Long-term response of forest plantation productivity and soils to a single application of municipal biosolids [Réaction à long terme de la productivité de plantations forestières et de leurs sols à une application unique de biosolides municipaux]
Ouimet R.,Ministere des Forets |
Pion A.-P.,Ministere du Developpement durable |
Hebert M.,Ministere du Developpement durable
Canadian Journal of Soil Science | Year: 2015
After 16 to 19 yr, we revisited four experimental trials set up in the early 1990s to evaluate the long-term impact of municipal biosolids applied in forest plantations. Tree growth and the soil were sampled to determine the effects of a single application of biosolids applied at (liquid equivalent) rates of 0, 130, 200, and 400 m3 ha-1. Tree radial growth responded markedly to biosolids in the young plantations, increasing from 18% for Pinus resinosa to 62% for Picea glauca, and up to 700% for Quercus sp. Increases in phosphorus (P) concentrations in the tree foliage in response to biosolids could still be detected in the conifer trials. In the top 0-5 cm soil layer, organic carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), P, and copper (Cu) concentrations and pools increased, while soil compaction and bulk density decreased. In the deepest soil layer sampled (20-40 cm depth), the total N and calcium (Ca) pools were reduced by the biosolids treatments, while the pool of exchangeable acidity increased. Our observations indicate that a single application of liquid biosolids up to 400 m3 ha-1 (30 t ha-1 DM) in young forest plantations is a sustainable practice without undue risk to such podzolic soils. © 2015, Routledge. All rights reserved.
Lapointe J.,University of Québec |
Lapointe J.,Direction Of Lexpertise Energie Faune Forets Mines Territoire Of Labitibi Temiscamingue |
Imbeau L.,University of Québec |
Tremblay J.A.,Ministere du Developpement Durable |
And 2 more authors.
Auk | Year: 2013
Intensive agriculture, as is typical of corn and soybean production, may be responsible for declines in the abundance and diversity of farmland birds. In Quebec, the transition to intensive crops is evidenced by marked increases of corn and soybean fields. From 2008 to 2010, we used satellite telemetry to study use of corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) fields, other farmlands, wetlands, urban areas, and other habitats by 10 female Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) of the anatum-tundrius complex, a taxon of "special concern" in Canada. We monitored females during the nesting season, from hatching of eggs to independence of young, but before the young dispersed away from the nest site. Adult females were less likely to use corn and soybean fields than the "other farmlands" and "other habitats" categories during the nestling stage and the first month after young fledged. Once young fledged, other farmlands and urban areas were more likely to be used than the "other habitats" category when females were hunting in the areas that were farthest from the nest. The expansion of corn and soybean fields in the Quebec agricultural landscape has occurred to the detriment of other crops and may contribute to the decline in quality of hunting habitat of Peregrine Falcons and other avian top predators. © 2013 by The American Ornithologists' Union. All rights reserved.
Castaneda R.A.,McGill University |
Avlijas S.,McGill University |
Anouk Simard M.,Ministere du Developpement durable |
Ricciardi A.,McGill University
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences | Year: 2014
Although widely detected in marine ecosystems, microplastic pollution has only recently been documented in freshwater environments, almost exclusively in surface waters. Here, we report microplastics (polyethylene microbeads, 0.40-2.16mmdiameter) in the sediments of the St. Lawrence River. We sampled 10 freshwater sites along a 320 km section from Lake St. Francis to Québec City by passing sediment collected from a benthic grab through a 500 _m sieve. Microbeads were discovered throughout this section, and their abundances varied by four orders of magnitude across sites. Median and mean (±1 SE) densities across sites were 52 microbeads·m-2 and 13 832 (±13 677) microbeads·m-2, respectively. The highest site density was 1.4 × 105 microbeads·m-2 (or 103 microbeads·L-1), which is similar in magnitude to microplastic concentrations found in the world's most contaminated marine sediments. Mean diameter of microbeads was smaller at sites receiving municipal or industrial effluent (0.70 ± 0.01 mm) than at non-effluent sites (0.98 ± 0.01 mm), perhaps suggesting differential origins. Given the prevalence and locally high densities of microplastics in St. Lawrence River sediments, their ingestion by benthivorous fishes and macroinvertebrates warrants investigation. © 2014, National Research Council of Canada. All rights received.
