Ministere du Developpement Durable

Sainte Foy, Canada

Ministere du Developpement Durable

Sainte Foy, Canada
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Brochu P.,Ministere du Developpement durable | Brodeur J.,University of Montréal | Krishnan K.,University of Montréal
Journal of Applied Toxicology | Year: 2012

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling and occupational exposure assessment studies often use minute ventilation rates (VE), alveolar ventilation rates (VA) and cardiac outputs (Q) that are not reflective of the physiological variations encountered during the aggregate daytime activities of individuals from childhood to adulthood. These variations of VE, VA and Q values were determined for healthy normal-weight individuals aged 5-96years by using two types of published individual data that were measured in the same subjects (n=902), namely indirect calorimetry measurements and the disappearance rates of oral doses of deuterium ( 2H) and heavy-oxygen ( 18O) in urine monitored by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Arteriovenous oxygen content differences (0.051-0.082ml of O 2 consumed ml -1 of blood) and ratios of the physiological dead space to the tidal volume (0.232-0.419) were determined for oxygen consumption rates (0.157-0.806l min -1) required by minute energy expenditures ranging from 0.76 to 3.91kcal min -1. Generally higher values for the 2.5th up to the 99th percentile for VE (0.132-0.774l kg -1 min -1, 4.42-21.69l m -2 min -1), VA (0.093-0.553l kg -1 min -1, 3.09-15.53l m -2 min -1), Q (0.065-0.330l kg -1 min -1, 2.17 to 9.46l m -2 min -1) and ventilation-perfusion ratios (1.12-2.16) were found in children and teenagers aged 5-<16.5years compared with older individuals. The distributions of cardiopulmonary parameters developed in this study should be useful in facilitating a scientifically sound characterization of the inter-individual differences in the uptake and health risks of lipophilic air pollutants, particularly as they relate to younger children. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Lachance-Cloutier S.,Ministere du Developpement durable | Turcotte R.,Ministere du Developpement durable | Cyr J.-F.,Ministere du Developpement durable
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2017

Retrospective estimation of daily streamflow for all rivers within a territory is of practical interest for sustainable and optimal water management. This implies, however, the availability of methods for providing accurate estimations of flow for ungauged rivers. This study compares the potential of statistical interpolation (SI)—a simple data assimilation technique that combines observations and simulations from hydrological modelling—with four other approaches: nearest neighbour, direct use of outputs from hydrological modelling, ordinary and topological kriging. Through subsampling cross-validation analyses based on the modified Kling-Gupta efficiency indicator, we show that SI compares favourably with these other approaches. While the performance of other methods depends on the configuration of the ungauged site in regards to the neighbouring reference sites, SI is less affected by these configurations. SI outperforms the other approaches particularly where the ungauged site is relatively distant from observation sites. In these cases, SI performance depends on the performance of the background model that relies on simulations of hydrological processes forced by precipitation and temperature observations. Our findings offer the potential for heightened performance estimates through an improvement of hydrological modelling and the use of more complex assimilation techniques for exploiting the model. © 2017

Castaneda R.A.,McGill University | Avlijas S.,McGill University | Anouk Simard M.,Ministere du Developpement durable | Ricciardi A.,McGill University
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences | Year: 2014

Although widely detected in marine ecosystems, microplastic pollution has only recently been documented in freshwater environments, almost exclusively in surface waters. Here, we report microplastics (polyethylene microbeads, 0.40-2.16mmdiameter) in the sediments of the St. Lawrence River. We sampled 10 freshwater sites along a 320 km section from Lake St. Francis to Québec City by passing sediment collected from a benthic grab through a 500 _m sieve. Microbeads were discovered throughout this section, and their abundances varied by four orders of magnitude across sites. Median and mean (±1 SE) densities across sites were 52 microbeads·m-2 and 13 832 (±13 677) microbeads·m-2, respectively. The highest site density was 1.4 × 105 microbeads·m-2 (or 103 microbeads·L-1), which is similar in magnitude to microplastic concentrations found in the world's most contaminated marine sediments. Mean diameter of microbeads was smaller at sites receiving municipal or industrial effluent (0.70 ± 0.01 mm) than at non-effluent sites (0.98 ± 0.01 mm), perhaps suggesting differential origins. Given the prevalence and locally high densities of microplastics in St. Lawrence River sediments, their ingestion by benthivorous fishes and macroinvertebrates warrants investigation. © 2014, National Research Council of Canada. All rights received.

