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Moscow, Russia

Kirichenko Y.V.,Mining College | Kashirsky A.S.,Noncommercial Partnership of Mining Industrialists of Russia
Gornyi Zhurnal | Year: 2015

The authors characterize the strategic importance and state-of-The-Art of geologicaltechnological research and commercial level mining of hard minerals on the ocean floor. The article gives information on chemistry, physico-mechanical properties and occurrence conditions of iron-manganese concretions (IMC). A special emphasis is laid on IMC occurrences in Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the international waters of the Pacific Ocean and in the national waters of the Russian Arctic. Furthermore, it is informed on experience of IMC excavation carried out by Petrotrans Ltd in the Gulf of Finnish in the Baltic Sea with next following review of patent documentation and scientific-Technical literature concerned with the deep-sea mineral mining. The authors emphasize low efficiency and impact exerted on marine ecosystem by current methods of IMC mining on the floor of oceans and marginal seas. Having stated the growing interest of the developed countries, including Russia, in the underwater excavation of IMC and other similar natural formations, the authors offer conceptual project of a technology-And-equipment set for IMC mining, taking to water surface and transportation based on the original design of a cassette-Type dredging machine to be manufactured in two variants, considering depth of mining and minimization of mining cost. It is highlighted that the commercial implementation of the proposed method will allow solutions to actual problems connected with economic efficiency and environmental safety of deep-sea mining of concretion deposits. It is emphasized that mining of iron-manganese concretions on the ocean floor will enable compensating for the deficit of such strategic metal as manganese in Russia.

Drebenstedt C.,TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Ritter R.,TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Suprun V.I.,Mining College | Agafonov Y.G.,Mining College
Gornyi Zhurnal | Year: 2015

Deeper level open pit mining, increased scale of mining operations and tightened ecological standards enforce and promote flow charts with in-pit rock crushing and conveying (including high-Angle conveyors). Such a technology, named cyclical-Andcontinuous method (CCM), enjoys increasingly wider application in the world. This article gives the statistics of CCM spread over the continents of the world and its distribution per kinds of raw materials under treatment. The CCM advantages are analyzed briefly, and factors to adhere to when selecting a CCM unit are presented. The article focuses on design features of in-pit crushers, gives their specifications and describes application areas. The authors distinguish between completely mobile, semimobile and semi-portable crushers. Permanent crushers are characterized in details. The variations of the conveying part of CCM unit are closely discussed: belt car and carry-And-load bridge; mobile and movable conveyors; permanent conveyor; their specifications are given. The authors show a promising trend of using high-Angle conveyors in deep open pit mines characterized by high productive capacity. On the whole, the article offers a full-scale picture of introduction of the cyclic-Andcontinuous method into mining industry. The study was supported by the RF Ministry of Education and Science in the framework of the program of competitive recovery of MIS&S among the world's top education-Andresearch centers, No. KZ-2014-060.

Alyushin Y.A.,Mining College | Korchak A.V.,Mining College | Shuplik M.N.,Mining College
Gornyi Zhurnal | Year: 2015

In civil underground construction, tunneling machines often intersect unstable heavily moist soil. Smooth operation of tunneling machines requires artificial pre-freezing of soil in this case. The freezing technology actually in use includes drilling of a vertical hole usually 138 mm in diameter (more seldom-159 mm) and placement of a freezing pipe 114 mm in diameter in the hole when drilling reaches an assigned depth. Drilling of host holes and assembly of freezing pipes in them takes 45-50% of the total work of soil freezing and is very expensive. The authors put forward a patented design of a freezing pipe made as a hollow pipe with a nose-piece and welded worn fin, which allows driving the pipe in soil by forced revolving. In this case, drilling of host hole is avoided, firm contact is created between the pipe and soil, and power consumption of freezing is reduced. The mathematical model of the forced driving of the freezing pipe in soil is constructred, and the values of axial force and drive torque are calculated as functions of the pipe design parameters and physico-mechanical properties of soil. The theoretical relations obtained using the models were checked and refined in the course of the commercial experimental testing of the new freezing pipe design. As a result, the working ability and high economic efficiency of the freezing pipe were proved.

Yushina T.I.,Mining College | Krylov I.O.,Mining College | Didovich L.Y.,Mining College | Dunaeva V.N.,Mining College
Gornyi Zhurnal | Year: 2015

The basic amount of the reserves and resources of manganese ore in the Russian Federation is concentrated in Siberia, mainly, in the Kemerovo and Krasnoyarsk Regions. The disadvantage of Russia's resource base of manganese is the predominance of lowgrade rebellious carbonate ores. The manganese content of ore in all deposits in Russia is low and makes 20.14%. Russia's need for manganese exceeds 1 Mt a year but Russia operates not a field on an industrial scale in spite of the constant attempts to have the own sources of manganese for the steel industry. Russia's demand for manganese ores is met at the expense of import from other countries. Imported concentrate makes liberal share of 56.2% in the total import and the import of fine concentrate is 0.5%. It is necessary to control the development of manganese deposits due to the lack of new beneficiation technologies that allow for economically feasible extraction and processing of ore in accordance with the requirements of consumers of quality concentrates. For 10 years the All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Mineral Resources, Russian Thermal Engineering Institute and the National University of Science and Technology MIS&S (abbreviation of the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys) have been carrying out experimental work that shows that manganese ore (untreated) can have independent industrial application in heat power engineering and in production of carbon nanotubes. We studied the sorption properties of manganese and iron ore deposits and occurrences such as Nikolaev, Porozhinskoe, Askizsky, Vandanskoe, Polar. All of the tested ore kinds have the capacity to absorb hydrogen sulfide from gas stream at high temperature (500 C). It has been found that the pyrolysis products are CNTs and CNFs and hydrogen, which increases the calorific value of gas. The products are significantly more expensive feedstock, which ultimately gives high economic indicators of mining and processing plants in the overall production. The process of obtaining carbon structures from gases containing CO and CH4 with the use of cheap natural catalyst may be a target process to be integrated into production of a variety of chemical products such as production of liquid fuels (LMC) or utilization of waste gases of metallurgical enterprises. This process will not only offer valuable nanocarbons but will also improve energy efficiency and environmentally friendly production. The study was performed in the framework of the fundamental, applied and experimental research, item No. 816 of Order No. 2014/113. The authors express their gratitude to A. N. Epikhin, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Head of Laboratory for Sulfur Removal from Gases, All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute, for the granted material.

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