Rasiulis A.L.,Laval University |
Festa-Bianchet M.,Université de Sherbrooke |
Festa-Bianchet M.,Laval University |
Couturier S.,Ministere du Developpement Durable |
Cote S.D.,Laval University
Journal of Wildlife Management | Year: 2014
Radio transmitters are widely used in wildlife management; therefore, it is essential to assess any effects that they may have on animal survival. We compared the survival of 269 randomly selected adult migratory caribou (Rangifer tarandus) fitted with either light very high frequency or heavy Argos satellite collars during the same period. Heavy collars reduced annual survival of caribou in a declining population with generally poor body condition by about 18%. Accurate estimates of survival are crucial for management decisions and possible effects of collars should be considered when calculating estimates. © 2014 The Wildlife Society.
Valiquette E.,Laval University |
Perrier C.,Laval University |
Thibault I.,Ministere du Developpement durable |
Bernatchez L.,Laval University
Evolutionary Applications | Year: 2014
Stocking represents the most important management tool worldwide to increase and sustain commercial and recreational fisheries in a context of overexploitation. Genetic impacts of this practice have been investigated in many studies, which examined population and individual admixture, but few have investigated determinants of these processes. Here, we addressed these questions from the genotyping at 19 microsatellite loci of 3341 adult lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from 72 unstocked and stocked lakes. Results showed an increase in genetic diversity and a twofold decrease in the extent of genetic differentiation among stocked populations when compared to unstocked. Stocked populations were characterized by significant admixture at both population and individual levels. Moreover, levels of admixture in stocked populations were strongly correlated with stocking intensity and a threshold value of total homogenization between source and stocked populations was identified. Our results also suggest that under certain scenarios, the genetic impacts of stocking could be of short duration. Overall, our study emphasizes the important alteration of the genetic integrity of stocked populations and the need to better understand determinants of admixture to optimize stocking strategies and to conserve the genetic integrity of wild populations. © 2014 The Authors. Evolutionary Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rivard C.,Geological Survey of Canada |
Lavoie D.,Geological Survey of Canada |
Lefebvre R.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique |
Sejourne S.,Consulting geologist |
And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Coal Geology | Year: 2014
Production of hydrocarbons from Canadian shales started slowly in 2005 and has significantly increased since. Natural gas is mainly being produced from Devonian shales in the Horn River Basin and from the Triassic Montney shales and siltstones, both located in northeastern British Columbia and, to a lesser extent, in the Devonian Duvernay Formation in Alberta (western Canada). Other shales with natural gas potential are currently being evaluated, including the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale in southern Quebec and the Mississippian Frederick Brook Shale in New Brunswick (eastern Canada).This paper describes the status of shale gas exploration and production in Canada, including discussions on geological contexts of the main shale formations containing natural gas, water use for hydraulic fracturing, the types of hydraulic fracturing, public concerns and on-going research efforts. As the environmental debate concerning the shale gas industry is rather intense in Quebec, the Utica Shale context is presented in more detail. © 2014 .