Rasiulis A.L.,Laval University | Festa-Bianchet M.,Université de Sherbrooke | Festa-Bianchet M.,Laval University | Couturier S.,Ministere du Developpement Durable | Cote S.D.,Laval University
Journal of Wildlife Management | Year: 2014

Radio transmitters are widely used in wildlife management; therefore, it is essential to assess any effects that they may have on animal survival. We compared the survival of 269 randomly selected adult migratory caribou (Rangifer tarandus) fitted with either light very high frequency or heavy Argos satellite collars during the same period. Heavy collars reduced annual survival of caribou in a declining population with generally poor body condition by about 18%. Accurate estimates of survival are crucial for management decisions and possible effects of collars should be considered when calculating estimates. © 2014 The Wildlife Society.

Valiquette E.,Laval University | Perrier C.,Laval University | Thibault I.,Ministere du Developpement durable | Bernatchez L.,Laval University
Evolutionary Applications | Year: 2014

Stocking represents the most important management tool worldwide to increase and sustain commercial and recreational fisheries in a context of overexploitation. Genetic impacts of this practice have been investigated in many studies, which examined population and individual admixture, but few have investigated determinants of these processes. Here, we addressed these questions from the genotyping at 19 microsatellite loci of 3341 adult lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from 72 unstocked and stocked lakes. Results showed an increase in genetic diversity and a twofold decrease in the extent of genetic differentiation among stocked populations when compared to unstocked. Stocked populations were characterized by significant admixture at both population and individual levels. Moreover, levels of admixture in stocked populations were strongly correlated with stocking intensity and a threshold value of total homogenization between source and stocked populations was identified. Our results also suggest that under certain scenarios, the genetic impacts of stocking could be of short duration. Overall, our study emphasizes the important alteration of the genetic integrity of stocked populations and the need to better understand determinants of admixture to optimize stocking strategies and to conserve the genetic integrity of wild populations. © 2014 The Authors. Evolutionary Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Rivard C.,Geological Survey of Canada | Lavoie D.,Geological Survey of Canada | Lefebvre R.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Sejourne S.,Consulting geologist | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Coal Geology | Year: 2014

Production of hydrocarbons from Canadian shales started slowly in 2005 and has significantly increased since. Natural gas is mainly being produced from Devonian shales in the Horn River Basin and from the Triassic Montney shales and siltstones, both located in northeastern British Columbia and, to a lesser extent, in the Devonian Duvernay Formation in Alberta (western Canada). Other shales with natural gas potential are currently being evaluated, including the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale in southern Quebec and the Mississippian Frederick Brook Shale in New Brunswick (eastern Canada).This paper describes the status of shale gas exploration and production in Canada, including discussions on geological contexts of the main shale formations containing natural gas, water use for hydraulic fracturing, the types of hydraulic fracturing, public concerns and on-going research efforts. As the environmental debate concerning the shale gas industry is rather intense in Quebec, the Utica Shale context is presented in more detail. © 2014 .

Brochu P.,Ministere du Developpement Durable | Brodeur J.,University of Montréal | Krishnan K.,University of Montréal
Inhalation Toxicology | Year: 2011

