Walsh K.,University of York |
Court-Picon M.,Aix - Marseille University |
Court-Picon M.,Royal Belgian Institute Of Natural Sciences |
de Beaulieu J.-L.,Aix - Marseille University |
And 7 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2014
This paper elucidates the nature of human-environment interactions in a mountainous landscape (the southern zone of the Ecrins, French Alps) from the Mesolithic through to the Post-Medieval Period. We present an integrated programme of palynology, pedo- and archaeo-anthracology, and archaeology. These data permit the development of a historical ecology that allows us to differentiate between climatic and anthropogenic influences on vegetation, and the development of anthropogenic landscapes in an Alpine region. This study is of profound relevance for the broader understanding of human-environment interactions in ecologically sensitive environments both within the Alpine arc, but also beyond this region.We identify and explain evidence for possible human landscape management practices in a high altitude landscape. Palynology defines the broad floral context and evolution of the environment through the Holocene. Palynology also permits an assessment of human activities and practices (arable agriculture, pastoralism and haymaking). The combination of these data with anthracological and archaeological evidence permits a nuanced assessment of human interaction with the landscape. We consider phases of anthropological-ecological succession across the range of altitudes, from valley-bottom to the alpine zones in the Ecrins National Park.Four important stages of landscape use and change have been inferred from our evidence: the Mesolithic, the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age, Iron Age and Roman, and (Post)Medieval. During the Mesolithic (. c. 8000-4500 BC), a major event is the expansion of fir in the montane stage. At higher altitudes, people exploit the ecotone, defined by the forest edge (or tree-line): an ideal zone for hunting. The Neolithic sees low-altitude clearances, but a continuation of hunting and low levels of human impact on high-altitude vegetation. The Chalcolithic/Bronze Age (2400-1000 BC) sees complex interplay of climatic changes, and the appearance of direct human intervention in the high altitude landscape as part of a new transhumant system. Although the Roman Period is characterised by phases of climatic amelioration after the deterioration of the Iron Age, the increase in human activity that is usually seen in low-lying areas is not reflected in the sub-alpine and alpine altitudes. The Medieval Period, including the Little Ice Age, witnesses a steady increase in human use of these landscapes, with forest manipulation and clearance becoming the defining characteristics of these areas. Despite the supposed inclement nature of the Little Ice Age, human activity achieves its zenith, and the combination people and climate produces the most open and managed landscape of the Holocene. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRA-2009-3.1 | Award Amount: 719.98K | Year: 2009
The main objective of the DC-NET project is to develop and to strengthen the co-ordination among the European countries of public research programmes in the sector of the digital cultural heritage. The project will contribute to the integration of the research capacities of the participant member states, will identify their communalities and will valorise existing programmes and projects in order to initiate the deployment of a wide and comprehensive European e-Infrastructure that will increase the research capacities of the digital cultural heritage community.The DC-NET project will contribute to the coordination of coordinate the research priorities of accessing of e-Infrastructures by the Ministries of Culture, their Agencies and other cultural bodies (museums, libraries, archives, audiovisual, archaeological sites, etc.) across Europe in the area of the eInfrastructures targeted to the digital cultural heritage. Eight governments and agencies will agree a set of common priorities for digital cultural heritage research and will work with e-Infrastructures providers to identify how best to carry out this research using the National Research and Education Networks. The project will coordinate the manner in which cultural actors can and should engage with national and European e-Infrastructures to generate innovative services, tools and data sets to support the multidisciplinary research of multidisciplinary communities. A programme of seminars, workshops, meetings and conferences will involve all the relevant stakeholders. A plan of joint activities for e-Infrastructure-enabled research in the sector of digital cultural heritage will be generated and the joint activities will be initiated.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2007.4.3 | Award Amount: 11.31M | Year: 2008
The 3D-COFORM project will advance the state-of-the-art in 3D-digitsation and make 3D-documentation an everyday practical choice for digital documentation campaigns in the cultural heritage sector. The project addresses all aspects of 3D-capture, 3D-processing, the semantics of shape, material properties, metadata and provenance, integration with other sources (textual and other media); search, research and dissemination to the public and professional alike. A strong technical research program is complemented by research into practical business aspects: business models for exploitation of 3D assets, workflow planning and execution for mass digitisation, socio-economic impact assessment; and above all the creation of a Virtual Centre of Competence in 3D digitization. The VCC-3D will act as a catalyst in enhancing the sectors capacity for mass digitization of 3D assets the tangible artefacts of the physical cultural heritage of the world. The 3D-COFORM consortium brings together 19 partners, mainly former core partners in the EPOCH NoE, to form a world class team on 3D-digisation complemented by an equally prestigious group of Cultural Heritage organizations, with the Victoria and Albert Museum as a full partner and signed-up collaborations from the Louvre, the Florentine Museums authority, the Museum of the Imperial Forums in Rome, World Heritage Sites in Cyprus and the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. The consortium also contains organizations tasked at a national level with helping museums move in these directions: CNRS-LC2RMF, the research arm of the French National Museums and CultNat the digitization body for cultural and natural heritage funded by the Egyptian Government. The combination in 3D-COFORM of research and take-up activities (VCC-3D) will contribute decisively to reinforce 3D-digitisation capability and to the realisation of the objectives of the European initiative on digital libraries and its flagship project Europeana (European Digital Library).
