El Mamy A.B.,Center National Delevage Et Of Recherche Veterinaire Cnerv |
Lo M.M.,Institute Senegalais Of Recherches Agricoles |
Thiongane Y.,Institute Senegalais Of Recherches Agricoles |
Diop M.,Institute Senegalais Of Recherches Agricoles |
And 9 more authors.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2014
Rift valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne disease of domestic and wild ruminants caused by RVF virus (RVFV), a phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae). RVF is widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa. In September of 2010, an RVF outbreak occurred in northern Mauritania involving mass abortions in small ruminants and camels (Camelus dromedarius) and at least 63 human clinical cases, including 13 deaths. In camels, serological prevalence was 27.5-38.5% (95% confidence interval, n=279). For the first time, clinical signs other than abortions were reported in this species, including hemorrhagic septicemia and severe respiratory distress in animals. We assessed the presence of RVFV in camel sera sampled during this outbreak and generated whole-genome sequences of RVFV to determine the possible origin of this RVFV strain. Phylogenetic analyses suggested a shared ancestor between the Mauritania 2010 strain and strains from Zimbabwe (2269, 763, and 2373), Kenya (155-57 and 56IB8), South Africa (Kakamas, SA75 and SA51VanWyck), Uganda (Entebbe), and other strains linked to the 1987 outbreak of RVF in Mauritania (OS1, OS3, OS8, and OS9). © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.
Garcia-Ponce E.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture |
Gomez-Macpherson H.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture |
Diallo O.,Ministere du Developpement Rural |
Djibril M.,Ministere du Developpement Rural |
And 6 more authors.
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2013
In Mauritania, most irrigated land was designed for, and remains devoted to, rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation. Decades after introduction, however, yield remains below expectations, irrigated land is gradually being abandoned, and now crop diversification is promoted to improve sustainability of irrigated agriculture. This paper presents evidence of the potential, and limitations, of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cropping in small-holder irrigation schemes along the Mauritanian side of the Senegal River Valley. Results are based on 3-years of on-farm participatory research (2007-2009) carried out at five irrigation schemes in collaboration with farmers and national research and extension services. Grain yield, water productivity and gross margin of sorghum and rice were compared at plot level. Global average grain yield over years and schemes was 2.5tha-1 for sorghum, ranging from 1.7tha-1 to 3.2tha-1, compared to 5.6tha-1 for rice, ranging from 4.0tha-1 to 7.3tha-1, even though both crops had similar total above-ground biomass at maturity. Sorghum required less irrigation water than rice (435 vs. 601mm) but the smaller yield resulted in similar irrigation water productivity (0.87 vs. 0.96kgm-3) and fuel (pumping) productivity (1.71 vs. 1.93kgMJ-1). Despite smaller yields, however, sorghum profitability was significantly greater than rice (1172 vs. 788 € ha-1), due to higher market price and, in the case of one scheme, lower irrigation costs. Main constraints identified in sorghum cropping were (i) poor crop establishment because of late sowing and water logging; (ii) neglected weed management; and (iii) mismatch between irrigation delivery schedules and water requirements. The causes of these constraints are particularities of rice production systems (design and heavy soil) and farmers' habits acquired with traditional rainfed sorghum cropping during the wet season.The analyses presented here reveal that sorghum cropping is a profitable option to rice for small-holder farmers, particularly on light-textured soils within the irrigation schemes. Furthermore, large variability of results among sorghum farmers and the high above-ground biomass at maturity suggests scope for improving grain yield and water productivity. Challenges remain, however, for adoption of sorghum in irrigated agriculture in Mauritania. National agricultural policies must ensure access to credit and agricultural inputs (seeds and fertilizers) and consider specific requirements for crop diversification (type of soil, irrigation distribution) in both rehabilitation of existing schemes and in design and construction of new ones. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
PubMed | Institute of Epidemiology, Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Center National Of Lelevage Et Of Recherches Veterinaires Cnerv and Ministere du developpement rural
Type: | Journal: Epidemiology and infection | Year: 2016
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging pathogen of major concern throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, affecting both livestock and humans. In the past recurrent epidemics were reported in Mauritania and studies focused on the analysis of samples from affected populations during acute outbreaks. To verify characteristics and presence of RVFV during non-epidemic periods we implemented a multi-stage serological and molecular analysis. Serum samples of small ruminants, cattle and camels were obtained from Mauritania during an inter-epidemic period in 2012-2013. This paper presents a comparative analysis of potential variations and shifts of antibody presence and the capability of inter-epidemic infections in Mauritanian livestock. We observed distinct serological differences between tested species (seroprevalence: small ruminants 38%, cattle 154%, camels 320%). In one single bovine from Nouakchott, a recent RVF infection could be identified by the simultaneous detection of IgM antibodies and viral RNA. This study indicates the occurrence of a low-level enzootic RVFV circulation in livestock in Mauritania. Moreover, results indicate that small ruminants can preferably act as sentinels for RVF surveillance.
Ould El Mamy A.B.,Center National Detude Et Of Recherches Vetrinaires |
Baba M.O.,Ministere du Developpement Rural |
Barry Y.,Center National Detude Et Of Recherches Vetrinaires |
Isselmou K.,Center National Detude Et Of Recherches Vetrinaires |
And 15 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011
During September?October 2010, an unprecedented outbreak of Rift Valley fever was reported in the northern Sahelian region of Mauritania after exceptionally heavy rainfall. Camels probably played a central role in the local amplification of the virus. We describe the main clinical signs (hemorrhagic fever, icterus, and nervous symptoms) observed during the outbreak.
Garcia-Bolanos M.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture |
Borgia C.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture |
Poblador N.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture |
Dia M.,Ministere du Developpement Rural |
And 2 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2011
Irrigation plays a fundamental role in world food provision but, to date, it has performed below expectations in Sub-Saharan Africa. The present study assesses and diagnoses the performance of 22 small and medium size community-managed irrigation schemes, mainly devoted to rice production, in different locations along the Mauritanian banks of the Lower Senegal River. The evaluations followed the Rapid Appraisal Process in which semi-structured interviews were held with representatives of the Cooperatives' Boards in charge of each scheme to obtain information about the organisation of the cooperative, land tenure, irrigation system and organization, cropping pattern and soils. Additionally, for each irrigation scheme, the water-delivery service was characterized by making qualitative and comparative observations during field inspections; the pumping station's performance was diagnosed by a local specialist; the discharge at the head of the system was measured; daily irrigation time was recorded; and crop yields were determined by plot sampling. Then a set of performance indicators was computed. Water delivery capacity referred to irrigated areas was insufficient in a third of the schemes, and this insufficiency was exacerbated by poor maintenance. Irrigation intensity in habilitated areas was rather low being less than 0.66 in 50% of the schemes. The average productivity of land, irrigation water, and fuel (3.38tha-1, 0.30kgm-3 and 2.37kgkWh-1, respectively) were well below potential. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.