The methodology developed in our previous studies (Brochu et al. 2006a-c) for the determination of physiological daily inhalation rates was improved by integrating into the calculation process, both nighttime and daytime respiratory parameters, namely oxygen uptake factors (H) and ventilatory equivalents (VQ). H values during fasting (0.2057 ±0.0018 L of O2/kcal; mean ±SD) and postprandial phases (0.2059 ±0.0019 L of O2/kcal) as well as VQ values for subjects at rest (27.4 ±4.8 to 32.2 ±3.1, unitless) and during the aggregate daytime activities (29.9 ±4.2 to 33.7 ±7.2) were determined and combined with published doubly labeled water measurements for the calculation of daily inhalation rates in normal-weight males and females aged 0.22-96 years (n = 1235). Depending upon the unit value chosen, the highest 99th percentiles for inhalation data were found in males aged 35 to <45 years (35.40 m 3/day), 2.6 to <6 months (1.138 m 3/kg-day), and 10 to <16.5 years (22.29 m 3/m 2-day). Means and percentiles expressed in m 3/kg-day as well as in m 3/m 2-day suggest generally higher intakes of air pollutants in children than in adults and in males than in females (in μg/kg-day or μg/m 2-day) for identical exposure concentrations and conditions. For instance, means in boys aged 2.6 to <6 months of 10.99 ±3.50 m 3/m 2-day and 0.572 ±0.191 m 3/kg-day are 1.3- and 2.5-folds higher, respectively, than those in adult males 65-96 years old (8.42 ±2.13 m 3/m 2-day, 0.225 ±0.059 m 3/kg-day). © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Patoine M.,Ministere du Developpement Durable | Hebert S.,Ministere du Developpement Durable | D'Auteuil-Potvin F.,Ministere du Developpement Durable
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The aim of this work is to evaluate and discuss river water quality trends over the last decade in ten watersheds where diffuse pollution represents more than half of the annual load of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N). Trend analyses taking into account flow data indicate a significant reduction of total P in eight rivers, of ammonia N in five rivers, of nitrate + nitrite in four rivers, of total filtered N in three rivers and of suspended solids in two rivers. An increase of turbidity was observed in four rivers and, for fecal coliforms, no trends. P decrease can be explained by reduced mineral P inputs on cropped lands related to means such as agro-environmental fertilization plans and addition of phytase in pig and poultry feed. However, for seven of them, median P concentrations remain at least two times greater than the Québec water quality guideline for protection of rivers against eutrophication. Concentrations of other parameters remain problematic in some rivers too. These results indicate the need to continue the efforts for further diffuse pollution reduction. Future work should better quantify actions taken at the watershed scale to reduce diffuse pollution.

Bacterial contamination of surface waters in agricultural territories is a concern for the agricultural and public health sectors in Canada. In order to assess the influence of agriculture on this type of contamination, fecal coliforms (FC) were analyzed in water samples collected in 16 watercourses located in the southern part of the province of Quebec. Their sub watersheds cover surface areas of 15 to 100 km 2 and a large range of animal densities (10 to 520 animal units•km -2) and host a mainly intensive agriculture. Fecal coliform measurements obtained bi-weekly over three years show that concentrations in watercourses increase with animal density in the sub watersheds. Regression analyses have allowed the assessment of animal husbandry and human influence on FC counts in watercourses with comparable sub watersheds. The study also shows that FC point sources located immediately upstream from the sampling stations may increase from 3- to 20-fold during summer (May to October) and up to more than 100-fold during winter (November to April). Regression equations are provided as tools to assist bacterial contamination risk management. However, these tools have many limits: they could be improved and completed in taking into account other parameters. © Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs, Gouvernement du Québec, 2012.

The Flood directive 2007/60/EC of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks is entered into force on November 26th, 2007. It establishes a framework for the assessment and management of flood risks in Europe, aiming at the reduction of adverse consequences for human health, environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with floods. It asks to member States to proceed to three steps: • a preliminary flood risks assessment, followed by the selection of some areas with potential significant flood risks for which the 2 following steps will be conducted; • flood hazard maps and flood risk maps; • flood risk management plans including appropriate objectives for the management of flood risk and the measure for achieving those objectives. Except these demands concerning content and schedule of implementation, member States are free to define how they will execute the requirements. This freedom concerns in particular the way of presenting information, the scales, the return periods associated to the scenarios for mapping, etc.. France is currently transposing the text following the principles decided with deep attention. The methodologies for implementing the text with a way of working as homogeneous as possible is on construction. © 2011 Société Hydrotechnique de France.

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