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This investigation elucidates the properties of indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films used as antireflection front electrodes in μc-Si/c-Si heterojunction (HJ) solar cells. The deposition conditions of ITO film by electron-gun evaporation were optimized for HJ solar cell applications. Microstructure, surface morphology, electrical and optical properties of these films were then characterized and analyzed. Next, the effects of substrate temperature on ITO film growth were discussed. The ITO thickness was optimized considering that the refractive index of μc-Si emitter layer optimizes its optical characteristics and HJ solar cell spectral response. The best HJ solar cell conversion efficiency was 16.4% with an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.645 V, fill factor (FF) of 0.73, and short circuit current density (J sc) of 34.8 mA/cm2. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Tseng M.-L.,MingDao University
Computers and Education | Year: 2010

The balanced scorecard (BSC) is a multi-criteria evaluation concept that highlights the importance of performance measurement. However, although there is an abundance of literature on the BSC framework, there is a scarcity of literature regarding how the framework with dependence and interactive relationships should be properly implemented in uncertainty. This study proposes a hybrid approach: the analytic network process (ANP) is used to analyze the dependence aspects, the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) is used to deal with the interactive criteria, and the fuzzy set theory is used to evaluate the uncertainty. The four BSC aspects and 22 criteria are evaluated for a private university of science and technology in Taiwan. The results show that student acquisition is the most influential and weighty criterion, and the annual growth in revenue is the most effective criterion. Managerial implications are also discussed, and concluding remarks are made. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Tseng M.-L.,MingDao University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to evaluate and position the perceptions of importance and performance of municipal solid waste management aspects and criteria. The study results propose dependence relations among four aspects and 33 criteria pertaining to metropolitan Taipei. Evaluation was based on linguistically described preferences and multiple aspects and criteria analysis; in particular, applied fuzzy set theory was used to evaluate linguistic vagueness, and the analytic network process was applied for dependence relations among the aspects and criteria. In order to compile managerial implications and concluding remarks, importance-performance analysis was conducted, using several mathematical techniques applied to the objectives as well as the participation and input of professionals and academicians. Overall results and concluding remarks are discussed. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Chou C.-M.,MingDao University
Entropy | Year: 2011

This paper presents a novel framework to determine the number of resolution levels in the application of a wavelet transformation to a rainfall time series. The rainfall time series are decomposed using the à trous wavelet transform. Then, multi-scale entropy (MSE) analysis that helps to elucidate some hidden characteristics of the original rainfall time series is applied to the decomposed rainfall time series. The analysis shows that the Mann-Kendall (MK) rank correlation test of MSE curves of residuals at various resolution levels could determine the number of resolution levels in the wavelet decomposition. The complexity of rainfall time series at four stations on a multi-scale is compared. The results reveal that the suggested number of resolution levels can be obtained using MSE analysis and MK test. The complexity of rainfall time series at various locations can also be analyzed to provide a reference for water resource planning and application. © 2011 by the authors.

Yeh N.,MingDao University | Yeh P.,St. John's University Taiwan
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

This paper aims to review the developments and the potentials of organic photovoltaic, which has caught the attention of researchers of optoelectronics. The paper briefly introduces the physics underlying organic photovoltaic devices of donor-acceptor interfaces. It examines a variety of materials and architectures that benefit the performance of the organic photovoltaic cell; along with the important photogeneration factors including the exciton diffusion length as well as charge transport, separation, and collection. The authors have reviewed the recent understanding of the mechanisms that govern these photocurrent generation steps and sketched out the search for alternative materials and device architectures. The review also discusses areas where active researches should be directed for cell efficiency improvement and outlines the issues to be resolved in order to speed up the commercialization. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Tseng M.-L.,MingDao University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2010

This study proposes a combined fuzzy grey relational analysis method based to deal with study objective. This study objective is aimed to present a perception approach to deal with supplier evaluation of environmental knowledge management capacities (EKMC) with uncertainty and lack of information. The ranking of best supplier might be a key strategic direction of other suppliers prior to EKMC. The solving procedure is as follows, (i) the weights of criteria and alternatives are described both in qualitative and quantitative information using fuzzy set theory; (ii) using a grey relational analysis to result the ranking order for all alternatives; (iii) an empirical study of supplier ranking problem in EKMC are used to resolve with this proposed approach and the result indicates that optimal supplier is with higher protection of the environmental knowledge from inappropriate or illegal use or theft (C7) and from the best alternative supplier to study its criteria ranking. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chou C.,MingDao University
Water Resources Management | Year: 2011

This work developed a novel framework for considering wavelet denoising in linear perturbation models (LPMs) and simple linear models (SLMs). Rainfall and runoff time series data were decomposed using wavelet transforms to acquire approximate and detailed rainfall and runoff signals, respectively, at various resolution levels. At each resolution level, threshold quantifications were performed by setting the values of a detailed signal below a certain threshold to zero. The denoised rainfall and runoff time series data were obtained from the approximation at the final resolution level and processed detailed signals using threshold quantification at all resolution levels of rainfall and runoff, respectively, by wavelet reconstruction. The data were then applied to the SLM and regarded as the smooth seasonal mean employed in the LPM. The noise, i. e., original time series value minus denoised time series value, was employed as the perturbation term in the LPM. Moreover, a linear relationship between input and output noise was assumed. The denoised runoff and estimated noise of runoff were summed to estimate overall runoff in the LPM. To verify the accuracy of the proposed method, daily rainfall-runoff data were analyzed for an upstream area of the Kee-Lung River. The analytical results demonstrate that wavelet denoising enhances rainfall-runoff modelling precision for the LPM. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

MingDao University | Date: 2013-12-02

A tissue culture method for producing agarwood comprises a tissue culture/regeneration step: providing an agarwood explant, implanting the agarwood explant in a container under an antiseptic state, adding culture media into the container, and cultivating the agarwood explant into an agarwood plantlet; a microbe inoculation step: placing a resin-inducing agent into the container, and letting the resin-inducing agent invade the agarwood plantlet; and a resin formation step: letting the agarwood plantlet secrete a secondary metabolite to counteract the resin-inducing agent, and letting the secondary metabolite deposit to form agarwood. The present invention can mass-produce agarwood in an indoor environment without being limited by weather or soil quality and affected by variables (such as insect pests) existing in the natural environment, The present invention can further shorten the production period and accelerate cost recovery. Therefore, the present invention can satisfy requirements of manufacturers.

MingDao University | Date: 2014-05-18

A hybrid deposition system includes a chamber, a pump, a gas source, a cathodic arc source, a high power impulse magnetron sputtering source and a substrate. The pump is connected with an interior of the chamber for changing a pressure of the interior of the chamber. The gas source is connected with the interior of the chamber for providing a gas into the interior of the chamber. The cathodic arc source is connected with the chamber and includes a first target disposed in the interior of the chamber. The high power impulse magnetron sputtering source is connected with the chamber and includes a second target disposed in the interior of the chamber. The substrate is disposed in the interior of the chamber and corresponded to the first target and the second target.

MingDao University | Date: 2014-04-24

A deposition system includes a chamber, an electrical power module, a first detection module and a second detection module. The chamber includes a target, a substrate, and a plasma. The substrate is spaced apart with the target and corresponded to the target. The plasma is generated between the target and the substrate. The target, the substrate and the plasma are in an interior of the chamber. The electrical power module is electrically connected with the target so as to generate a potential difference between the target and the substrate. The first detection module is connected with the interior of the chamber for detecting a composition of the plasma so as to generate a first detection result. The second detection module is connected with the first detection module, and includes an avalanche photodiode detector for analyzing the first detection result so as to generate a second detection result.

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