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Solihull, United Kingdom

Tyrer M.,Mineral Industry Research Organisation | Cheeseman C.R.,Imperial College London | Greaves R.,Imperial College London | Claisse P.A.,Coventry University | And 3 more authors.
Advances in Applied Ceramics | Year: 2010

Abstract Concrete is the most widely used material on earth, eclipsing the combined volumes of all other man made materials by a factor of ten. In terms of its embedded carbon, it is a benign product, being associated with relatively little CO2 per unit mass when compared with metals, glasses and polymers. Conversely, it is made in such vast quantities, that it is responsible for over five percent of anthropogenic CO2. Despite recent advances in kiln design and alternative, low energy clinkers, it seems likely that the greatest carbon savings from the industry are likely to be made by the inclusion of supplementary cementing materials. This article reviews some of the options currently under investigation, especially from the UK perspective, and highlights that some of the research needs to be satisfied before such materials are more widely adopted. © 2010 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.


Rahmani O.,Islamic Azad University at Mahabad | Highfield J.,560 Yishun Avenue 6 and 08 25 Lilydale | Junin R.,University of Technology Malaysia | Tyrer M.,Mineral Industry Research Organisation | Pour A.B.,University of Technology Malaysia
Molecules | Year: 2016

In this work, the potential of CO2 mineral carbonation of brucite (Mg(OH)2) derived from the Mount Tawai peridotite (forsterite based (Mg)2SiO4) to produce thermodynamically stable magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) was evaluated. The effect of three main factors (reaction temperature, particle size, and water vapor) were investigated in a sequence of experiments consisting of aqueous acid leaching, evaporation to dryness of the slurry mass, and then gas-solid carbonation under pressurized CO2. The maximum amount of Mg converted to MgCO3 is ∼99%, which occurred at temperatures between 150 and 175 °C. It was also found that the reduction of particle size range from >200 to <75 μm enhanced the leaching rate significantly. In addition, the results showed the essential role of water vapor in promoting effective carbonation. By increasing water vapor concentration from 5 to 10 vol %, the mineral carbonation rate increased by 30%. This work has also numerically modeled the process by which CO2 gas may be sequestered, by reaction with forsterite in the presence of moisture. In both experimental analysis and geochemical modeling, the results showed that the reaction is favored and of high yield; going almost to completion (within about one year) with the bulk of the carbon partitioning into magnesite and that very little remains in solution. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Rahmani O.,University of Technology Malaysia | Junin R.,University of Technology Malaysia | Tyrer M.,Mineral Industry Research Organisation | Mohsin R.,University of Technology Malaysia
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2014

Reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere is a key challenge to mitigate the anthropogenic greenhouse effect. CO2 emissions cause lots of problems for the health of humans and increase global warming, in which CO2 uptake decreases these environmental issues. The mineral carbonation process is an alternative method during which industrial wastes rich in calcium (Ca) or magnesium (Mg) react with CO2 to form a stable carbonate mineral. In this research, the feasibility of CO2 mineral carbonation by the use of red gypsum, as a Ca-rich source, was evaluated using an autoclave mini reactor. Wide-range conditions of procedure variables, such as reaction temperature, reaction time, CO2 pressure, and liquid/solid ratio, on the rate of mineral carbonation were studied. The results showed that the maximum conversion of Ca (98.8%) is obtained at the condition that has an optimum amount of these variables. Moreover, the results confirmed that red gypsum has high potential to form calcium carbonate (CaCO3) during the process of CO2 mineral carbonation. It was concluded that the mineral carbonation process using red gypsum can be considered to be an interesting, applicable, and low-cost method in industry to mitigate a considerable amount of CO2 from the atmosphere, which is the main issue in the current and coming years. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Li X.,Donghua University | Chen Q.,Donghua University | Zhou Y.,Donghua University | Tyrer M.,Mineral Industry Research Organisation | Yu Y.,Donghua University
Waste Management | Year: 2014

The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of silica fume on stabilizing heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash. In addition to compressive strength measurements, hydrated pastes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal-analyses (DTA/TG), and MAS NMR (27Al and 29Si) techniques. It was found that silica fume additions could effectively reduce the leaching of toxic heavy metals. At the addition of 20% silica fume, leaching concentrations for Cu, Pb and Zn of the hydrated paste cured for 7days decreased from 0.32mg/L to 0.05mg/L, 40.99mg/L to 4.40mg/L, and 6.96mg/L to 0.21mg/L compared with the MSWI fly ash. After curing for 135days, Cd and Pb in the leachates were not detected, while Cu and Zn concentrations decreased to 0.02mg/L and 0.03mg/L. The speciation of Pb and Cd by the modified version of the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) extractions showed that these metals converted into more stable state in hydrated pastes of MSWI fly ash in the presence of silica fume. Although exchangeable and weak-acid soluble fractions of Cu and Zn increased with hydration time, silica fume addition of 10% can satisfy the requirement of detoxification for heavy metals investigated in terms of the identification standard of hazardous waste of China. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC5-11a-2014 | Award Amount: 8.56M | Year: 2015

BioMOre describes a New Mining Concept for Extracting Metals from Deep Ore Deposits using Biotechnology. The concept is to use hydrofracturing for stimulation and bioleaching for winning of ores. The final process will consist of a so-called doublet, which is two deviated and parallel wells. In order to avoid high costs for drilling from the surface, the BioMOre approach is divided into two phases. Phase 1 will be research on the intended bioleaching process whereas phase 2 will aim at a pilot installation to demonstrate the applicability of the process in large scale including hydro-fracturing and access of the deposit from surface. The first phase should cover the intended work of the current BioMOre approach without drilling from surface. The BioMOre project aims at extracting metals from deep mineralized zones in Europe (Poland-Germany, Kupferschiefer deposit as a test case) by coupling solution mining and bioleaching. Selected sustainability indicators based on regulatory requirements of the European Commission will be applied for feasibility considerations. The main objective of the BioMOre first phase is to design and build an underground test facility for testing the concept of combined hydro-fracturing and bioleaching. The test facility will comprise a 100 m ore block, where boreholes will be drilled horizontally using standard equipment. All necessary equipment for testing different parameters of the intended bioleaching process will be established underground. The intention is to test the bioleaching process in high detail in an in-situ environment at the same time avoiding time consuming and risky permission procedures. On the other hand, the application for the permission of underground test operation must contain detailed information about monitoring of tests and all material controls. No harmful substances will remain in the mine after the tests are completed. Further to that, predictive numerical modelling of a pilot installation should be done.

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