Domac J.,Regionalna Enegetska Agencija Sjeverozapadne Hrvatske |
Benkovic Z.,Ministarstvo Regionalnog Razvoja |
Segon V.,Ministarstvo Regionalnog Razvoja |
Istok I.,Ministarstvo Regionalnog Razvoja
Sumarski List | Year: 2011
The quality of raw material, as well as tradition in wood processing and pronounced trends of increased use of wood residues as a renewable and organic material play an important role in expansion of national pellet industry and market. Although dependent on market demand and economic feasibility in relation to non-renewable energy sources, renewable energy sources can and must be exploited in a better and more effective way. The use of wood pellets as fuel for domestic stoves and boilers and for cofiring in thermal power plants has been an amazing success story over the past 20 years. Socio-economic impact studies are commonly used to evaluate the local, regional and/or national implications of implementing particular development decisions. Typically, these impacts are measured in terms of economic variables, such as employment, revenue and taxes, but a complete analysis must also include social, cultural and environmental issues. In many ways the social implications arising from local pellets production or any bioenergy activity represents the less clear and concrete end of impact studies; nevertheless they can be broken down into two categories: those relating to an increased standard of living and those that contribute to increased social cohesion and stability. The primary instruments for the development of renewable energy technologies across the world are international carbon reduction policy drivers. But the development of one type of technology over another on national, regional or local level is often a function of the intricate balance of socio-economic factors in that particular geographical location. The development of wood pellet markets has been very strong in some coutries and almost non-existent in others. Based on these considerations, this paper is primarily focused on investigating the critical socio-economic factors in developing national pellet markets. Examples from Austria, Ireland and Croatia highlight some of the key factors that influenced the development and pellet market situation in these countries. Based on initial review, current situation and analysis of these markets, this paper defines critical factors that influence development of national pellet market. Critical socio-economic factors for the development of national pellet market resulting from presented analysis are the following: • Financial incentives for investing in wood pellet heating rapidly increase uptake even when pellets are competitive with alternative fuels; • The existence of a strong sawmilling industry to provide, at least initially, a low cost and readily available source of raw material; • Stringent quality and sustainability requirements for pellet boilers with regard to emissions, efficiency and security - poor products can permanently damage the market, trigger serious environmental concerns and cause major functional problems; • Establishment of effective quality control mechanisms for wood pellets. Establishment of national or international tracking systems that allow identification of the origin of pellets; • Dedicated educational programs and certification of installers establishing pellet heating systems.; • Linking of subsidies with quality requirements for boilers and certification of installers; • Procurement of wood pellet heating in public buildings to provide user confidence and to stimulate the supply chain; • Development of incentives for energy service companies to enter into the biomass heating market. In conclusion, looking at the overall situation regarding pellets production and utilisation a strong growth can be expected with political support at the EU level, playing a major role for the extension of the pellet industry into new member states in particular. The ambitious EU target of achieving 20 % of energy supply from renewable energy by the end of 2020 is impossible without dedicated policies to develop renewable heating. In addition, the on-going oil price rally and carbon dioxide reduction targets also encourage the expansion of the markets for pellets.
Margaletic J.,University of Zagreb |
Kauzlaric Z.,Uprava suma Podruznica Delnice |
Moro M.,University of Zagreb |
Vucelja M.,University of Zagreb |
And 2 more authors.
Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering | Year: 2011
In forests of Gorski kotar, Croatia the fat dormouse (Glis glis L.) is the numerous dormouse species. In years with high population densities fat dormice start cause damage on trees. Mainly they damage the bark of common spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). This work presents the analysis of morphological parameters of 248 caught individuals (119 males and 129 females) of fat dormouse. Animals were caught on three locations from year 2001 to 2009 in forests managed by »Hrvatske šume« d.o.o. Zagreb, forest administration Delnice. First location represents forest culture of common spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) (location »a«) under management of forest office Delnice. Second and third locations under management of forest office Mrkopalj represent forest culture of common spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) (location »b«) and natural forest of common beech (association Fagetum montanum croaticum Ht.) (location »c«). Animals were caught with snap traps set individually or in pairs in trees around 1 to 5 meters above ground. Ripe pods of the carob tree were used as bait. Traps were set late afternoon and checked next day early in the morning or during the day. Body length as morphological parameter was measured with steel tape and body mass with one gram accuracy scale. In total on all three locations 127 individuals were caught in year 2001, 53 individuals in year 2007 and 68 individuals in year 2009. For the whole time period 102/248 animals were caught on location »a«, 64/248 on location »b« and 82/248 on location »c«. On all 3 locations in year 2001 the highest number of animals was recorded reflecting favorable trophical conditions. Analysis of animals showed for all three locations 1:1 sex ratio with small difference on location »c« with sex ratio of 1:1.16 (m:f). The data shows max body length with 43.0 cm that was recorded on location »b« and min with 23.5 cm on location »a«. Max and min body mass (250g, 55g) were recorded on location »a». The maximal body length with tail and body mass were recorded in years with small population densities, which corresponds to previous findings of increased body mass in years with unfavorable trophic conditions (Bieber 1997). Sheffe's post hoc test shows significant differences and fluctuations of measured parameters between different locations and years. Result also show on average larger and heavier animals in natural forests of common beech and smaller and lighter animals in forest culture of common spruce. These interesting findings show different body weight and length depending on habitat of dormouse.