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-ERA-Plus | Phase: ENV.2013.6.5-6 | Award Amount: 9.29M | Year: 2013
The main objective of the HERITAGE PLUS proposal is to pool the necessary financial resources from the participating national programmes and the European Community and to launch a single Joint Call for Proposals for research projects in the cultural heritage field that will be evaluated and managed jointly by the participating programmes. The 18 Partners have a strong background in designing, promoting and managing transnational, collaborative research programmes having participated to the Era Net Projects NET HERITAGE, HERA and DCNET and implemented the Joint Programming Initiative Cultural Heritage and Global Change: a new challenge for Europe (JPICH). Within JPICH, the launch of the first pilot call, actually open, represents the factual commitment of Partners to implement transnational research programming. The HERITAGE PLUS project is fully in line with the JPICH as part of the implementation of the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) and of the Action Programme. Consequently the HERITAGE PLUS call will be focused in topics on tangible cultural heritage research, developing new methodologies, technologies and products for the assessment, protection and management of historical and modern artefacts, buildings and sites, while not excluding interlinked aspects of digital and intangible heritage, following the interdisciplinary basic criteria on which the JPICH SRA devolved. This collaborative approach will provide a better use of public resources, while the European Community contribution to the Joint Call budget will stress the high interest generated by this common action. This ERA NET PLUS action will support the JPICH by proposing concrete solutions for pooling national expertise and resources and establishing closer and robust collaboration among the participating States in the field of cultural heritage. The HERITAGE PLUS action will improve the coordination of national research activities and policies in the domain of cultural heritage research.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: ENV.2007.3.2.2.1. | Award Amount: 2.22M | Year: 2008
NET-HERITAGE is the first significant initiative ever attempting to coordinate national RTD programmes of European countries and support European RTD Programmes in the field of research applied to Protection for Tangible Cultural Heritage. It aims to exert a massive, positive impact through the following objectives: - provide an integrated picture of the state of the art of cultural heritage research in EUMember States and at the European level; -overcome the lack of a coordinated research structure in this specific and multidisciplinary sector, with programmes fostering integration between art-history-conservation-maintenance-restoration areas and architectural-chemical-physics-engineering areas; - limit fragmentation within and among national research programmes, identifying common strategic priorities for research and programmes; - create effective actions to stimulate the exploitation of research results, and underpin cooperation between researchers and cultural heritage institutions for the application of identified solutions; - face problems due to insufficient and dispersed funding, in terms of local level and size of funding, compared to other research sectors; - favour exchange between national and European work programmes, to avoid a single top-down approach. NET-HERITAGE intends to achieve the following main outcomes: - coordinating actions within the EU partnership; - favouring protection of moveable and immoveable tangible cultural heritage; - expanding the potential of the cultural heritage research sector; - enhancing dissemination of research results and news in the field of protection of tangible cultural heritage; - increasing the visibility of the socio-economic importance of this sector; - supporting educational and training programmes and activities in the sector; - developing a common framework of policies for improving cultural heritage protection; - favouring common actions to promote Cultural Heritage research outside EU