Brochu P.,Ministere du Developpement Durable |
Brodeur J.,University of Montréal |
Krishnan K.,University of Montréal
Inhalation Toxicology | Year: 2011
The methodology developed in our previous studies (Brochu et al. 2006a-c) for the determination of physiological daily inhalation rates was improved by integrating into the calculation process, both nighttime and daytime respiratory parameters, namely oxygen uptake factors (H) and ventilatory equivalents (VQ). H values during fasting (0.2057 ±0.0018 L of O2/kcal; mean ±SD) and postprandial phases (0.2059 ±0.0019 L of O2/kcal) as well as VQ values for subjects at rest (27.4 ±4.8 to 32.2 ±3.1, unitless) and during the aggregate daytime activities (29.9 ±4.2 to 33.7 ±7.2) were determined and combined with published doubly labeled water measurements for the calculation of daily inhalation rates in normal-weight males and females aged 0.22-96 years (n = 1235). Depending upon the unit value chosen, the highest 99th percentiles for inhalation data were found in males aged 35 to <45 years (35.40 m 3/day), 2.6 to <6 months (1.138 m 3/kg-day), and 10 to <16.5 years (22.29 m 3/m 2-day). Means and percentiles expressed in m 3/kg-day as well as in m 3/m 2-day suggest generally higher intakes of air pollutants in children than in adults and in males than in females (in μg/kg-day or μg/m 2-day) for identical exposure concentrations and conditions. For instance, means in boys aged 2.6 to <6 months of 10.99 ±3.50 m 3/m 2-day and 0.572 ±0.191 m 3/kg-day are 1.3- and 2.5-folds higher, respectively, than those in adult males 65-96 years old (8.42 ±2.13 m 3/m 2-day, 0.225 ±0.059 m 3/kg-day). © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
Patoine M.,Ministere du Developpement Durable |
Hebert S.,Ministere du Developpement Durable |
D'Auteuil-Potvin F.,Ministere du Developpement Durable
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2012
The aim of this work is to evaluate and discuss river water quality trends over the last decade in ten watersheds where diffuse pollution represents more than half of the annual load of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N). Trend analyses taking into account flow data indicate a significant reduction of total P in eight rivers, of ammonia N in five rivers, of nitrate + nitrite in four rivers, of total filtered N in three rivers and of suspended solids in two rivers. An increase of turbidity was observed in four rivers and, for fecal coliforms, no trends. P decrease can be explained by reduced mineral P inputs on cropped lands related to means such as agro-environmental fertilization plans and addition of phytase in pig and poultry feed. However, for seven of them, median P concentrations remain at least two times greater than the Québec water quality guideline for protection of rivers against eutrophication. Concentrations of other parameters remain problematic in some rivers too. These results indicate the need to continue the efforts for further diffuse pollution reduction. Future work should better quantify actions taken at the watershed scale to reduce diffuse pollution.
Influence of animal density on fecal coliform concentrations in streams of Southern Quebec, Canada [Influence de la densité animale sur la concentration des coliformes fécaux dans les cours d'eau du Québec méridional, Canada]
Patoine M.,Ministere du Developpement durable
Revue des Sciences de l'Eau | Year: 2011
Bacterial contamination of surface waters in agricultural territories is a concern for the agricultural and public health sectors in Canada. In order to assess the influence of agriculture on this type of contamination, fecal coliforms (FC) were analyzed in water samples collected in 16 watercourses located in the southern part of the province of Quebec. Their sub watersheds cover surface areas of 15 to 100 km 2 and a large range of animal densities (10 to 520 animal units•km -2) and host a mainly intensive agriculture. Fecal coliform measurements obtained bi-weekly over three years show that concentrations in watercourses increase with animal density in the sub watersheds. Regression analyses have allowed the assessment of animal husbandry and human influence on FC counts in watercourses with comparable sub watersheds. The study also shows that FC point sources located immediately upstream from the sampling stations may increase from 3- to 20-fold during summer (May to October) and up to more than 100-fold during winter (November to April). Regression equations are provided as tools to assist bacterial contamination risk management. However, these tools have many limits: they could be improved and completed in taking into account other parameters. © Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs, Gouvernement du Québec, 2012.
The flood directive: How the text is implemented in France [La directive européenne relative à l'évaluation et à la gestion des risques d'inondation-la représentation des inondations: des exigences du texte à la mise en oeuvre en France]
Martini F.,Ministere du Developpement Durable
Houille Blanche | Year: 2011
The Flood directive 2007/60/EC of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks is entered into force on November 26th, 2007. It establishes a framework for the assessment and management of flood risks in Europe, aiming at the reduction of adverse consequences for human health, environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with floods. It asks to member States to proceed to three steps: • a preliminary flood risks assessment, followed by the selection of some areas with potential significant flood risks for which the 2 following steps will be conducted; • flood hazard maps and flood risk maps; • flood risk management plans including appropriate objectives for the management of flood risk and the measure for achieving those objectives. Except these demands concerning content and schedule of implementation, member States are free to define how they will execute the requirements. This freedom concerns in particular the way of presenting information, the scales, the return periods associated to the scenarios for mapping, etc.. France is currently transposing the text following the principles decided with deep attention. The methodologies for implementing the text with a way of working as homogeneous as possible is on construction. © 2011 Société Hydrotechnique de France.