Yuce G.,Eskiehir Osmangazi University |
Taskiran L.,Mineral Research and Exploration
Geochemical Journal | Year: 2013
The aim of this study was to understand geochemistry of thermal fluids circulating in the basin at the southwest of Tekman (Erzurum, Turkey) Geothermal Province in Eastern Anatolia as well as to estimate reservoir temperature and its heat source by assessment of helium and carbon isotopic compositions of liquid and gas samples. Deep thermal and cold shallow groundwaters are NaCl type (Cerme and Ilipinar springs) and Ca-Mg-HCO3 type, respectively. The discharge temperatures of thermal waters vary between 29 and 57°C. The reservoir temperatures were estimated by solute silica and cation geothermometers vary from 80 to 110°C. CO2 is the dominant gas in geothermal fluids with variable amounts of nitrogen, helium and CH4. The isotopic ratios of helium that range from 1.03 to 1.54Rac show a range crustal to magmatic-type values. The isotopic composition of carbon (CO2) obtained from the bubbling and dissolved gases shows the variation from -0.2 to 3.4% vs. PDB. The mantle derived fluids interact at shallower levels with circulating meteoric waters and originate geothermal systems from which equilibration temperatures were estimated up to 192°C by gas geothermometers. Copyright © 2013 by The Geochemical Society of Japan.
Kunkul A.,Inonu University |
Aslan N.E.,Mineral Research and Exploration |
Ekmekyapar A.,Inonu University |
Demirkiran N.,Inonu University
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2012
Colemanite, a calcium-borate hydrate, is found in significant amounts in Turkey. Colemanite is used as a raw material in the production of boric acid. In this study, the leaching kinetics of calcined colemanite in ammonium carbonate solutions was investigated in a batch reactor. The effects of calcination temperature, solution concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio, stirring speed, and reaction temperature on the dissolution rate were determined and evaluated. It was found that the dissolution rate of calcined samples was higher than that of the uncalcined sample. It was observed that the leaching rate of calcined colemanite enhanced with increasing calcination temperature up to 450 °C, and did not change above this temperature. Thus, it was found that the applied calcination temperature had a significant effect on the leaching of colemanite. It was determined that the leaching rate raised with an increasing ammonium carbonate concentration, increasing reaction temperature, and decreasing solid/liquid ratio. It was detected that calcium carbonate was not formed on the particle surface. The dissolution kinetics of calcined colemanite was examined using both heterogeneous and homogeneous reaction models, and it was determined that the reaction rate can be described by a first-order pseudohomogeneous reaction model. The activation energy for this process was calculated to be 59.03 kJ/mol. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Sirel E.,Ankara University |
Gedik F.,Mineral Research and Exploration
Revue de Paleobiologie | Year: 2011
The main aim of this study is to describe and figure a miogypsinid taxon Postmiogypsinella n.gen. (type species Postmiogypsinella intermedia n.gen. n.sp.) and its foraminiferal association found in the Upper Chattian limestones of the Karamaǧara and Edilme sections that both range from the Rupelian to Burdigalian. They are located around Akçadaǧ town, Malatya basin, Eastern Turkey. Postmiogypsinella is characterized by the slightly trochospiral-asymetric planispiral chambers of the early rotaloid stage with pillars and funnels as in Miogypsinella Hanzawa and ogival equatorial chambers with the basal stolons and lateral chambers of the late ontogeny as in Miogypsina Sacco. It is neither Miogypsinella nor Miogypsina. The new genus is a transition form between Miogypsinella and Miogypsina. It resembles Miogypsina in its miogypsinid equatorial and lateral chambers on one hand, however, it also has similarities to Miogypsinella in its rotaloid early stage with slightly trochospiral-asymetric planispiral chambers, pillars and funnels. In addition, we introduce the lithology and biostratigraphy of the Karamaǧara and Edilme sections where the new genus was created.
Sarifakioglu E.,Mineral Research and Exploration |
Dilek Y.,Miami University Ohio |
Sevin M.,Mineral Research and Exploration
Solid Earth | Year: 2014
Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ) in north-central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (∼179 Ma and ∼80 Ma), seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma), metamorphic rocks with ages of 256.9 ± 8.0 Ma, 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma indicating northern Tethys during the late Paleozoic through Cretaceous, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (∼ 67-63 Ma). All but the arc rocks occur in a shale-graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the middle to late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB) and island arc tholeiite (IAT) affinities showing moderate to significant large ion lithophile elements (LILE) enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB) affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syenodioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium- to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, rare earth elements (REE) and Pb, and initial εNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syenodioritic plutons) in the southern part. The late Permian, Early to Late Jurassic, and Late Cretaceous amphibole-epidote schist, epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the seamount volcanic rocks indicate that the northern Neotethys was an open ocean with its MORB-type oceanic lithosphere by the early Triassic (or earlier). The latest Cretaceous-early Paleocene island arc volcanic, dike and plutonic rocks with subalkaline to alkaline geochemical affinities represent intraoceanic magmatism that developed on and across the subduction-accretion complex above a N-dipping, southward-rolling subducted lithospheric slab within the northern Neotethys. The Ankara Mélange thus exhibits the record of ∼ 120-130 million years of oceanic magmatism in geological history of the northern Neotethys. © 2014 Author(s).
