral nutrition of arabic coffee using coffee straw as organic matter in increasing doses (2,5; 5,0; 10,0 e 20,0 t ha-1) added to the mineral fertilizer recommendations, reducing proportionately the quantities of nutrients in the straw. After three seasons (2008 to 2010), the conclusions were that: a) it is feasible to use coffee straw as a source of N, P, K and S with consequent reduction of mineral fertilizer nutrients in coffee, for it allows increase in productivity up to 25%; b) mineral fertilizers, both exclusive and with the reduced coffee straw are significantly higher in yield (88-135%) to the control, demonstrating the need for these nutrients in coffee cultivation in conditions of cerrado; c) the doses of coffee straw does not change the pH, V%, Ca+2, Mg+2, increase K+ and B, and Mg+2, which remained with suitable levels and tended to increase CTC and organic matter, while reducing the Cu; d) the levels of N, P and K fertilizer can be reduced: from 6 to 44% for N, 8 to 54% for P; 28 to 100% for the K and from 8 to 68% for the S with the use of straw as organic fertilizer for coffee crop.

Filho J.C.R.,Ministerio da Agricultura | Lopes P.S.,Federal University of Viçosa | Verneque R.S.,Embrapa Gado de Leite | Torres R.A.,Federal University of Viçosa | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2010

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genetic structure of Gyr cattle selected for milk production. Files of pedigree and production were composed of 27,610 animals. The ENDOG program was used for the calculation of individual inbreeding coefficient (F) and coefficient of average relatedness (AR), effective number of animals(N e), effective number of founders (f e) and ancestors (f a), and generation interval (GI). Individual inbreeding coefficients and average relatedness in the population were 2.82% and 2.10%, respectively. It was observed a reduction in the effective number of animals, especially after publication of the results of the first progeny test. The estimated effective number of founders was 146 and 75 for the ancestrals. Out of those, only 28 ancestors accounted for the origin of 50% of the population genes. The average generation interval was 8.41 years and it was longer for males than for females. For maintaining genetic variability in future generations, it should be invested mating strategies that reduce inbreeding and which do not use massively only some high breeding value sires. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: KBBE.2012.2.4-03 | Award Amount: 1.18M | Year: 2012

Guaranteeing the long term availability of safe foods is a global concern that has initiated a large number of activities, including research, policy development and implementation, legislation and training. Extensive information is generated about food safety, but it is fragmented, and not internationally disseminated. The Collab4Safety consortium will establish a global network on food safety with the aim of developing a sustainable coordination platform for exchange of food safety information about research findings, capacity building and policies and facilitate the control and mitigation of existing and emerging food risks. Tried and tested methods will be used to identify problems and gaps in knowledge, resulting in generation of outputs valuable to research managers and interested stakeholders globally. Establishing a permanent structure will contribute to the development of trust between key players and institutions, which is needed to create an international forum for exchange of information and opinions on matters pertaining to food safety in the food and feed chain

PubMed | Embrapa Suinos e Aves, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Ministerio da Agricultura and Technical University of Denmark
Type: | Journal: International journal of food microbiology | Year: 2016

Sources of contamination of carcasses during slaughter include infected pigs as well as environmentally related sources. There are many microbial indicators that can be used in the processing of food to assess food hygiene and the safety of food processing. The presence of some microbial indicators can be viewed as a result of direct or indirect contamination of a food with fecal material. The presence of Enterobacteriaceae is often used as a hygiene indicator, as they are found both in the environment and in the intestine of warm-blooded animals. An association between Salmonella isolation and Enterobacteriaceae count (EC) on pre-chill carcasses has been described, however the impact of slaughterhouse and the day of sampling on the occurrence of Salmonella has not been previously investigated. To this end, mixed logistic regressions (MLRs) with random effects and fixed slopes were performed to assess the change in EC and its correlation with Salmonella occurrence using two data sets. The first describes the EC and Salmonella isolation in 60 pork carcasses in one slaughterhouse sampled at 11 different slaughter steps, including the carcass as a random effect. The second describes the EC and Salmonella isolation on 1150 pre-chill carcasses sampled in 13 slaughterhouses over 230 sampling days, and the model combined two random intercepts, slaughterhouse and date of sampling nested with slaughterhouse (day/slaughterhouse). Statistically significant associations (p<0.0001) between the log of the EC and Salmonella occurrence were found in all models. Nevertheless, although a strong association was found between Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella contamination in pork carcasses, this association was not constant, given that there was a high variation in the probability of a carcass being positive for Salmonella according to the EC mainly between days of samples. The effect of the day of sampling on Salmonella prevalence was so large that the predictive value of the EC count for Salmonella isolation on a daily basis was compromised. It is possible that on some days batches with a high prevalence of Salmonella carriers shedding a high number of Salmonella were slaughtered. On these days, the potential for contamination/cross-contamination of carcasses will be so large that even hygienic slaughter, confirmed by the low EC on carcasses, will not be able to prevent the presence of Salmonella on some carcasses. The results of this study demonstrate that, despite the statistically significant association found, it may be difficult to predict when hygiene failure measured via EC actually indicates Salmonella contamination, and neither the inverse.

PubMed | Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Ministerio da Agricultura and Technical University of Denmark
Type: | Journal: International journal of food microbiology | Year: 2015

In microbiological surveys, false negative results in detection tests precluding the enumeration by MPN may occur. The objective of this study was to illustrate the impact of screening test failure on the probability distribution of Salmonella concentrations in pork using a Bayesian method. A total of 276 swab samples in four slaughter steps (69 samples in each slaughter step: after dehairing, after singeing, after evisceration, and before chilling) were screened for Salmonella and enumerated by the MPN method. Salmonella contamination data were fitted to a lognormal distribution by using a Bayesian model that uses the number of positive tubes at each dilution in an MPN analysis to estimate the parameters of the concentration distribution. With Salmonella paired data, three data sets were used for each slaughter step: one that includes the positives in the screening test only, a second one that includes false negative results from the screening, and a third that considers the entire data set. The relative sensitivity of the screening test was also calculated assuming as gold standard samples with confirmed Salmonella. Salmonella was confirmed by a reference laboratory in 29 samples either by screening or MPN method. The relative sensitivity of the screening test was 69% (CI 95%: 52%-85%). The data set that included enumerations from screen-negative samples (false negative results) tended to have higher and smaller in comparison with the data set that discards false negative results, suggesting that the lack of sensitivity of the screening test affects the distribution that describes the contamination across the population. Numerous surveys on fitting distribution methods of microbial censored data have been published and discuss source of bias due to fitting method. Results of this survey contribute with that discussion by illustrating another possible source of bias due to failure of the screening methods preceding the MPN.

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