Ozturk C.A.,Technical University of Istanbul |
Ugurlu O.F.,McGill University |
Bayram O.,Mineral Research and Exploration
ISRM International Symposium - 8th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium, ARMS 2014 | Year: 2014
Design of the fill or backfill material has been important subject for rock engineers due to the increase volume of underground mining operations as well as the environmental concerns raised from mineral processing plant tailings. Filling operations are useful for underground mining not only for the use of the opening as a tailing deposit but also to protect the mine against subsidence. The filled stopes are also safe working platforms for the production from downwards to upwards. The key issue to decide the applicability of tailings as paste fill material is the strength of the material. Paste fill mainly consists of water, tailing, and cement as binder material. A lead-zinc underground mine located in Balya, Balikesir, Turkey operated by Eczacibasi Esan Group was selected as site for the study. The mine was operated by sublevel stoping underground method, and it is the deepest metalliferous mine in Turkey with its high production rate. The underground openings are currently filled by cemented back fill material which mainly consists of aggregate, cement, and water. The aim of this study is to investigate the usability of process plant tailings as paste fill material. A series of tests were conducted for the different combination of paste material by changing the water and cement ratio as well as the slump. 12 different recipes for 5 different curing time were prepared to obtain the optimum mixture for paste fill that will be applicable for the mine. The results based on particle size distribution and strength properties such as uniaxial compressive strength and modulus of elasticity were used to select the most usable mixture as paste fill material for the underground mine. The use of paste fill will have an important effect on the cost of mining operation as well as environmental benefits. © 2014 by Japanese Committee for Rock Mechanics.
Olempska E.,Polish Academy of Sciences |
Nazik A.,Cukurova University |
Saydam-Demiray D.G.,Mineral Research and Exploration
Geological Magazine | Year: 2014
A Lower Devonian silicified ostracod fauna has been recovered from limestone interbeds in the Büyükdere section of the KozyataʇÄ± Member of the Pendik Formation. Forty-one species belonging to 33 genera have been recognized. Twenty-three are already known, and 15 are described in open nomenclature. One genus and three species (Omerliella rectangulata gen. et sp. nov., Microcheilinella istanbulensis sp. nov. and Roundyella goekchenae sp. nov.) are described. Silicified larval stages of trilobites, agglutinated foraminifers and conodonts co-occur with the ostracods. The ostracod assemblages are 'mixed faunas', between the epineritic Eifelian Mega-Assemblage, representative of high-energy environments, and the basinal Thuringian Mega-Assemblage, representative of low-energy environments. The conodont faunas of the Pendik Formation represent the serotinus, patulus and partitus biozones of the late Emsian-earliest Eifelian. The Emsian ostracods of NW Turkey show numerous species-level links between the Western Pontides (Istanbul Terrane) and assemblages of contemporaneous faunas of the Cantabrian Mountains (Spain), Morocco and Thuringia (Germany), and of similar biofacies. This supports the notion that the Istanbul Terrane, Armorican terrane-collage and northern margins of Gondwana were in geographical proximity in late Early Devonian time. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.
Arslan V.,Mineral Research and Exploration |
Ucurum M.,Nigde University |
Vapur H.,Cukurova University |
Bayat O.,Cukurova University
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2011
The major sources to recover silver are photo-processing solutions, spent rinse water, scrap film and scrap printing paper. As much as 80 % of the total silver processed for black and white positives and almost 100 % of the silver processed in colour work will end up in the fixer solution. The waste radiographic films used in the experiments were taken from Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, Turkey and cut into small pieces. The film pieces (1-9 g) were boiled with 100 mL of various quantities of oxalic acid, nitric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions for about 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 min at boiling temperature = 97 °C). The aim of the study is to recover silver from waste radiographic films by HNO3 leaching. To optimize the results of the experimental work, variance analysis was used. The statistical tests (F-tests) showed that nitric acid gave the best results compared with the other agents. Under optimum leaching conditions (radiographic films quantity, 50 g/L; nitric acid concentration, 30 g/L; stirring speed, 180 rpm; leaching time, 15 min) 89 % silver recovery was obtained.
Nefeslioglu H.A.,Mineral Research and Exploration |
San B.T.,Mineral Research and Exploration |
Gokceoglu C.,Hacettepe University |
Duman T.Y.,Mineral Research and Exploration
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation | Year: 2012
The main purpose of the present study is to evaluate the potential use of Terra ASTER data-the L3A DEM and its derivatives in landslide susceptibility mapping. For the purpose, an appropriate application site from the Western Black Sea region of Turkey-the Kelemen catchment area was selected. During the analyses, a two-stage comparative evaluation was carried out. In the first stage, the differences between the DEMs obtained from Terra ASTER L3A data and the conventional topographic data; and their first and second derivatives were investigated. Subsequently, different susceptibility maps were produced by using the DEMs and the topographic attributes obtained from both source of data in addition to the spectral information acquired from satellite sensor. According to the results of the comparative evaluations, a strong correlation between Terra ASTER L3A DEM and the conventional topographic data was obtained. However, depending on the increment of the degree of the derivative, an evident decrease in the spatial correlations was observed. On the contrary, the final model performance, prediction capacity, and the spatial performance statistics for the landslide susceptibility maps produced by using both source of data were found as very high and close to each other. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Dilli R.,Mineral Research and Exploration
International Journal of Environmental and Science Education | Year: 2016
The present study, aiming to develop nature culture in primary school students and to help them to become acquainted with their close environment, is a quasi-experimental study. Museum education activities were conducted with the study group which consisted of 128 fourth-grade primary school students. At the end of the study, the students gained understanding about the significance of the Anatolian land which is rich historically and culturally and has fauna and flora specific to the land. With the activities, the students built up nature culture regarding the country they live in through acquiring information about the Maraş elephant which lived in Kahramanmaraş in the past. The study also tried to increase the cognitive development levels of the students in relation to developing environmental consciousness and critical thinking skills, and interpreting about natural environment they live in. © 2016 by iSER, International Society of Educational Research.